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lÜllli 

$B 3QM 413 



THE TRAVELLER 



UND 



THE DE8ERTED VILLAGE. 



ZWEI GEDICHTE 
VON 



OLIVER GOLDSMITH. 



ERKLART 
VOK 



DB. THEODOR WOLPF, 

OBERLEHHER AN DER LÜISEN8TÄDTISCHBN GEWERBESCHULE 
Zu BERLIN. 



BERLIN. 

WEIDMANNSCHE BUCHHANDLUNG. 

1882. 



t 



Vorwort. 



Der vorliegenden Schulausgabe des Traveller und des De- 
serted Village von Goldsmith ist für das erste Gedicht die neunte 
Aasgabe von 1774, dem Todesjahre des Dichters, für das zweite 
die siebente vom Jahre 1772, die letzte, welche zu Lebzeiten 
Goldsmiths veröffentlicht wurde, zu Grunde gelegt worden. Für 
*The Traveller' ist damit die erste und vjerte Ausgabe von 1765 
und die sechste verbesserte von 1770, mit der die neunte bis 
auf einige Abweichungen in der Orthographie und Interpunktion 
übereinstimmt, für 'The Deserted Village* die erste, zweite und 
sechste von 1770, für beide aufser den Ausgaben von Masson, 
Waller, Sankey, Chambers, Allman, Vardy u. a. noch die vor- 
treffliche Ausgabe von Peter Cunningham 1854 verglichen und 
zum Teil benutzt worden. Der Text des Deserted Village weicht, 
abgesehen von Orthographie und Interpunktion, in den einzel- 
nen Ausgaben nur an wenigen Stellen von einander ab, während 
der des Traveller besonders in der zweiten und sechsten Aus- 
gabe vielfache wesentliche Änderungen erfahren hat. (Vergl. 
Anhang.) 

Die Anmerkungen geben vor allem diejenigen Erläuterun- 
gen, welche der Schüler zur richtigen Auffassung des Textes 
nötig hat. Sie sind so eingerichtet, dafs sie ihm bei der häus- 
lichen Vorbereitung zu Hülfe kommen und das Verständnis 
schwieriger Stellen erleichtern, ohne ihm die geistige Arbeit zu 
erlassen. Grammatische Bemerkungen und Worterklärungen 
sind ausnahmsweise nur da gegeben worden, wo die gewöhn- 
lich gebrauchten Grammatiken und Wörterbücher nicht faus- 

11^324310 



reichen. Die Mitteilungen über Goldsmitbs Leben sind weg- 
gelassen worden. Ich verweise hierfür auf meine Ausgabe des 
Vicar of Wakefield. 

Beide Gedichte gehören in England zur bevorzugten Schul- 
lektüre. Sie fehlen in keiner Sammlung englischer Schulklas- 
siker, und es giebt von ihnen zahlreiche, für die verschiedensten 
Altersstufen eingerichtete Ausgaben. In Deutschland sind sie 
nur für die oberen Klassen höherer Lehranstalten zur Lektüre 
geeignet, und zwar wird *The Deserted Village* schon in Sekunda 
mit Verständnis gelesen werden können, während 'The Tra- 
veller' wegen der eingestreuten philosophischen Betrachtungen 
nur für die Schüler der obersten Stufe passend erscheint. 
Jedes der Gedichte ist so kurz, dafs die vollständige Lektüre 
desselben neben der eines Prosaschriftstellers in einem Se- 
mester durchführbar ist. 

Berlin, im Februar 1882. 

Theodor Wolff* 



THE TRAVELLER; 

OB, 

A PROSPBCT OF SOCIETY. 

A POEM. 

BY OLIVER GOLDSMITH, M. B. 



Einleitung. 



The Traveller , das erste der beiden beschreibenden Ge- 
dichte Oliver Goldsmiths, ist dem Bruder des Dichters, dem 
Geistlichen Henry Goldsmith, gewidmet. Es wurde zuerst unter 
dem Titel *The Traveller; or, a Prospect of Society' am 19. De- 
zember 1 764 in Quart veröffentlicht, wiewohl das Titelblatt die 
Jahreszahl 1765 hat, und war das erste Werk, zu dem Goldsmith 
sich öfTentlich bekannte. Der Preis, den der Verleger John 
Newbery in St. Paul's Churchyard dem Dichter für das Manu- 
skript zahlte, betrug 20 Guineen, der Verkaufspreis des Buches 
einen Schilling 6 Pence. 

Wie aus der Widmung hervorgeht, hatte Goldsmith einen 
Teil des Gedichts bereits während seiner W^anderung auf dem 
Kontinent im Jahre 1755 niedergeschrieben und dem Bruder 
von der Schweiz aus ubersandt. Innerhalb der folgenden zehn 
Jahre nahm er den Gegenstand gelegentlich wieder auf, änderte 
und erweiterte den ursprunglichen Plan und arbeitete an dem 
Gedichte, wenn Mufse und Neigung ihn dazu trieben. Als er 
es vollendet hatte, unterbreitete er es dem Urteile des Dr. John- 
son, des einflufsreichsten englischen Kritikers der Zeit, welcher 
den Wert desselben sofort erkannte, die Veröffentlichung be- 
schleunigte und am Ende eigenhändig einige Verse hinzufügte. 
Es sind dies nach Mitteilung Boswelis , des Biographen John- 
sons, Vers 420 und die letzten 10 Verse mit Ausnahme des 
vorletzten Verspaares. 

Die Aufnahme, welche das Gedicht fand, war eine überaus 
gunstige und übertraf die Erwartungen des Dichters bei weitem. 
Binnen 8 Monaten erschienen vier Auflagen und fünf andere 
folgten noch z^ Lebzeiten des Dichters. Es erhob den bis da- 
hin unbekannten Schriftsteller mit einem Male auf die Höhe 
litterarischer Berühmtheit und stellte ihn in die Beihe der be- 
deutendsten Dichter Englands. Johnson veröffentlichte in der 



8 

Zeitschrift 'The Critical Ueview^ eine Beurteilung desselben, in 
der er erklärte, dafs es nicht leicht sein möchte, seit dem vierten 
Buche der Dunciade Popes ein Gedicht zu finden, dafs diesem 
gleich käme, und es wird erzählt, dafs man ihn bei den Versen, 
welche den englischen Charakter schildern, habe weinen sehen. 
Fox nannte es eins der schönsten Gedichte in englischer Sprache. 
Im Januarheft 1765 erschien in der vom Buchhändler Griffiths 
herausgegebenen Zeitschrift The Monthly Review' eine ausfuhr- 
liche Recension des Gedichts, in der es als ein Werk von be- 
trächtlichem Verdienst empfohlen und zu jenen köstlichen Ge- 
dichten gezählt wird, die durch Schönheit der Darstellung. 
Zartheit der Empfindung und gluckliche Wahl des Ausdrucks 
anziehen. Ich werde Goldsmith nie mehr für häfslich halten, 
sagte die Schwester des berühmten Malers Reynolds, als sie das 
Gedicht von Johnson hatte vorlesen hören. Als Reynolds einst 
zu Johnson bemerkte, dafs der Erfolg des Gedichts vielleicht der 
Parteinahme seiner Freunde zu verdanken sei, erwiderte John- 
son: ,,Nein, seine Freunde waren stets gegen ihn, und nur mit 
Schwierigkeit konnten wir ihm Gehör schenken." 

Die Zeitverhältnisse, unter denen das Gedicht erschien, 
begünstigten den Erfolg desselben. England war um die Mitte 
des 18. Jahrhunderts arm an poetischen Talenten. Thomson, 
der Dichter der Jahreszeiten, war 1748, Pope, der Übersetzer 
der Odyssee und der Uiade, der Verfasser des Lockenraubs, der 
Dunciade und der Lehrgedichte über die Kritik und den Menschen 
im Jahre 1749 gestorben. Johnson, der Gönner und Freund 
Goldsmiths, hatte seit den vierziger Jahren, in denen seine besten 
metrischen Erzeugnisse, die Nachahmungen der Satiren Juvenals, 
erschienen, nur zuweilen noch kurze, durch gelegentliche Vor- 
kommnisse veranlafste Gedichte verfällst. Auch Young hatte 
sein bedeutendstes Werk „die Nachtgedanken'' bereits in den 
Jahren 1742 bis 1744 veröffentlicht und befand sich zur Zeit, 
wo Goldsmith mit dem Traveller in die Öffentlichkeit trat, im 
hohen Alter von 80 Jahren und dem Tode nahe. Von Gray's 
Gedichten, welche zwischen 1747 und 1757 erschienen, wurde 
nur die Elegy written in a Country Churchyard volkstümlich. 
Seine Oden fanden wegen der Schwierigkeit des Verständnisses 
und des fremdartigen Gepräges der Sprache und des Versbaus 
weder bei den Kritikern noch beim Volke Anklang, und John 
son erwähnt, dafs, als seine zwei Gesänge „der Fortschritt der 
Dichtkunst" und „der Barde*' 1757 erschienen, die Leser von 
Gedichten zuerst stumm vor Erstaunen waren. Goldsmilh 
selbst sagte von ihnen, dafs, während sie viel von dem Geiste 



9 

Pindars atmeten, sie die scheinbare Dunkelheit jenes gewaltigen 
Meisters in' sich aufgenommen hätten. Der ^uchtbarste und 
populärste Dichter in den sechziger Jahren, unmittelbar vor der 
Veröffentlichung des Traveller, war Churchill. Seine zahlreichen 
satirischen Gedichte erschienen innerhalb 3^ Jahre von 1761 
bis zu seinem Tode im November 1764. Da alles, was er schrieb, 
Tagesbegebenheiten zum Gegenstand hatte, und er sich mit 
seinen Dichtungen an die aufgeregten politischen Leidenschaften 
der Volksmasse wandte , so konnte er nicht verfehlen , einen 
ungeheuren Eindruck auf seine Zeitgenossen zu machen. 
Churchill war wesentlich Parteidichter und unterstützte durch 
seine sarkastischen Ausfälle in Versen die Opposition des De- 
putierten John Wilkes und seiner Anhänger gegen die Re- 
gierung. Sein Hauptwerk *The Prophecy of Famine* wurde 
von seinen Freunden als persönlich, poetisch und politisch ge- 
priesen. 

Zu den beiden zuletzt genannten Dichtern, welche als Ver- 
treter zweier Richtungen der Zeit in der Poesie angesehen 
werden können, tritt Goldsmith in Gegensatz. Obwohl er dem 
Talente Gray's alle Gerechtigkeit widerfahren läfst, verwirft er 
seine gelehrte , gekünstelte Manier als Unnatur und Verirrung 
des dichterischen Geistes, polemisiert gegen die 'Pindaric ödes, 
choruses, anapests, and iambics' und fordert von der Poesie, dafs 
sie zur Einfachheit, Natürlichkeit und Gefühlswahrheit zurück- 
kehre. Aber noch weit gefährlicher erscheint es ihm, wenn die 
Dichtkunst in den Dienst des politischen Parleigetriebes gestellt 
wird, wie es von Churchill geschah. „Die Partei,*^ sagt Gold- 
smijlh in der Dedikation, „giebt dem Urteil eine falsche Richtung 
und verdirbt den Geschmack. Wenn der Geist einmal von 
dieser Krankheit angesteckt ist, so kann er nur an dem Ver- 
gnügen finden, was dazu beiträgt, das Übel zu verschlimmern.'^ 
Gegen diesen Mifsbrauch der Dichtkunst zum Zwecke der Ver- 
schärfung der Parteigegensälze sollte das Gedicht ein Protest 
sein. Ohne für irgend eine politische Richtung Partei zu 
ergreifen, versucht es der Dichter, alle zur Mäfsigung zu fuhren, 
indem er sich bemüht, nachzuweisen, dafs das Gluck der Staaten 
nicht von einer bestimmten Regieningsform abhängig sei, dafs 
jeder Staat sein eigentümliches Regierungsprincip habe, welches 
ihn glücklich mache, und dafs dieses Princip in jedem Staate 
zum Nachteile desselben auf die Spitze getrieben werden könne. 

In der Überzeugung, dafs die Poesie seiner Zeit sowohl in 
formeller wie in sachlicher Hinsicht entartet sei und einer Um- 
kehr bedürfe, geht Goldsmith auf Addison und Pope zurück. 



10 

deren Schriften noch heute als Muster einer klaren, anmutigen, 
lebendigen, formvollendeten Schreibweise gelten , und folgt in 
Bezug auf Inhalt, Sprache und Versbau dem Wege, den sie an- 
gebahnt hatten. Addison hatte im Jahre t701 in einem Ge- 
dichte 'Letter from Italy to the Right Honöurable Charles Lord 
Halifax' zum Teil denselben Stoff bearbeitet, der Goldsmiths 
Traveller zu Grunde liegt und ihm ohne Zweifel die Anregung 
dazu gegeben hat. Goldsmith selbst äufsert sich über Addisons 
Gedicht folgen^ ermafsen (Beauties of English Poesy 1767 vol. L 
p. 111): „Wenige Gedichte haben dem englischen Genius mehr 
Ehre gemacht, als dieses. Es ist ein Zug politischen Denkens 
darin, der zu jener Zeit in unserer Poesie neu war. Wären die 
Verse desselben eben so wohllautend wie die von Pope gewesen, 
so wurde es unbestreitbar das schönste Gedicht in unserer 
Sprache sein; aber es herrscht eine Trockenheit in ihnen, welche 
das Vergnügen, das durch des Dichters Urteil und Phantasie 
hervorgerufen wird, sehr beeinträchtigt." Während jedoch 
Addisons Absicht mehr darauf gerichtet ist, die Gegenden zu be- 
schreiben, die er besucht hat, ist Goldsmith mehr darum zu 
thun, über dieselben allgemeine Betrachtungen anzustellen. Wie 
sich auf dem Grunde von Addisons Letter from Italy etwa ein 
halbes Jahrhundert später Goldsmiths Traveller aufgebaut hat, 
so ist zu Byrons Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, das wiederum etwa 
ein halbes Jahrhundert später entstand , bemerkt worden , dals 
es in allen Hauptpunkten als eine Art von Traveller in einem 
erweiterten Mafsstabe betrachtet werden könne. In Byrons 
Gedicht werde der Leser mit mehr Abwechslung und Genauigkeit 
im einzelnen gefuhrt, als in dem früheren Werke, und durch einen 
Führer von bedeutend gröfserer poetischer Begabung. Aber wenn 
man die Moralität der zwei Gedichte vergleiche, so müsse man an- 
erkennen , dafs Goldsmith die höhere Stelle einnimmt. Seine 
Absicht sei, zu zeigen, dafs, wie ungleich die äuTseren Bedingungen 
des Lebens in verschiedenen Ländern auch sein mögen, alle in 
gleicher Weise imstande seien, zum Gluck des einzelnen Men- 
schen beizutragen ; die Tendenz Byrons sei, die menschlichen 
Einrichtungen herabzusetzen und die menschlichen Interessen 
zu verspotten. Goldsmith rechtfertige die Vorsehung; Byron 
greife sie an. 

Der Plan des Gedichts ist besonders wegen seiner Einfach- 
heit gerühmt worden. Nach Macaulay's Urteile beruht kein phi- 
losophisches Gedicht, weder im Altertum noch in der Neuzeit, 
auf einem so edlen und zu gleicher Zeit einfachen Plane. Der 
Dichter versetzt sich auf eine einsame Alpenhöhe und überschaut 



11 

die zu seinen Füfsen liegenden Länder. Jedes bat seine Vor- 
züge; aber wo ist wirkliebes Glück zu finden? Um diese Frage 
zu beantworten, ruft er sieb die Länder, die er durcbwandert 
bat, Italien, die Scbweiz, Frankreicb, Holland, England ins Ge- 
däcbtnis zurück, denkt an die Yerschiedenbeit der Landschaft, 
des Klimas, der Regierungsform, der Sitten, des Volkscbarakters, 
und gelangt zu dem Scblusse, dafs unser Glück wenig von po- 
litiscben £inricbtungen und viel von der Stimmung und Regelung 
unseres Geistes abbängig ist. 

In dem Gedicbte treten zwei Cbaraktere bervor, die sieb 
in der Person des Dicbter# vereinigen: der des Wanderers, 
welcber fremde Länder besucbt und schildert, und der des Pbi-« 
losopben, welcber untersucht, ob höheres Glück das Los eines 
besonderen Landes sei, und zu dem Ergebnis kommt, dafs die 
Natur jedem Lande ein ungefähr gleiches Mafs von Gluck zu- 
geteilt bat. Die Stärke des Dichters zeigt sich überall da, wo 
er in dem Charakter des Wanderers erscheint, weil er hier aus 
der reichen Quelle persönlicher Erfahrungen schöpft. Alle seine 
Schilderungen von Land und Leuten, von der Lebensweise, den 
Sitten und Gebräuchen, Vorzügen und Fehlern der Menschen in 
den verschiedenen Ländern fesseln unwillkürlich , da sie au» 
eigener, wenn auch nicht immer vorurteilsfreier Anschauung 
geflossen und in eine schöne Form gekleidet sind. Anders ist 
es da, wo der Charakter des Philosophen zum Vorschein kommt^ 
und schon in der Beurteilung des Traveller in 'The Montbly 
Review' vom Januar 1765 wird gezeigt, dafs die Beweisführung 
des Satzes, dafs jeder Staat sein eigenes Glücksprincip habe, 
(v. 93 — 98), die schwache Seite des Gedichts ist» „Es ist ge- 
wifs,*' heifst es da S. 50, „dafs jedes Einzelwesen sein eigenes 
Glücksprincip hat; aber folgt daraus, dafs auch ein aus solchen 
Einzelwesen bestehender Staat ein solches habe? Eber das 
Gegenteil, weil in demselben notwendiger Weise eben so viele 
verschiedene Meinungen betreffs des wabren Glückszustandes 
sein müssen. In Wirklichkeit geht es den Staaten so, wie de» 
Privatleuten. Sie scheinen eher durch zufällige Umstände ge- 
trieben zu werden, dem allgemeinen Besten nachzustreben, als 
auf Grund eines feststehenden Princips. Wir sehen, dafs der 
Gegenstand öffentbcber Aufmerksamkeit in einem Reiche ein ganz 
anderer ist als in einem andern, und dafs, je nachdem Interesse, 
Macht und Willkür vorherrschen, der politische Scharfsinn seine 
Grundsätze und Praxis ändert. Der Charakter der Völker ist 
nicht immer derselbe. Indem sie sich ändern, ändern sich auch 
ihre Vorstellungen vom Glücke und zwar in so hohem Grade^ 



12 

dal'ß man kaum sagen kann, daü^ sie ein festes oder bestimmtes 
Princip haben." 

Ausspruche und Urteile über den Traveller sind in grolser 
Anzahl und von Männern mit glänzendem Namen überliefert 
worden, in denen derselbe ausnahmslos als ein Werk von hohem 
V^dienst gekennzeichnet v^ird. Mehr aber noch als dies spricht 
für den Wert des Gedichts der Umstand, dafs es sich dauernd 
in der Gunst des Volkes erhalten hat und überall gelesen wird, 
wohin enghsche Sprache und Litteratur gedrungen sind. Der 
sittliche Grund , auf dem das Gedicht sich aufbaut, der Geist 
echter Humanität, der es erfüllt ,% die sympathische Gemüts- 
stimmung, in die es versetzt, die Einfachheit der Komposition, 
der klare, durchsichtige Stil, die eigenartige Schönheit der 
Sprache, der gewählte poetische Ausdruck, die malerischen 
Schilderungen sind mächtig wirkende Anziehungspunkte, denen 
sich niemand entziehen kann. 

Forster, der grundUchste der Biographen Goldsmiths, hebt 
in seinem Werke 'Life and Times of Oliver Goldsmith' die cha- 
rakteristischen Eigentümlichkeiten des Traveller mit folgenden 
vortrefl'iichen Worten hervor: „Der vorherrschende Eindruck, 
den das Gedicht macht, stammt aus seiner Natürlichkeit und 
Ungezwungenheit, und darin wird der ausnehmende Reiz em- 
pfunden, mit dem des Dichters stets geistreiche Phantasie 
b4?be Gedanken von menschhchem Glück umgiebt. Die heitere 
Anmut seines Stils und der reiche, sanfte Flufs seines Verses 
nehmen uns gefangen, ehe wir den Zauber seiner lebensvollen 
Bilder des mannigfaltigen Lebens empfinden, die sich aus seinen 
ruhigen, stillen Tiefen philosophischer Betrachtung abspiegeln. 
Vor allem nehmen wir wahr, dafs es ein auf die Natur gebautes. 
Gedicht ist, dafs es auf aufrichtiger Wahrheit beruht. Es fleht 
nicht den Mond und die Sterne um unmögliches Mitgefühl an 
oder verkehrt nicht mit anderen wirklichen oder erdichteten 
Welten, als die sind, in denen der Verfasser gelebt hat und die 
er gekannt hat Klug hat er vermie4en, was er an den pseudo- 
heroischen Verskünsüern seiner Zeit auf sarkastische Weise ver- 
urteilt hat, — die Praxis nämhch, welche später noch allgemeiner 
wurde, die Poesie auf phantastische Unwirklichkeit aufzubauen, 
sie in harte Verdrehungen der Sprache zu kleiden und sie mit 
dem Zierrat vergangener Lebenskraft auszustaffieren, wie wenn 
es um so mehr der Poesie gliche, je mehr es der Poesie unähn- 
lich ist. Seine poetische Sprache ist ungescbmückt und doch 
reich, gewählt und doch ausgesucht einlach, zusammengedrängt 
und doch gefühlvoll und ungezwiMigen. Er hat bedacht, wie er 



IS 

selbst von Parnell sagt, dafs die Sprache der Poesie die Sprache 
des Lebens ist und die am wärmsten empfundenen (bedanken im 
einfachsten Ausdrucke überliefert." 

Der Gedankengang des Gedichts ist folgender : 
Der Dichter versichert seinem Bruder, dem er das Gedicht 
widmet, dafs dieEntfernung seine Liebe zu ihm nicht geschwächt 
habe und die Sehnsucht nach ihm ihn auf allen seinen Wanderungen 
begleite (1 — 10), und fleht auf ihn und sein gastliches Haus den 
Segen des Himmels herab (11 — 22). Er bedauert, dafs es ihm 
nicht vergönnt ist, häusliche Freuden zu geniefsen; einsam 
wandere er von Land zu Land (23 — 30) und verweile soeben 
auf einer Alpenhöhe, von der aus sich ihm ein weiter Blick 
aber die zu seinen Füfsen liegende Landschaft erschliefse 
(31 — 36). Er betrachtet die Reize und den Reichtum, welche 
ihm die Natur hier darbietet, mit dem offenen Auge eines 
Philanthropen, dem die Welt gehört , weil er an der Wohlfahrt 
der Menschheit seine Freude hat {37 — 50), und mit dem ge- 
mischten Gefühle der Freude über die Segnungen des Himmels 
und der Trauer über die UnvoUkommenheit des menschlichen 
Glückes (51—62). Wo befindet sich, fragt er, die Stätte höchsten 
Glückes auf Erden? Jeder hält seine Heimat für das bevor- 
zugteste Land. Eine genaue Vergleichung der einzelnen Länder 
ergiebt jedoch, dafs die Natur ihre Segnungen auf alle in gleicher 
Weise verteilt hat (63 — 80), und dafs die Vorzüge, die ein Land 
vor anderen zu haben scheint, durch Nachteile, die aus jenen 
folgen, aufgehoben werden (81 — 98). Der Beweis hierfür wird 
durch Tnduktiongeführt (99— 104): 

In Italien stehen der Naturschönheit (105—110) und der 
Fruchtbarkeit (111 — 122) des Landes die aus dem Verfall des 
Handelsund dem Verlust des Nationalwohlstandes entsprungenen 
Fehler der Bewohner gegenüber (123—144). Für den Verlust 
des Wohlstandes gewähren die Künste einen Ersatz, obgleich sie 
nur dürftige Reste früheren Glanzes sind und im Dienste niede- 
rer, kindlicher Belustigungen stehen (145 — 164). — In der 
Schweiz kontrastieren die Unfruchtbarkeit des Bodens und 
die Rauheit des Klimas (165 — 174) mit der Zufriedenheit, den 
häuslichen Freuden (175 — 198) und der Anhänglichkeit der 
Bewohner an die heimatlichen Berge (199 — 208). Dagegen 
fehlt der Sinn für höhere Freuden des Lebens (209—226) und 
die Pflege der edleren Tugenden (227—238). — Die Bewohner 
Frankreichs sind voll Lebenslust und erfreuen sich einer 
glücklichen Naturanlage (239 — 254), und es herrscht unter 
ihnen eine gegenseitige Achtung, so wie das Streben nach Ehre 



14 

und Anerkennung des eigenen Wertes (255 — 266); aber die 
Sucht nach äufseren Auszeichnungen führt zur Unselbständig- 
keit, Prahlerei, Eitelkeit und zu bettelhaftem Stolz (267—280). 
— Die Lage und Beschaffenheit Hollands (281 — 296) zwingt 
die Bewohner zur Thätigkeit und industriellen Beschäftigung. 
Aber der Reichtum, den das Land dadurch erlangt hat, ist die 
Ursache einer allgemeinen Verderbnis der Sitten geworden und 
hat durch Käuflichkeit der Freiheit das freie Land zu einem 
Land von Tyrannen und Sklaven gemacht (297 — 312). Welch 
ein Gegensatz zwischen den jetzigen und einstigen Bewohnern 
dieses Landes (313 — 316)! — Britannien ist ein von der 
Natur begünstigtes Land, und seine Bewohner sind stolz auf 
ihre Freiheit und Unabhängigkeit (317—334); aber die Folge 
zu hoch geschätzter Unabhängigkeit sind gefährliche Spaltungen 
und Parteiungen im Lande (335 — 348), welche die natürlichen 
Bande lösen, zu gesetzlichen Gegenmafsregeln fähren, die 
Macht des Reichtums verstärken, ideale Bestrebungen unbe- 
achtet lassen und am £nde das Land ins Verderben stürzen 
(349 -360). — Wenn der Dichter den Mifsbrauch der Freiheit 
tadelt, so geschieht es nur, um dieselbe dem Lande zu erhalten. 
Die Natur der Freiheit aber fordert eine gleichmäfsige Verteilung 
der Lasten (361 — 376) und nicht die Bevorzugung einer Klasse 
auf Kosten der anderen und zum Nachteile des Thrones (377 — 
392). Wenn jedoch die Macht des Fürsten verringert wird, 
so wächst die Macht der Grofsen im Lande, was zur Folge hat, 
dafs die Armen auswandern und die Bevölkerung abnimmt 
(393-- 422). Das Forschen des Dichters nach der Stätte 
höchsten Glückes war vergebens, da dasselbe nicht von äufseren 
Verhältnissen abhängig ist, sondern allein in der Beschaffenheit 
des Gemüts zu suchen und zu finden ist (423—438). 



DEDICATION. 



TO THE REV. HENRY GOLDSMITH »). 

Dear Sir, 

I am sensible that Ihe friendship between us can acquire 
no new force from the ceremonies of a dedication ; and perhaps 
it demands an excuse thus to prefix your name to my attempts, 
which you decline giving with your own. But as a part of this 
poem was formerly written to you from Switzerland, the whole 
can now, with propriety, be only inscribed to you. It will also 
throw a light upon many parts of it when the reader understands 
that it is addressed to a man who, despising fame and fortune, 
has retired early to happiness and obscurity, with an income of 
forty pounds a year. 

I now perceive, my dear brother, the wisdom of your 
humble choice. You have entered upon a sacred office, where 
the harvest is great, and the labourers are but few; while you 
have left the field of ambition, where the labourers are many, 
and the harvest not worth carrying away. But of all kinds of 
ambition, what from the refinement of the times, from different 
Systems of criticism, and from the divisions of party, that which 
pursues poetical fame is the wildest. 

Poetry makes a principal amusement among unpolished 
nations; but in a country verging lo the extremes of refinement, 

^) Henry Goldsmith, ein sechs Jahre älterer Bruder des Dich- 
ters, war protestantischer Geistlicher und verwaltete bis zu seinem 
Tode im Mai 1768 die sehr gering dotierte Pfarrstelle seines Heimat- 
dorfes Pallas in der irischen Grafschaft Longford, die der Vater früher 
12 Jahre hindurch, von 1718 — 1730, innegehabt hatte. In der Dedi- 
kation zu ^The Deserted Village' 1770 äufsert sich der Dichter über 
die herzliche Gesinnung, die er gegen seinen älteren Bruder hegte, 
mit folgenden Worten: „The only dedication I ever made was to my 
brother, because 1 loved him better than most men. He is since dead.'^ 
Vgl. Deserted Village v. 140. 



16 

painting and inusic come in for a share. As these ofTer the 
feeble mind a less laborious entertainment, they at first rival 
poetry, and at length supplant her; they engross all that favonr 
once shown to her, and though but younger sisters, setze upon 
the elder's birthrigbt. 

Yet, however this art may be neglected by the powerful, it 
is still in great danger from the mistaken efforts of the learned 
to improve it. What criticisms have we not heard of iate in 
favour of blank verse and Pindaric ödes, choruses, anapestß, and 
iambics, alliterative care and happy negligence! Every absurdity 
has novv a Champion to defend it; and as he is generaily mach 
in the wrong, so he has always much to say; for error is ever 
talkative. 

But there is an enemy to this art still more dangerous — I 
mean party. Party entirely distorts the jndgment, and destroys 
the taste. When the mind is once infected with this disease, it 
can only 6nd pleasure in what contributes to increase the dis- 
temper. Like the tiger, that seldom desists from pursuing man 
after having once preyed upon human flesh, the reader who has 
once gratißed bis appetite with calumny makes ever after the 
most agreeable feast upon murdered reputation. Such readers 
generaily admire some half-witted thing, who wants to be thought 
a hold man ^), having lost the character of a wise one. Him they 
dignify with the name of poet: bis tawdry ^) lampoons are called 
satires ; his turbulence is said to be force, and bis frenzy fire. 

What reception a poem may find which has neither abuse, 
party, nor blank verse to support it, I cannot teil, nor am I soli- 
citous to know. My aims are right. Withöut espousing the 
cause of any party, I have attempted to moderate the rage of all. 
I have endeavoured to show that there may be equal happiness 
in States that are differenlly governed from our own ; that every 
State has a particular principle of happiness, and that this prin- 
ciple in each may be carried to a mischievous excess. There 
are few can judge better than yourself how far these positions 
are illustrated in this poem. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Your most affectionate brother, 
Oliver Goldsmith. 



>) a hold man •— Anspielnn; aof Churchill. Vgl. Ein!. S. 9. 
») iavodry — vgl. Vers 273. 



THE TRAVELLER. 



Remote, unfriended, melancholy, slow, 

Or by the lazy Scheid, or wandering Po; 

Or onward, where the rüde Carinthian boor 

Against the houseless stranger shuts the door; 

Or where Campania's piain forsaken lies, 

A weary waste expanding to the skies: 

Where'er I roam, whatever realms to see, 

My heart untravelled fondly turns to thee; 

Still to my brother turns, with ceaseless pain. 

And drags at each remove a lengthening chain. 10 



1. slow — fioswell im „Leben Johnsons*' erzählt, dafs Chamier, 
ein Mitglied des Litterarischen Klabs, gelegentlich die Frage aufwar^ 
was Goldsmith mit dem letzten Worte des ersten Verses des Traveller 
habe aasdrücken wollen, ob er damit die Langsamkeit im Sinne der 
Ortsveränderung gemeint habe. Goldsmith, der nach Boswell zuweilen 
etwas ohne Überlegung sagte, antwortete: „Ja^^ Johnson, welcher 
dabei safs, sagte: „No, sir; you do not mean tardiness of locomotion. 
Yon mean tbat slnggishness of mind which com es opon a man in 
soiitade*^ 

2. or . , , or — in der Poesie znweilen für whether . . . or oder 
either ... or. 

3. Carinthian boor — der Bauer des Herzogtums Kärnthen, das 
Goldsmith während seiner Reise auf dem Kontinent 1755 besucht 
haben soll. 

4. Der Dichter soll, als er durch Kärnthen reiste, nach einem 
angestrengten Tagemarsche einmal gezwungen worden sein, ein Haus 
zu verlassen, in dem er Schutz gesucht hatte, und die Nacht im Freien 
zuzubringen. 

5. Campama — nicht die im Südwesten Italiens zwischen den 
Apenninen und der Westküste gelegene überaus fruchtbare Provinz, 
sondern die Campagna di Roma, ein öder, ungesunder Küstenlandstrich 
an dem unteren Tiber, der sich über die berüchtigten pontinischen 
Sümpfe hinaus erstreckt und ehemals ein mit den herrlichsten Villen 
der alten Römer besetzter blühender Garten war. 

10. and drags ... — Goldsmith bedient sich desselben ßildes im 
Citizen of the World, letter Tu: <^he farther I travel I feel the pain 
Goldsmith. 2 



18 THE TRAVELLER. 

Eternal blessings crown my earliest friend, 
And round his dwelling guardian saints attend: 
Biest be that spot, where cheerful guests retire 
To pause from toil, and trim tkeir evening fire: 
Biest that abode, where want and pain repair, 
And every stranger ßnds a ready chair: 
Biest be those feasts with simple plenty crowned, 
Where all the ruddy family around 
Laugh at the jests or pranks that never fail, 
Or sigh with pity at some mournful tale; 20 

Or press the bashful stranger to his food, 
And learn the luxury of doing good. 

Bat me, not destined such delights to share, 
My prime of life in wandering spent and care; 
Impelled with Steps unceasing to pursue 
Some fleeting good, that mocks me with the view ; 
That, like the circle bounding earth and skies, 
AUures f^om far, yet, as I foUow, flies ; 
My fortune leads to traverse realms alone, 
And find no spot of all the world my own. SO 

Eyen now, where Alpine solitudes ascend, 
I sit me down a pensive hour to spend ; 



of Separation with strooger force; those ties that bind me to my oative 
conntry and you are still unbroken. By every remove I ooly drag a 
great6r leogth of dialn/^ 

11. crmim . . . attend — Konjanktive, im Siane von Optativen 
gebraucht. 

23. me — ist Objekt von leads v. 29. 

26. In ähnlicher Weise beklagt Goldsmith sein Geschick, das ihn 
nirgends . Ruhe finden lasse, im ersten Hefte der ,,Bieae": ''When will 
my wanderiogs be at an ead? When will my restless disposition giv« 
me leave to enjoy the present hoar? When at Lyons I thought all 
happioess lay beyond the Alps; whes in Italy I foHod myself still 
in want of something, and expected to leave solitode behind me faty 
going into Roomelia, and now you find me toniing back, still expeot- 
ing ease every where but where I am." 

28. Im Vicar of Wakefield am Ende von Kap. 29^ gebrandit Gold- 
smith dasselbe Bild: '^Death, the only friend of the wretched, for a 
little while mocks the weary traveller with the view, and like the 
horizoa still flies before him." 

32. / sit me down — das jetzt als Pleonasmus erscheinende Per^ 
sonalprooomen ist ursprünglich reflexiver Dativ und bat sich in der 
Dichterspraohe noch bei den Verben der Ruh« to sit, to stand, to stay, 
to rest und einigen Verben der Bewegung und des Affekts erhalten. 



THE TRAVELLER. 19 

Aod, placed od bigh above tbe storm's career, 
Look downward wbere a bundred realms appear; 
Lakes, forests, cities, plains extending wide, 
The pomp of kings, tbe sbepherd's bumbler pride. 

Wben tbus Creation's charms around combifie, 
Amidst tbe störe sbould thankless prid^ repine? 
Say, sbould tbe pbilosopbic mlnd disdain 
Tbat good wbicb makes eacb bumbler bosom vain? 40 

Let scbool-taught pride dissembie all it can, 
Tbese little tbings are great to little man ; 
And wiser be wbose sympathetic mind 
Exults in all tbe good of all mankind. 
Ye glittering towns, witb wealtb and splendour crowned ; 
Ye fields, wbere summer spreads profusion round ; 
Ye lakes, wbose vessels catcb tbe busy gale; 
Ye bending swains, tbat dress tbe flowery vale ; 
For me your tributary Stores combine: 
Creation's beir, tbe world, tbe world is mine ! 50 

As some lone miser, visiting bis störe, 
Bends at bis treasure, counts, recounts it o'er ; 
Boards after boards bis rising raptures fill, 
Yet still be sigbs, for boards are wanting still: 
Tbus to my breast alternate passioDs rise, 
Pleased witb eacb good tbat Heaven to man supplies: 
Yet oft a sigb prevail*, and sorrows fall, 
To See tbe hoard of human bliss so small ; 
And oft I wisb amidst tbe scene to find 
Some spot to real bappiness consigned, 60 

Vgl. 192, — penHve — in Gedanken versunken, traurig. Vgl. 419. 
«Deserted Village' 136. 

33. above the storm's career — vgl. 'Deserted Village' 190. 

34. a hundred realms — Goldsmith gebraucht hier und im *Vicar 
of Wakefield' auch vor anderen Wörtern, die mit aspiriertem h an- 
fangen, wie horse, hat, heap, husbaod, die ursprüngliche Form des un- 
bestimmten Artikels an an Stelle des jetzt gebräuchlichen a. 

41. school-taught pride — dem pbilosopbic mind v. 39 entsprechend 
ist an Fhilosophenschuien des Altertums und Mittelalters (Stoiker, 
SehoI«8tiker) zu denken. 

51 £f. Das Gleichnis wird in den ersten zwei Versen mit as ein- 
geleitet und V. 53 u. 54 in lebhafter, selbständiger Darstellung durch 
Hauptsätze weitergeführt. In der mit tbus anhebenden Vergleichnng 
entsprechen dem Gedanken nach die Verse 55 uad 56 den Versen 51 
bis 53 einerseits , und die Verse 57 und 58 dem Vers 54 andererseits. 

2* 



20 THE TRAVELLEB. 

Whcre my worn souJ, each wandering hope at rest, 
May gather bliss to see my fellows blest. 

But, where to find that happiest spot below, 
Wbo can direct, when all pretend to know? 
Tbe shuddering tenant of the frigid'zone 
Boldly proclaims that happiest spot bis own ; 
Extols the treasures of bis stormy seas, 
And bis long nigbts of revelry and ease: 
The naked negro, panting at the line, 

Boasts of bis golden sands and pabny wine, 70 

Basks in the glare, or stems the tepid wave, 
And thanks bis gods for all the good they gave. 
Such is the patriot's boast, where'er we roam, 
Ilis first, best country ever is at bome. 
And yet, perbaps, if countries we compare, 
And estimate the blessings whicb they sbare, 
Thougb patriots flatter, still shall wisdom find 
An equal portion dealt to all mankind ; 
As different good, by art or nature given, 
To different nations makes tbeir blessings even. so 

Nature, a mother kind alike to all, 
Still grants her bliss at labour^s earnest call; 
With food as well tbe peasant is supplied 
On Idra's cbffs as Arno's sbelvy side; 
And thougb the rocky-crested summits frown, 
These rocks, by custom, tum to beds of down. 

62. to see — der Infinitiv vertritt einen Kausalsatz. 

63. Konstr..\,ßat who can direct where to find u. s.w. 

69, Une — Äquator. 

70. palmy wine — ein berauschendes Getränk, das aus dem Safte 
der Kokosnufspalme und anderer Palmenarten bereitet wird. 

72. gave — ungenau für have givcn. Ahnlich gebraucht Gold- 
smith das Präteritum an Stelle des Perfektums 113. Deserted Village 92. 

78. an equal portion — ergänze of blessings 76. 

79. 80. Verschiedene Völker ersetzen durch die Kunst die Vor- 
züge, welche anderen die Natur gewährt hat, und sind so in gleicher 
Weise gesegnet. 

84. Idra^s cliffs — Idra, genauer Idria (vergl. Torno anstatt Tor- 
neo 'Deserted Village' 418), ein Flüfschen im österreichischen Kronlande 
Krain, an dem die durch bedeutende Quecksilberbergwerke bekannte 
Stadt gleichen Namens zum Teil in einem von steilen Bergen umschlos- 
senen, engen und einsamen Thale liegt, welches der Dichter vermutlich 
auf seiner Rückreise von Venedig durch Deutschland im Jahre 1755- 
besucht hat. 



1 
THE TRAVELLER. 21 

From art more various are the blessiogs sent : 

Wealth, commerce, honour, liberty, content. 

Tet these each other's power so strong contest, 

Tbat either seems destructive öf the rest. 90 

Where wealth and freedom reign, contentment fails, 

And honour sinks where commerce long prevails. 

flence every State, to one loved blessing prone, 

Conforms and modeis life to that alone. 

Each to the favourite happiness attends. 

And spurns the plan that aims at other ends; 

Till, carried to excess in each domain, 

This favourite good begets peculiar pain. 

But let US try these truths with closer eyes. 
And trace them through the prospect as it lies: 100 

Here for a while my proper cares resigned, 
Here let me sit in sorro w for mankind ; 
Like yon neglected shrub at random cast, 
That shades the steep, and sighs at every blast. 

Far to the right, where Apennine ascends, 
Bright as the summer, ftaly extends; 
Its uplands sloping deck the mountain's side, 
Woods over woods in gay theatric pride; 
While oft some temple's mouldering tops between 
With venerable grandeur mark the scene. HO 

Could nature's bounty satisfy the breast, 
The sons of Italy were surely blest. 
Whatever fruits in difTerent cUmes were found, 



89. strong — adjektivische Form aostatt der adverbialen stroogly. 
Vergl. *Deserted Village' 282. 323. 

91. Die Verse 91 ond 92 fehlen in den ältesten Ausgraben. Offen- 
bar sind sie yon Goldsmith später hinzugefügt worden, um die Wahl 
des Wortes either zu rechtfertigen. Hiernach zerfallen die 88 an- 
geführten fünf Segnungen, welche die Kunst im weiteren Sinne (art) 
den Menschen bringt, in zwei Klassen, die mit einander im Kampfe 
liegen. Zur ersten gehören wealth, commerce und liberty (freedom), 
zur anderen contentment , und honour. 

99—104 bilden den Übergang von der allgemeinen Betrachtung zur 
speciellen. Der Dichter will die Wahrheiten, die er bisher im all- 
gemeinen ausgesprochen hat, an dem Beispiel einzelner Länder, deren 
Lichte und Schattenseiten er vor Augen tührt, im einzelnen zur An« 
schauung bringen. 

112. were = would he ist Konjunktiv. Vergl. 337. 



22 THE TBAVBLLEB. 

That proudly rise, or humbly court the ground; 

Whatever blooms in torrid tracts appear, 

Whose bright succession decks the varied year; 

Whatever sweets salute the northern sky 

With vernal lires that blossom but to die; 

These here disporting own the kindred soil, 

Nor ask luxuriance from the planter's toil; 120 

While sea-bom gales their gelid wings expand 

To winnow fragrance round the smiling land. 

But small the Miss that sense alone bestows, 
And sensual bliss is all the nation knows. 
In florid beauty groves and ßelds appear, 
Man seems the only growth that dwindles here. 
Contrasted faults through all his manners reign: 
Though poor, luxurious; though submissive, vain; 
Though grave, yet trifling; zealous, yet untrue; 
And eveü in penance planning sins anew. 130 

All evils here contaminate the mind, 
That opulence departed leaves behind; 
For wealth was theirs, not far removed the date, 
When commerce proudly flourished through the State; 
At her command the palace learned to rise, 
Again the long-fallen column sought the skies; 
The canvas glowed beyond even nature warm, 
The pregnant quarry teemed with human form : 
Till, more unsteady than the southern gale, 
Commerce on other shores displayed her sail; 140 



117. sweets — Wohlgerüche d. i. wohlrieehende Bloraen. 

120. Die Blumen bedürfen nicht der Arbeit des Gärtners, am 
oppig za gedeihen. 

123. sense — der Singular poetisch anstatt des Plurals (Synek- 
doche). 

127. manners — Sitten, Lebensart; synon. morals Leben und 
Wandel, sitüiches Verhalten. Vgl. 228 nnd 230. Deserted Village 74. 

129. zealous — zelotisch, voll Glanbenseifer. 

133 bis 138 beziehen sich anf die Blütezeit des italienischen Han- 
dels, der Banknnst, Malerei und Bildhauerkunst während des Mittel- 
alters. 

137. Die Leinwand erglühte in Farben, welche noch wärmer 
waren als die sind, welche die Natur zeigt. 

140. Durch die Entdeckung Amerikas und des Seeweges nach 
Ostindien wurde der Handel von den Küsten des mittelländischen 
Meeres abgelenkt und auf die am atlantischen Ocean gelagenen Staaten 
übertragen. 



THE. TRAVELLER. 23 

White nought remained of all that riches gave^ 
But towns unmanned, and lords witfaout a slave: 
And late the nation found with fruitless skill 
Its former strength was but plethoric ill. 

Yet still the loss of wealth is here supplied 
By arts, the splendid wrecks of former pride: 
From these the' feeble faeart and long-fallen mind 
An easy compensation seem to ßnd. 
Here may he se^, in bloodkss pomp arrayed, 
The pasteboard triumph and the cavalcade; 150 

Processions formed for piety and love, 
A mistress or a saint in every grove. 
By Sports like these are all their cares beguiled, 
The Sports of children satisfy the child; 
Each nobler aim, repressed by long contro), 
Now sinks at last, or feebly mans the soul; 
While low delights, succeeding fast behind, 
In happier meanness occupy the mind : 
As in those domes, wbere Caesars once bore sway, 
Defaced by time and tottering in decay, 160 

There in the ruin, heedless of the dead, 
The shelter-seeking peasant builds bis shed; 
And, wondering man could want the larger pile, 
Exults, and owns bis cottage with a smile. 

My soul^ tum from them, tum we to survey 
Where rougher climes a nobler race display, 



144. plethoric ül — ist ein krankhafter Zustand, der a«s VoU^ 
blüti^keit entsteht. Goldsmith hatte Medizin studiert und wendet mit 
Vorliebe Vergleiche an, die dem Wirkungskreise des Arztes angehören. 
Vgl. Deserted Village 389—394. Vicar III. 

150. Anspielnag auf die Lnstbarkeiten und Aufzüge während der 
Karaevalszeit. 

155. repressed — Goldsmith gebrauchte von V^ben, die auf einen 
harten Konsonanten aosgeken and in der Endsilbe einen kurzen Vokal 
haben, auf dem der Wortton ruht, meist die jetzt nur noch vereinzelt 
vorkommenden Formen des Präteritums und Part Perf. auf t und 
schrieb represt, possest, kist, claspt, deckt, stript, stopt u. a. 

159. as — knüpft an das Vorhergehende eine Vergleichung. Jedes 
edlere Ziel geht verloren, während niedrige Belustigungen den Geist 
beschäftigen : gleich wie in den Rainen der stolzen Paläste (domes^ der 
Baner sich eine Hütte baut und sich in derselben wohl fühlt. 

165 if. Die wilden GebirgsschSnheiten der Schweiz übten in früherer 
Zeit nicht den Reiz aus, den sie heute haben. 



24 THE TRAVELLER. 

Where the bleak Swiss their stormy mansion tread, 

And force a churlish soil for scanty bread: 

No product bere the barren hills afibrd, 

But man and steel, tbe soldier and bis sword; no 

No vernal bloöms tbeir torpid rocks array, 

fiut Winter lingering cbilis the lap of May; 

No zephyr fondly sues the mountain's breast, 

But meteors glare, and stormy glooms invest. 

Yet still, even here, content can spread a charm, 
Redress the clime, and all its rage disarm. 
Thougb poor the peasant's but, bis feast thougb smail, 
He sees bis little lot the lot of all ; 
Sees no contiguous palace rear its head 
To shame the meanness of bis bumble shed; 180 

No costly lord the sumptuous banquet deal 
To make bim loatbe bis vegetable meal; 
But calm, and bred in ignorance and toil, 
Each wish contracting, fits bim to the soil. 
Cheerful at morn be wakes from sbort repose, 
Breasts the keen air, and carols as he goes; 
With patient angle troUs tbe finny deep, 
Or drives bis venturous ploughshare to tbe steep; 
Or seeks tbe den where snow-tracks mark tbe way, 
And drags tbe struggling savage into day. 190 



170. Anspielaog auf die früher über ganz Europa verbreiteten 
schweizerischen Söldner. 

172. Goldsmith besachte die Schweiz im Frühling 1755. 

174. invest — hier in eigentlicher Bedeutung =» bekleiden, wie 
mit einem Kleide bedecken. Als Objekt ist the mountain's breast zu 
ergänzen. 

184. ßts htm — das Subjekt ist he in 178; him für himself ge- 
hört der Dichtersprache an. 

186. breasts the keen air — Ähnlich bei Shakspere : '^Breasted the 
sarge most swoln that met him" Tempest 11, 1; ^'breasting the lofty 
sarge" Henry V., III, Chorus ; W. Irving : "breasting the pure moua- 
tain breeze" (The Sketch Book, Rip van Winkle). Die Lesart „breathes", 
welche neuere Ausgaben haben, findet sich nicht in den zu Lebzeiten 
des Dichters erschienenen Ausgaben und thut der Kraft und Schönheit 
des Verses Abbruch. 

187. troUs — to troll rollen, drehen, herumgehen; deutsch: trollen; 
franz. trdler; =» to fish for a pike with a rod which has a pulley 
(roller) towards the bottom. (Dr. Johnson.) — ßnny deep — kühne 
Metapher für das mit Fischen versehene Gewässer. Ähnlich ^e 
warbling grove' Deserted Village 361. 

190. the savage — das Wild. Savage eig. „Waldbewohner" wird 



THE TRAVELLER. 25 

At night retuming, every labour sped, 
He sits him down the monarch of a shed ; 
Smiles by his cheerful fire, and round surveys 
His children's looks, tbat brigfaten at the blaze; 
While his loved partner, boastful of her hoard, 
Displays her cleanly platter on the board: 
And haply too some pilgrim, thither led, 
With many a tale repays the nightly bed. 

Thus every good his native wilds impart 
Imprints the patriot passion on his heart; 200 

And even those ills that round his mansion rise 
Enhance the bllss his scanty fund supplies. 
Dear is that shed to which his soul conforms, 
And dear that hill whioh lifts him to the storms; 
And as a child, when scaring sounds molest, 
Glings close and closer to the mother's breast, 
So the loud torrent, and the whirlwind's roar, 
But bind him to his native mountains more. 

Such arethe charms to harren states assigned; 
Their wants but few, their wishes all confined. 210 

Yet let them only share the praises due, 
If few their wants, their pleasures are but few; 
For every want that stimulates the breast 
Becomes a source of pleasure when redressed. 
Whence from such lands each pleasing science flies, 
That first excites desire, and then supplies; 
Unknown to them, when sensual pleasures cloy, 
To fiU the languid pause with finer joy; 



meist von meascUichen Wesen, selten von Tieren gebraucht. Pope, 
Iliad XVIII, 373, gebrancht es vom Löwen. Hier ist der Bär gemeint. 

192. süs him doum — vgl. 32. 

200. patriot — ist hier, wie 357, Adjektiv. 

202. fund — hat hier die ursprüngliche Bedeutung des lateinischen 
fandus, Grund und Boden. 

211. Den unfruchtbaren Ländern soll das ihnen gebührende Lob 
zu teil werden; es soUen aber auch ihre Mängel nicht verschwiegen 
bleiben. 

215. whence — daher, leitet einen koordinierten Hauptsatz ein. 
Die ältesten Ausgaben haben hence. 

217. Konstr.: To fiU (the power of fiUing) the languid pause with 
finer joy when sensual pleasures cloy is (oder being) unknown to 
them (d. i. such lands). 



26 THE TRAVELLER. 

UnkDown those powers tbat raise the soul to flame, 

Catch every nerve, and vibrate through the frame. 220 

Their level life is but a smoiildering fire, 

Unquenched by want, unfanned by strong desire ; 

Unfit for raptures, or, if raptures cheer 

On some high festival of once a year, 

In wild excess the vulgär breast takes fire, 

Till, buried in debauch, the bliss expire. 

But not their joys alone thufi coarsely flow: 
Their morals, like their pleasures, are but low; 
For, as refinement stops, from sire to 8on 
Unaltered, unimproved the manners run, 230 

And iove's and friendship's ßnely-pointed dart 
Fall blunted from each indurated heart. 
Some stemer virtues o^er the mountain's breast 
May sit, like falcons cowering on the nest; 
But all the gentler morais, such as play 
Through life's more cultured walks, and charm the way, 
These» far dispersed, on tlmorous pinions fly, 
To sport and flutter in a kinder sky. 

To kinder skies, where gentler manners retgn» 
I turn ; and France displays her bright domain. 240 

Gay, sprightly land of mirth and social ease, 
Pleased with thyself, whom all the world can please, 

221. level — gleichmäfsig, einrörmiif. Vergl. 359. 

224. of once a year — durch die Prapositioo of wird der Zeit- 
umstand oace a year in ein attributives Verhältnis zu festival gebracht. 
Vergl.: A boy of ten years old. Your commissioo of to-day. 

226. expire — der Konjunktiv des Präsens im TemporalsatE« naeh 
tili bezeichnet den Zeitpunkt, bis zu welchem etwas geschehen kann. 
Vergl. 355. 

227. alone — wird nicht ungewöhnlich von Dichtern für only 
gebraucht. 

228. 230. morais . . manners. Vergl. 235, 239 und Note zu 127. 

229. sire — Vater; poetische Bezeichnung. Vergl. 'Deserted Vil- 
lage' 371. 

232, faü — der Plural des Verbs nach dem Singular des Haupt- 
worts (dart) erklärt sich aus den durch and kopulativ verbundenen 
Attributen lore und friendship, die mehr als ein Subjekt zur Voraus« 
Setzung haben. Vergl. 'Oryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of 
fashion' Vicar of Wakefield 18. Siehe aueh 303. 

23$. Das Bild ist dem Zuge der Vögel nach südlicheren Ländern 
entlehnt. — Die Infinitive to sport (» to play 235) und flutter ver- 
treten einen Finalsatz. 



THE TBAVELLEE. 27 

How often have I led tby sportive choir, 

With tuneless pipe, beside the raurnittring Loire I 

Where shading elms along the margin grew, 

And freshened from the wave the zephyr filew; 

And haply, though my harsh touch, faltering Mill, 

But mocked all tune, and marred the dancer's skill, 

Yet would the viilage praise my wondrous power, 

And dance, forgetful of the noontide hour. 250 

Alike all ages. Dames of ancient days 

Have led their children through the mirthfui maze, 

And the gay grandsire, skilled in gestio lore, 

Has frisked beneath the burthen of threescore. 

So blest a life these thoughtkss realms display, 
Thus idly busy roUs their world away : 
Theirs are those arts that mind to mind endear, 
For honöur forms the social temper here. 
Honour, that praise which real merit gains, 
Or even imaginary worth obtains, 260 

Here passes current ; paid from hand to hand, 
It shifts in splendid traffic round the land : 
From Courts to camps, to cottages it strays, 
And all are taught an avarice of praise; 

243. choir — hierein nrsprüoglicher Bedeatang „ein Chor von 
Tänzern/^ — Choir (frvoir) und Loire (mit französischer Aussprache) 
reimen jetzt nur noch fürs Auge. 

244. tun^kss -^ uameledisch. Vergl. 247 und 248. — In der Ge- 
sehiehte des philosophischen Landstreichers im 20. Kapitel des Viear 
of Wakefield er^Uüt GoMsmith seine Schicksal« auf der Wanderung 
durch Flandern und Frankreich folgendermafsen: „Ich trieb mich unter 
den harmlosen Bauern Flanderns umher, sowie unter denjenigen Frank- 
reichs, weldie arm genug waren, um recht lustig zu sein; denn ich 
habe immer gefunden, dafs ihre Fröhlichkeit im Verhältnis zu ihrer 
Bedürftigkeit stand. Wenn ich mich %t%^ Abend einem Bauernhaus 
näherte, so spielte ich eine meiner lustigsten Weisen, und das ver- 
schaffte mir nicht nur ein Unterkommen für die !Nacht, sondern auch 
Unterhalt für den nächsten Tag." 

252. maze — Labyrinth, Verwirrung. Hier wird es dichterisch 
von den Windungen und Drehungen beim Tanz gebraucht. 

253. gesUe kre ^— Tanzkunst. Eigentlich *die Lehre von der 
Bewegung beim Tanz.' Zur Erklärung von gestio dient das französische 
„le geste^', welolMs in der Tanzkunst die Bewegung des Kopfes, des 
Oberkörpers, der Arme bedeutet 

256. idly busy — Verbindung entgegengesetzter Begriffe (Oxy- 
moron). 

258. honour — wird im folgenden Verse näher als praise, Ruhm, 
äufsere Auszeichnung erklärt 



28 THE TRAVELLER; 

They please, arc pleased, they give to get esteem, 
Till, seeming blest, they grow to what they seem. 

But while this softer art their bliss supplies, 
It gives their foliies also room to rise; 
For praise too dearly loved, or warmly sought, 
Enfeebles all internal strength of thought; 270 

And the weak soul, within itself unblest, 
Leans for all pleasure on another^s breast. 
Hence bstentation here, with tawdry art, 
Pants for the vulgär praise which fools impart ; 
Here vanity assumes her pert grimace, 
And trims her rohes of frieze with copper lace; 
Here beggar pride defrauds her daily cheer, 
To boast one splendid banquet once a year ; 
The mind still tums where shifting fashion draws, 
Nor weighs the solid worth of self-applause. 280 

To men of other minds my fancy flies, 
Embosomed in the deep where Holland lies. 
Methinks her patient sons before me stand, 
Where the broad ocean leans against the land, 
And, sedulous to stop the Coming tide, 
Lift the tall rampire^s artificial pride. 



265. Als Objekt zu give ist esteem vorauszuaelimen. 

266. 'There is perhaps no couplet ia Eaglish rhyme more per- 
spicuonsly Condensed than these two lines of the Traveller, in which 
the author describes the at once flattering, yain, and happy character 
of the French.' Campbell's British Poets VI, 262. 

267. this softer art — bezieht sich auf honour 259. 

273. tawdry — aitterhaft, soll aus St Audrey, d. i. St. Ethelreda 
korrumpiert sein und daher rühren, dafs in verschiedenen Gegenden 
von England auf den Märkten am Tage jener Heiligen zur Erinnerung 
an das in der Legende berühmte Halsband derselben bunte Tücher und 
allerhand Flitterkram verkauft wurden. Goldsmith gebraucht das Wort 
auch in der Widmung von Churchill's Gedichten : <His tawdry lampoons 
are called satires.' 

277 f. — Die Bettelstolzen verkürzen sich aus Eitelkeit die täg- 
liche Mahlzeit, um einmal im Jahre einen glänzenden Schmaus veran- 
stalten zu können. 

282. Holland liegt in der Meerestiefe (deep) gleichsam wie in 
einem Busen verborgen, weil es im INorden und Westen vom Meere 
begrenzt wird und zum Teil unter dem Wasserspiegel desselben sich 
befindet. 

286. rampire — seltene, von Dichtern gebrauchte Nebenform von 
rampart. 



THE TRAVELLER. 29 

Onward, methinks, and diligentiy slow 

The firm connected bulwark seems to grow, 

Spreads its long arms amidst the watery roar, 

Scoops out an empire, and usurps the shore ; 290 

While the pent ocean, rising o^er the pile, 

Sees an amphibious world beneath him smile: 

The slow canal, the yellow-blossömed vale, 

The willow-tufted bank, the gliding sail, 

The crowded mart, the cultivated piain, 

A new creation rescued from his reign. 

Thus, while around the wave-subjected soil 
Impels the native to repeated toil, 
Industrious habits in each bosom reign, 
And industry begets a love of gain. 300 

Hence all the good from opulence that Springs, 
With all those ills superfluous treasure brings, 
Are here displayed. Their much-loved wealth imparts 
Convenience, plenty, elegancc, and arts ; 
But view them closer, craft and fraud appear, 
Even liberty itself is bartered here. 



290. Das Land wird nicht ansgpehöhlt, sondern erscheint nur durch 
die hohen Dämme tiefer gelegt. 

291. pent von to pen einpferchen, eiBschliefsen; pen ein Raum, in 
den die Schafe auf dem Markte eingesperrt wurden. Vergl. Vicar of 
Wakefield XXV. *When I pen my fold for immortality.» 

292. Mm — Ocean ist in der Dichtersprache männlich; vergl. 
his 296. 

296. There are few passages to be found in the ränge of English 
poetry more Condensed, harmonious, and vigorous, than this felicitous 
description of Holland. (Waller.) — In seiner *History of Animated 
Nature' beschreibt Goldsmith Holland mit folgenden -der Schilderung des 
Traveller ähnlichen Worten : The whole kingdom of Holland seems to 
be a conquest on the sea, and in a manner rescued from its bosom. 
The surface of the earth in this country is below the level of the bed 
ot the sea ; and I remember upon approaching the coast to have looked 
down upon it from the sea as into a valley.' 

297. around ist Adverb; wave-subjected der Gewalt der Wellen 
ausgesetzt. 

303. are — Neben dem Singular steht im zusammengezogenen 
Satz auch der Plural des Verbs, wenn das Subjekt durch with mit 
einem oder mehreren Substantivbegriffen verbunden wird, welche zu 
dem Subjekt in einem kopulativen Verhältnisse stehen; doch nur in 
dem Falle, dafs das Verb den so verbundenen Substantivbegriffen vor- 
angeht oder nachfolgt. Vergl. auch 232. 

306 ff. Derselbe Gedanke findet sich im Vicar of Wakefield Kap. XIX: 
^Now, the possessor of accumulated wealth, when furnished with the 



80 THE TRAVELLER. 

At gold's superior charms all freedom flies, 

The needy &ell it, and the rieh man buys; 

A land of tyrants, and a den of slaves, 

Here wretches seek dishonourable grayes, 310 

And calmly bent, to servitude conform, 

Dull as their lakes that slumber in the storm. 

Heavens ! how unlike their Belgtc sires of okl ! 
Rough, poor, content, ungovernably bokl; 
War in each breast, and freedom on each br^w; 
How much unlike the sons of Britain now ! 

Fired at the sound, my genius spreads her wing, 
And flies where Britain courts the westem spring; 
Where lawns extend that scorn Arcadian pnde, 
And brighter streams than famed Hydaspes glide. 320 

There all around the gentlest breezes stray, 
There gentle music melts on every spray ; 
Creation's mildest charms are there combined, 
Extremes are only in the master's mind! 
Stern o'er each bosom reason holds her slate 
With daring aims irregularly great. 



Decessaries aod pleasures of life, has do otber metbod to employ the 
svperfliiity of his fortnne bat in pnrchasing power; that is, differently 
speaking, in making dependants by pnrchasing the liberty of the needy 
or the venal, of raen who are willing to bear the mortification of 
eontiguoQS tyranny for bread.' 

309. Im 'Citizen of the World' letter 35 gebraucht Goldsmith 
mit Beziehung auf die Perser der Neuzeit dieselben Worte: 'A nation 
famons for setting the world an example of freedom is now become 
a land of iyrards and a den of slaves.* 

317. her wing — Ursprüngliche Maskulina werden in der Poesie 
vielfach weiblich gebraucht; der Übergang ursprünglicher Feminina in 
das männliche Geschlecht ist selten. Vergl. Deserted Village 59, wo 
labour weiblich ist. 

319. lawn = a piain among trees (Gamden); an open space be* 
tween woods (Johnson); Waldblöfse; Flur. Franz. lande. Vergl. De- 
serted Village 35 und 65. 

320. Hydaspes — der alte Name des durch den Sieg Alexanders 
über Porus bekannten nördlichaten der fünf größten Nebenflüsse des 
Indus; Horaz gab ihm das Beiwort fabulosus. Sein heutiger Name ist 
Djelem. 

324. Extreme finden sich in Grefsbritannien nur im Geiste des 
Herrn der Schöpfung, des Menschen, nicht in der NaturbeachafTenheit 
des Landes. 

325. stale s=r sway Herrschaft. 



THE TRAVELLER. Sl 

Pride in their port, defiance in their eye, 

I see the lords of human kind pass by, 

Intent on high designs, a thoughtful band, 

By forms unfashioned, firesh freiB nature's band, 330 

Fierce in their native hardiness of soul, 

True to imagined right, above control, 

While even the peasant boasts these rights to scan, 

And learns to venerate himself as man. 

Thine, freedom, thine the blessings pictured here, 
Thine are those charms that dazzle and endear; 
Too blest, indeed, were such without alloy, 
But fostered even by freedom, ills annoy: 
That independence Britons priie too high 
Keeps man from man, and breaks the social tie; 340 

The self-dependent lordlings stand alone, 
All Claims that bind and sweeten life unknown. 
Here, by the bonds of nature feebly held, 
Minds combat minds, repelKng and repelled ; 
Ferments arise, imprisoned factions roar, 
Repressed ambition struggles round her sfaore, 
TiU, over-wrought, the generai System feels 
I^ motions stop, or frenzy fire the wheels. 

Nor this the worst As rfaturc's lies decay, 
As duty, love, and honour fail to sway, 350 

Fictitious bonds, the bonds of wealth and law. 
Still gather strength, and force unwilling awc. 
Hence all obedience bows to these alone, 
And talent sinks, and merit weeps unknown; 
Till time raay come, when, stripped of all her charms, 
The land of scholars, and the nurse of arms, 



332. Hnagined rigkt — was sie als ihre Gerechtsame ansehen. 

337. wühmit tüloy --* ohne fieimischang, nnvermischt. Alloy (franz. 
a la loi), Legiernag, ist der durch Gesetz festgestellte Silber- oder 
Goldgehalt der Münzen. 

342. Vor unknown ist being zu ergänzen. Verhtirzter absolater 
Partizipialsatz. 

344. Die Liebe der Briten zur Unabhängigkeit (339) hat Partei- 
kämpfe zwischen den verschiedenen Gesellschaftsklassen zur Folge. 

348. Die Erregung im Lande wird so grofs, dafs die Staatsmaschine 
entweder ins Stocken gerät oder in wahnsinniger Weise weiter geführt 
wird. 

351. fictitious — unnatürlich, künstlich. 



82 THB TRAVELLER. 

Where noble stems transmit the patriot flame, 

Where kings have toiled, and poets wrote for fame, 

One sink of level avarice shall iie, 

And scholars, soldiers, kings, unhonoured die. , 360 

Yet think not, thus when freedom's iUs I State, 
I mean to flatter kings, or court the great; 
Ye powers of truth, that bid my soul aspire, 
Far from my bosom drive the low desire; 
And thou, fair freedom, taught alike to feel 
The rabble's rage, and tyrant's angry steel; 
Thou transitory flower, aUke undone 
By proud contempt, or favour's fostering sun. 
Still may thy blooms the changeful clime endure! 
I only would repress them to secure: 370 

For just experience teils, in every seil, 
That those who think must govern those that toil ; 
And all that freedom's highest aims can reach 
Is but to lay proportioned loads on each. 
Hence, should one order disproportioned grow, 
Its double weight must ruin all below. 

then how blind to all that truth requires, 
\Yho think it freedom when a part aspires ! 
Calm is my soul, nor apt to rise*in arms, 
Except when fast-approaching danger warms ; 380 

But when contending chiefs blockade the throne, 
Contracting regal power to Stretch their own. 



357. patriot — vei^l. 200. 

358. wrote — eine ans dem Präteritom entstandene Nebenform des 
Partizips des Perfekts written, die bei Dichtern nicht ungewöhnlich ist. 

359. sink — Senkgrube, in welche der Unrat geschüttet wird. 
Sinn: England wird einst ein Land werden, wo alle gleich habsüchtig 
sind und nur im Geldgewinn ihre Ehre suchen. Zu level vergl. 221. 

370. Es ist möglich, dafs die filüten der Freiheit das veränderliche 
Klima, sowohl die Kälte der Verachtung als auch die Sonne der Gunst 
ertragen; nichts desto weniger möchte der Dichter diese zurückhalten, 
um jene sicher zu erhalten. 

375. Order — Gesellschaftsklasse im Staate; Stand. 

378. Vor who ist are those zu ergänzen. 

380. Als Objekt zu warms ist my soul zii ergänzen. 

381 ff. Wie im 19. Kapitel des Vicar of Wakefield, so spielt auch 
hier Goldsmith auf die Parteikämpfe zu Anfang der Regierung Georgs 
des Dritten an. 



THE TRAVELLER. 33 

When I behold a factious band agree 

To call it freedom when themselves are fr€e; 

Each wanton judge new penal Statutes draw, 

Laws grind the poor, and rieh men rule the laiv; 

The wealth of climes, where savage nations roam, 

Piüaged from slaves to purchase slaves at home; 

Fear, pity, justice, Indignation start, 

Tear off reserve, and bare my sweiling heart; 390 

Till half a patriot, half a coward grown, 

I fly from pctty tyrants to the throne. 

Yes, brother, curse with me that baleful hour 
When first ambition Struck at regal power; 
And thus polluting honour in its source, 
Gave weallh to sway the mind with doiTble force. 
Have we not seen, round Britain's peopled shore, 
Her useful sons exchanged for useless ore? 
Seen all her triumphs but destruction haste, 
Like flaring tapers brightening as they waste ? 400 

Seen opulence, her grandenr to maintain, 
Lead stern depöpulation in her train, 



386. Goldsmith gebraucht ähnliche Worte im Vicar of Wake- 
field XIX: 'What they may then expect, may be seeo by tnrniDg onr 
eyes to Holland, Geooa, or Veoice, whcre the laws govern the poor, 
and the rieh govern the law.' Vergl. auch Vicar XXVII: 'It is among 
the Citizens of a refined community that penal laws, which are in the 
hands of the rieh, are laid apou the poor.' 

3S8. Anspielung auf die ehemals in Indien gesammelten Reich- 
tümer und ihre Verwendung zu politischen Zwecken. 

392. Wie hier, so bekennt sich Goldsmith auch im Vicar am 
Schlnfs der Rede des Pfarrers im 19. Kapitel als Anhänger monarchischer 
Staatsverfassung. „Ich bin daher für die Monarchie und würde für sie, 
die geheiligte Monarchie, sterben; denn wenn es irgend etwas Ge- 
heiligtes unter den Menschen giebt, so ist es unbedingt der gesalbte 
Herrscher seines Volkes; und jede Verringerung seiner Macht, sei es 
im Krieg oder Frieden, ist eine Verletzung der wahren Freiheiten 
seiner Unterthanen.'* 

396. Dadurch dafs der Ehrgeiz die Ehre an ihrer Quelle, d. i. im 
Fürsten des Landes, entweihte, indem er seine Macht beschränkte, er- 
hielt der Reichtum eine Gewalt, die, weil ungeteilt, doppelt stark war. 
Goldsmith spielt wahrscheinlich auf die grofsartigen Bestechungen unter 
dem Minister Bote 1762 und 1763 an. 

397 und die folgenden Verse enthalten das Thema, das er im 
Oeserted Village bearbeitet hat. 

398. ore — - eig. rohes Metall; poet. Gold. 
Goldsmith. 3 



34 THE TBAVBLLEB« 

And over fields, wbere scattered hamlets rose, 

In barren, solitary pomp repose? 

Have y^e not seen, at pleasure's lordly call, 

The smiling, long-frequented village fall? 

Beheld the duteous son, the sire decayed, 

The modest matron, and the blushing maid, 

Forced from their homes, a melancholy train, 

To traverse dimes beyond Ihe western main; 410 

Where wild Oswego spreads her swamps around, 

And Niagara stuns with thundering sound ? 

Even now, perhaps, as there some pilgrim strays 
Through tangled forests and through dangerous ways , 
Where beasts with man divided empire claim, 
And the brown Indian marks with murderous aim ; 
There, while above the giddy tempest flies, 
And all around distressful yells arise, 
The pensive exile, bending with his woe, 

403 und 404. — Vergl. Deserted Village 65 aod 66: 
^AloDg the lawD, where scattered hamlets rose^ 
Unwieldy wealth and cnmbrous pomp repose,* 
405. 406. Der in diesen Versea ausgesprocheoe Gedanke wird im 
Deserted Village 275 — 286 weiter ausgeführt. 
40t ff. — Vergl. Deserted Village 363—384. 

411. Oswego — ein Flufs im Morddistrikt des Staates New-York, 
der aus den Flüssen Seneca und Oneida gebildet wird und sieh bei der 
Stadt Oswego in den Ontariosee ergiefst. 

412. Niagara — hatte zur Zeit Goldsmitbs, abweichend von der 
gegenwärtig üblichen Aussprache, nach der die drittletzte Silbe betont 
wird, den Accent auf der vorletzten. — „Es ist ein Flufs in Nord- 
amerika zwischen dem Staat New-York, Verein. St und Ober-Kanada. 
Er fliefst aus dem NO.-Eode des um 300 Fufs höher liegenden Eriesees 
in das NW.-Eode des Ootariosees. Er ist nur 7^' Meilen lang. Bei 
der Navy-Iosel wird der Lauf reifseod, und unweit unterhalb ist der 
weltberühmte Wasserfall. Vor dem Sturz wendet sich der Flofs aus 
NW. Dach NO., und die Flufsbreite vermindert sich von 1 Lieue bis 
auf ^^ Lieue zwischeo hoheo, steilen Ufern. Der Wasserfall wird durch 
die Insel Iris oder Goat-Island ein zweifacher, von denen der westliche 
und breiteste an 144 Fufs senkrecht hoch; der andere ist wieder durch 
eine kleine Insel geteilt. Das Toben des Wassers hört man in einer 
Entfernung von 8 bis 9 Meilen, und in der Nähe zittert die Erde.'' 
(Ritter.) — 'Goldsmith was the first to introduce ioto our poetry 
American names — at once sonorous aad melodious — and in this 
he has been copied most happily by Campbell.' (Ctinningham.) 

415. 416. — Vergl. Deserted Village 355 und 356. 

416. marks — to mark := treffen, schiefsen; vergl. marksman, 
ein Mann, der das Ziel trifft, ein Schütze. 

419. pensive — vergl. 32. Deserted Village 136. 



THE TRAVELLER. 35 

To stop too fearful, and too faint to go, 42o 

Gasts a loDg look where England's glories shine, 
And bids bis bosom sympatbise with mine. 

Vain, very vain, my weary searcb to find 
Tbat bliss wbicb only centres in tbe mind: 
Wby bave 1 strayed from pleasure and repose, 
To seek a good eacb government bestows? 
In every government, thougb terrors reign, 
Tbougb tyrant kings, or tyrant laws restrain, 
How smaU, of all tbat human bearts endure, 
Tbat part wbicb laws or Jungs can cause or eure. 430 

Still to ourselves in every place consigned, 
Our own felicity we make or find : 
Witb secret course, wbicb no loud storms annoy, 
Glides tbe smootb current of domestic joy. 
Tbe lifted axe, tbe agonising wbeel, 
Luke^s iron crown, and Damiens' bed of steel, 
To men remote from power but rarely known, 
Leave reason, faitb, and conscience, all our own. 



420. Dieser Vers, sowie die Verse 429 bis 434, 437 und 438 sind 
von Johnson hinzagefdgt worden. Vergl. Einleitung S. 7. 

422 — drückt die Sehnsncht des Vertriebenen nach der Heimat ans. 

423. Vergeblich war das mühsame Forschen des Dichters nach 
dem Wohnsitze des Glückes, da es von änfseren Verhältnissen, der Be- 
schaffenheit des Landes, des Klimas, der Regpiernngsform n. s. w. über- 
haupt nicht abhän^ sondern im Herzen rnht und überall zu finden ist, 
wo es der Mensch sich selbst schafft. Vergl. 431. 432. 

436. LtMs iron crown, — Die Brüder Lukas und Georg Dosa 
standen während eines Bauernaufstandes in Ungarn im Jahre 1513 an 
der Spitze der Empörer. Nach Unterdrückung der Revolte im folgenden 
Jahre wurde Georg, nicht Lukas, wie Goldsmith irrtümlich angiebt, 
Eor Strafe dafür, dafs er sich von den Bauern hatte zum Könige aus- 
rufen lassen, eine rotglühende eiserne Krone aufs Haupt gesetzt. — 
Damiens' bed of sieel — Robert Fran9ois Damiens verübte 1757 ein 
Attentat auf Ludwig XV. und verwundete ihn beim Aussteigen aus dem 
Wagen durch einen Dolchstich an der rechten Seite. Er wurde auf 
die grausamste Weise zu Tode gemartert, und es heifst, dafs er, durch das 
tJbermafs der Qualen erschöpft, auf der Folterbank eingeschlafen sei. 

437. known — ist Attribut« zu den in 435 und 436 befindlichea 
Subjekten. 



3* 



THE DESERTED VILLAGE. 

A POEM. 

BY D«. GMDLDSMITH. 



Einleitung, 



Das beschreibende Gedicht *The Deserted Village' erschien 
im Verlage von W. Griffin, at Garrick's Head, in Gatharine-street» 
Strand, zuerst am 26. Mai 1770 in Quart zu dem Verkaufs- 
preise von zwei Schillingen. Die Summe, welche der Dichter vom 
Verleger erhielt, betrug 100 Guineen. Es ist Goldsmiths Gönner 
und Freunde, dem bedeutendsten englischen Maler des vorigen 
Jahrhunderts, Sir Joshua Reynolds, gewidmet und eroberte sich 
sofort in so hohem Grade die Gunst des Volkes, dafs zwei neue 
Aufilagen im Monat Juni, eine vierte im August, und noch vor 
Ende des Jahres 1770 eine fünfte und sechste Auflage nötig 
wurden. Sweet Auburn war bald in aUer Munde, Stellen aus 
dem Gedichte wurden auswendig gelernt und der Inhalt aller- 
wärts besprochen. Das Lob, welches der Dichtung von den 
Zeitgenossen gespendet wurde, entsprach der Wirkung, die es 
auf das Volk ausübte. „Ich war in London*', schreibt ein Zeit- 
genosse Goldsmiths, „als ^The Deserted Viilage' herauskam. 
Viel war von dem Verfasser des 'Traveller' erwartet worden, 
und die öfiTentliche Erwartung und Ungeduld wurde nicht ge- 
täuscht. Es wurde thatsächlich mit allgemeiner Bewunderung 
aufgenommen als eins der bezauberndsten und schönsten Er- 
gösse des britischen Geistes.*' Als es dem 80jährigen Dichter 
Gray kurz vor seinem Tode vorgelesen wurde, rief er aus: *That 
man is a poet.* Der grofse Redner und Staatsmann Burke 
schätzte es höher als die Pastorais von Pope und selbst Spenser. 
Göthe sagt in „Dichtung und Wahrheit**, dafs er es in seiner 
Jugend mit Begeisterung gelesen habe und sogleich ans Werk 
gegangen sei , um es ins Deutsche zu übertragen. Reynolds 
vergalt Goldsmith die Aufmerksamkeit, die in der Widmung lag, 
damit, dafs er nach Vers HO ein ausdrucksvolles Bild der Re- 
signation malte und ihm den Kupferstich des Gemäldes mit den 
Worten widmete: „Dieser Versuch, einen Charakter in *The 
Deserted Village' auszudrucken, wird Dr. Goldsmith von seinem 
aufrichtigen Freunde und Bewunderer, Joshua Reynolds, ge- 
widmet (1772).** 



40 

Wie am *Traveller\ so arbeitete Goldsmith auch am *Deser- 
ted Village' geraume Zeit, ehe er das Werk der Öffentlichkeit 
übergab. Alle seine Gedichte sind mit grofser Sorgfalt aus- 
gearbeitet. Er pQegte zuerst den Entwurf in Prosa zu macheo 
und in denselben alle Gedanken einzufügen, auf die er durch 
Nachdenken oder gelegentlich kam. Zwischen den einzelnen 
Zeilen liefs er einen weiten Zwischenraum und füllte denselben 
mit so zahlreichen Verbesserungen aus, dafs er manchmal alles 
veränderte, was er anfangs niedergeschrieben hatte. Zehn Verse 
däuchten ihm eine gute Morgenarbeit Für unser Gedicht soll 
er während \'i&r oder fünf Jahre Stoff gesammelt und auf die 
Ausarbeitung desselben zwei Jahre verwandt haben. Eine Stelle 
des Gedichts, die Beschreibung der Wirtsstube der Dorfschenke, 
war, wie aus einem Briefe vom Jahre 1759 an Goldmiths Bruder 
hervorgeht, bereits vor dieser Zeit, also über 10 Jahre vor der 
Veröffentlichung desselben verfafst worden und ursprüngliiDh für 
ein komisches Heldengedicht bestimmt gewesen, das jedoch 
nicht zur Ausführung kam. Siehe die Note zu Vers 236. Auch 
dieses Gedicht unterbreitete Goldsmith, ehe er es der Öffentlich- 
keit übergab, dem Urteil Johnsons, welcher die letzten vier Verse 
hinzufügte. 

Die Wahl des Gegenstandes erklärt sich aus dem Geschmack 
der Zeit. In der poetischen Litteratur kurz vor Goldsmith 
herrscht eine Vorliebe für beschreibende und philosophische 
Dichtungen, deren beste Muster Thomsons „Jahreszeiten'' und 
Popes „Lehrgedicht über den Menschen" sind, so wie eine 
Neigung zu sentimentaler Betrachtung, wie sie sich besonders 
inYouogs „Nachtgedanken" und Grays ^,Elegie auf einem Land- 
kirchhofe", zwei der geschätztesten und verbreitetsten Gedichte 
um die Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts, bemerkbar macht. Gold- 
smith folgte dieser Richtung, indem er die Einfachheit und Un- 
schuld des Landlebens im Gegensatz zum Luxus und zur Selbst- 
sucht zum Gegenstande poetischer Reflexion macht. Neben 
dem allgemeinen Geschmack der Zeit waren es besonders der 
persönliche Charakter des Dichters, sein philanthropischer Geist, 
sein edler, uneigennütziger Sinn, seine Liebe zur Heimat, sein 
Mitgefühl mit den Leiden seiner Landsleute, sowie persönliche 
Erinnerungen, die ihn zu dem Gegenstande führten, den er im 
'Deserted Village' behandelt. Wie alle gröfseren Dichtungen 
Goldsmiths, so ist auch dieses kein blofses Phantasiegebilde, 
sondern ein auf persönlichen Motiven beruhendes poetisches 
Gemälde. Die Erinnerungen an sein irisches Heimatdorf, das 
Vaterhaus, seine Jugendzeit, die Geschichte seiner Familie, die 



4] 

Charaktere seiner Verwandten und seine eigenen Lebensschick- 
sale sind die unversi^bare Quelle, aus der die Phantasie des 
Dichters schöpft. Das Dörfchen Auburn deutet auf Lissoy, wo 
das Pfarrhaus des Vaters stand und Goldsmith seine Jugendzeit 
verlebte. Vorbilder des Dorfpredigers sind des Dichters nächste 
Verwandte, Vater, Bruder und Oheim (vergl. Anm. zu Vers 140); 
der Dorfischulmeister ist sein Jugendlehrer, Thomas Byrne, ein 
alter, abgedankter Soldat, der in den Kriegen Marlboroughs 
Quartiermeister gewesen war und unter dem tapfern Earl of 
Peterborough in Spanien gekämpft hatte, und der Grundgedanke 
des Gedichts selbst ist hervorgegangen aus einem mit Lissoy in 
Verbindung stehenden Ereignis, das ihm von seiner Kindheit 
her im Gedächtnis zurückgeblieben war. Auf den Umstand, 
dafs im Jahre 1738 ein General Napier ein grolses Besitztum 
in der Nähe von Lissoy kaufte und sich einen grofsen Park an- 
legen liefs, infolgedessen viele kleine Pächter genötigt wurden, 
das Land zu verlassen, gründet Goldsmith seine Betrachtungen 
über die Übel, welche Reichtum und Luxus in ihrem Gefolge 
haben. 

Welches von den beiden gröfseren Gedichten Goldsmiths 
den Vorzugs verdiene, ist schwer zu entscheiden. Abwechslung 
gehört nicht zu dem poetischen Charakter Goldsmiths, und eine 
Ähnlichkeit in Ton und Empfinden ist unverkennbar. Thomas 
Campbell, ein geistreicher Beurteiler englischer Poesie, giebt 
dem 'Deserted Village' den Vorzug, da das Feld der Betrachtung 
im 'Traveller' etwas unbestimmt sei, während jenes eine reizende 
örtlichkeit habe und uns mit Wesen vertraut mache, mit denen 
die Phantasie eine innige Freundschaft schliefse. „Dichtung'', 
sagt er, „ist nicht die Kehrseite der Wahrheit, sondern ihre zarte 
und verklärte ÄhnUchkeit, und diese ideale Schönheit der Natur 
ist selten mit so nüchterner Treue vereinigt worden, wie in den 
Schilderungen der Gruppen und der Scenerie im 'Deserted Vil- 
lage.'^' Übrigens hängen beide Gedichte aufs engste zusammen, 
und das spätere ist nur als eine Fortsetzung des früheren und 
als eine Erweiterung eines Teils desselben anzusehen; denn das 
Thema, das dem 'Deserted Village' zu Grunde liegt, so wie*die 
Hauptgedanken desselben werden bereits am Ende des 'Traveller' 
von Vers 397 bis 422 klar und bestimmt hervorgehoben. 

.Der Standpunkt, den Goldsmith einnimmt, und die Art, 
wie er das Thema behandelt, werden von Campbell folgender- 
massen gekennzeichnet: „Goldsmith ist im Deserted Village ein 
Verteidiger der aus dem blühenden Zustande der Landwirtschaft 
entspringenden Wohlfahrt eines Volkes und giebt ihr den Vorzug 



42 

vor dem Gedeihen mittels des Handels; er tritt für die Segnungen 
des einfacheren Zustandes ein, nicht mit der unbestimmten 
Vorliebe för das liandleben, wie man sie bei Dichtern gewöhnlidb 
findet, sondern mit einem Ernst, der geradezu unsem nächtem- 
sten Glauben herausfordert Zwischen Rousseaus berähmtem 
Briefe über den Einfluss der Wissenschaften und diesem volks- 
tümlichen Gedichte ist eine Ähnlichkeit der Principien unschwer 
zu entdecken. Sie gelangen beide zu denselben Schlässen gegen 
den Luxus; der eine, indem er die Trümmer eines Dorfes be- 
trachtet, der andere, indem er seinen Blick auf den Untergang 
von Weltreichen lenkt. Aber der englische Dichter ist ge- 
mäfsigter in seinen Gesinnungen, als der Genfer Philosoph; er 
übertreibt sie weder in einer Weise, dafs sie geradezu wider- 
sinnig erscheinen, noch höUt er sie in so viele sophistische De- 
tails^ noch lästert er alle Weisheit und Erkenntnis, indem er 
einen Fluch über den Luxus ausspricht. Rousseau verteidigt 
die Wildheit, Goldsmith nur die Einfachheit. Immerhin jedoch 
ist er in der Theorie dem Handel, dem Reichtum und den 
Künsten abgeneigt. Er schildert ihre Übel und schätzt ihre ge- 
priesenen Wohlthaten gering. — Die Absicht des Dichters war, 
unser patriotisches Mitgefühl auf eine unschuldige und duldende 
Klasse des staatlichen Gemeinwesens zu lenken und unsere Er- 
innerungen an die einfachen Freuden, die geheiligten und starken 
lokalen Reize und all die männlichen Tugenden des Landlebens 
zu erneuem. Sogar die Erinnerung an diese Tugenden ver- 
wischt sich allmählich in der Brust eines handeltreibenden Volkes. 
Die Absicht des Dichters war, den üppigen und selbstsüchtigen 
Geist der Reichen zurechtzuweisen, welche der Pracht und Ab- 
geschlossenheit feudaler Wohnsitze nachahmten, ohne die Gast- 
freundschaft und den Schutz derselben zu gewähren, und sich 
mit einförmigen Parkanlagen umgaben, welche „die Hütte von 
der Weide losrissen.*' " 

Von grossem Interesse für uns Deutsche sind die Worte, 
welche Göthe in der Schrift „Aus meinem Leben. Dichtung 
und Wahrheit*' dem Gedichte widmet, weil sie zeigen, mit welchcar 
Begeisterung dasselbe bei seinem Erscheinen von der aufstre- 
benden Jugend Deutschlands am Anfange der Sturm- und Drang- 
periode aufgenommen wurde. „Ein kleines Gedicht*', sagt er im 
zwölften Buche, „welches wir in unsern engen Kreis (in Wetzlar 
1772) mit Leidenschaft aufnahmen, liefs uns von nun an nichts 
andres mehr beachten. Das Deserted Village von Goldsmith 
mufste jedermann auf jener Bildungsstufe, in jenem Gesinnungs- 
kreise höchlich zusagen. Nicht als lebendig oder wirksam, sondern 



43 

als ein yergangenes, verschwunden es Dasein ward alles das ge- 
schildert, was man so gern mit Augen sab, was man liebte, 
schätzte, in der Gegenwart leidenschaftlich aufsuchte, um jugend- 
lich munter teil daran zu nehmen. Fest- und Feiertage auf 
dem Lande, Kirchweihen und Jahrmärkte, dabei unter der Dorf- 
linde erst die ernste Versammlung der Ältesten, verdrängt von 
der heftigem Tanzlust der Jüngern, und wohl gar die Teilnahme 
gebildeter Stände. Wie schicklich erschienen diese Vergnü- 
gungen, gemäfsigt durch einen braven Landgeistlichen, der auch 
Dasjenige, was allenfalls übergriff, was zu Händeln und Zwist 
Anlafs geben konnte, gleich zu schlichten und abzuthun verstand ! 
Auch hier fanden wir unsern ehrlichen WakeGeld wieder, in 
seinem wohlbekannten Kreise, aber nicht mehr, wie er leibte 
und lebte, sondern als Schatten, zurückgerufen durch des ele- 
gischen Dichters leise Klagetöne. Schon der Gedanke dieser 
Darstellung ist einer der glucklichsten, sobald einmal der Vorsatz 
gefafst ist, ein unschuldiges Vergangenes mit anmutiger Trauer 
wieder heranzufordern. Und wie gelungen ist in jedem Sinne 
dem Engländer dieses gemütliche Vorhaben! Ich teilte den En- 
thusiasmus für dieses allerliebste Gedicht mit Gotter, dem die 
von uns beiden unternommene Übersetzung besser als mir ge- 
glückt ist; denn ich hatte allzu ängstlich die zarte Bedeutsamkeit 
des Originals in unserer Sprache nachzubilden getrachtet, und 
war daher wohl mit einzelnen Stellen, nicht aber mit dem Ganzen 
übereingekommen.^^ 

Der Gedankengang des Gedichts ist folgender: Der Dichter 
ruft sich sein Heimatdorf, dem er den Namen Aubum giebt, 
ins Gedächtnis zurück und .schildert die örtlichen Reize und 
die ländlichen Freuden der Bewohner desselben zur Zeit seiner 
Jugend (1 — 34). Alles hat sich seitdem verändert. Die Fluren 
sind verödet, die Hütten verfallen. Grund und Boden ist in den 
Besitz eines Herrn übergegangen, der die Bewohner genötigt hat 
das Dorf zu verlassen (35 — 50). Es ist ein schhmmes Zeichen 
für ein Land, wenn durch zunehmenden Güterbesitz weniger 
Reichen die Landbevölkerung vertrieben wird (51 — 56). Früher 
war ein gesundes, glückliches, mit wenigem zufriedenes Land- 
volk der Stolz Englands (57—62); jetzt wird es durch Reichtum 
und Luxus, die infolge des Handels in das Land gekommen sind, 
verdrängt und zur Auswanderung genötigt (63 — 74). Hiervon ist 
ein trauriges Beispiel das verlassene Dorf Auburn (75 — 82), in 
welchem der Dichter geholTt hatte die letzten Tage seines Lebens 
zuzubringen (83 — 96) und in glücklicher Zurückgezogenheit von 
der Welt sein Lebensende zu erwarten (97 — 112). Aber Öde 



44 

herrscht an Stelle des geschäftigen Lebens. Von allen Bewohnern 
des Dorfes ist nur noch eine arme, alte Witwe zurückgeblieben, 
die ihr Leben durch Sammeln von Kräutern kümmerlich fristet 
(113 — 136). Verschwunden ist das bescheidene Wohnhaus des 
Dorfpfarrers, eines einfachen, edlen Mannes, der bei seiner Ge- 
meinde beliebt, genügsam und selbstlos, ein Gastfreund der 
Armen, Gesunkenen und Gebrechlichen, ein Tröster der Kranktto 
und Sterbenden, eine Zierde der Kirche und ein treuer Hirte 
seiner Herde war (137 — 192); verschwunden das Haus des Dorf- 
lehrers, eines strengen, jedoch wohlwollenden Mannes, derwegefi 
seiner Kenntnisse und Geschicklichkeit im Disputieren allgemein 
bewundert wurde (193—216); verschwunden das einfache Wirts- 
haus des Dorfes, in dem man nach vollbrachter Arbeit Erholung 
fand und bei harmloser Unterhaltung auf kurze Zeit die Sorgen 
des Lebens vergafs (217 — 250). Die einfachen Freuden des 
Landlebens sind dem Herzen unendlich wohlthuender, als die 
rauschenden Vergnügungen der Welt (251 — 264), und an dem 
zunehmenden Luxus erkennt man am sichersten den Verfall 
eines Landes (265 — 302). Wohin soll der Arme sich wenden, 
da sogar die Gemeindewiese in den Besitz des Reichen über- 
gegangen ist (303 — 308). Soll er in die Stadt ziehen, wo neben 
Uberflufs und schwelgerischer Pracht bittere Not und grenzen- 
loses Elend wohnen (309 — 336) ? Nehmen etwa auch, fragt der 
Dichter, an dem beklagenswerten Lose, welches über die Armen 
in gro£sen Städten verhängt ist, die Bewohner von Auburn teil 
(337 — 340)? Nein. In unwirtlichen, ungesunden Landstrichen 
der neuen Welt suchen sie jetzt eine neue Wohnstätte, nachdem 
sie das traute Heim haben verlassen müssen (341 — 362). Herz- 
zerreifsend waren die Scenen beim Abschiede von dem geliebten 
Vaterlande (363— -384). So ist der überhand nehmende Luxus, 
entfernt davon ein Zeichen für die zunehmende und gesunde 
Entwicklung eines Staates zu sein, vielmehr die Ursache seines 
Verfalls (385 — 394). Der Dichter bemerkt mit Schmerzen, wie 
gerade jetzt unter der Herrschaft des Luxus alle ländlichen 
Tugenden, die Genügsamkeit, Gastfreundschaft, Frömmigkeit, 
Treue und Liebe das Land verlassen. Auch die Poesie^ die 
Quelle all seiner Wonne und seines Wehs, sagt ihm Lebewohl. 
Aber wo sie auch immer ihre neue Wohnstätte aufschlagen möge, 
die Lehre hat sie den Menschen zu verkünden, dafs Reichtum 
allein ein Volk nicht glücklich macht und die Herrschaft des 
Geldes den Verfall der Staaten beschleunigt (395—430). 



DEDICATION, 



TO SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS '), 
Dear Sir, 
1 can have do expectations in an address of this kind, either 
to add to your reputation, or to establish my own. You can gain 
nothing from my admiration, as I am ignorant ot that art in 
which you are said to excel ; and I may lose much by the se- 
verity of your judgment, as few have a juster taste in poetry 
than you. Setting interest therefore aside, to which I never 
paid much attention, I must be induJged at present in following 



1) Joshaa Reynolds warde als Sohn eines Geistlichen im Jahre 
1723 in Devonshire geboren. Er widmete sich der Malerei, eröffnete 
1746 in London ein eigenes Atelier und legte sich nach einer drei- 
jährigen Stadienreise durch Italien (1749—52) besonders auf die Por- 
trätmalerei, für die zur Zeit eine grofse Vorliebe herrschte. Er ge- 
langte schnell zu hohem Ansehen und beträchtlichem Vermögen. 
Johnson schätzte sein Einkommen während der sechziger Jahre auf 
. 6000 Pfund jährlich. Als die Königliche Akademie 1768 gegründet 
wurde, wurde er einstimmig zum Präsidenten gewählt, ein Posten, den 
er 23 Jahre lang inne hatte und erst kurze Zeit vor seinem Tode 
niederlegte. Der König ernannte ihn zum ersten Hofmaler und erhob 
ihn in den Adelstand. Er betrieb seine Kunst bis zu seinem Tode 
1792 mit unermüdlichem Eifer, und es sollen noch über 300 Gemälde 
von ihm vorhanden sein. Er ist der hervorragendste englische Maler 
des 18. Jahrhunderts und der Begründer der englischen Malerscbule 
genannt worden. Er war ein durchaus rechtschaffener, edler Charakter 
und von liebenswürdigem und freundlichem Wesen. Sein gastliches 
Haus war ein Sammelplatz der bedeutendsten Männer Londons. Der 
Bewunderung und hohen Verehrung, welche Goldsmith gegen ihn hegte, 
hat er in der letzten Strophe des Gedichts Retaliation und in der De- 
dikation zum Deserted Village Ausdruck gegeben. Reynolds erwiderte 
sie damit, dafs er nach Vers 110 des Gedichts das Bild der Resignation 
malte und den Stich desselben dem Dichter widmete. Vergl. Ein- 
leitung S. 39 und Anmerkung zu Vers 110. Die Nachricht von dem 
Tode des Dichters bewegte ihn so schmerzlich, dafs er Pinsel und 
Palette bei Seite legte und an demselben Tage nicht wieder aufnahm. 



46 

my affectioDs. The only dedication I ever made was to my 
brolher, because I loved him better than most other men. He 
is since dead^. Permit me lo inscribe this poem to you. 

How far you may be pleased with the versification and 
mere mechanical parts of this attempt, [ do not pretend to in- 
quire; but I know you will object (and indeed several of our 
best and wisest friends concur in the opinion), that the depopu- 
lation it deplores is no where to be seen, and the disorders it 
laments are only to be found in the poet's own imagination. To 
this 1 can scarcely make any other answer than that I sincerely 
believe what I have written; that I have taken all possible pains, 
in my country excursions, for these four or five years past, to 
be certain of what I allege; and that all my views and inquiries 
have led me to believe those miseries real, which I here attempt 
to display. But this is not the place to enter into an inquiry, 
whether the country be depöpulating or not; tbe discussion 
would take up much room, and I should prove myself, at best, 
an indifferent politician, to tire the reader with a long preface, 
when I want bis unfatigued attention to a long poem. 

In regretting the depopulation of the country, I inveigh 
against the increase of our luxuries; and here also I expect the 
shout of modern politicians against me. For twenty or thirty 
years past, it has been the fashion to consider luxury as one of 
the greatest national advantages, and all the wisdom of antiquity 
in that, particular as erroneous. Still, however, I must remain a 
professed ancient on that head, and continue to think those 
luxuries prejudicial to states by which so many vices are in- 
troduced, and so many kingdoms have been undone. Indeed so 
much has been poured out of late on the other side of the 
question, that, merely for the sake of novelty and variety, one 
would sometimes wish to be in the right. 
I am, dear Sir, 

Your sincere friend, and ardent admirer, 
Oliver Goldsmith. 



*) dead — vergl. Traveller, Dedikation, Note 1. 



THE DE8ERTED YILLAGE. 



Sweet Auburn ! loveliest YÜlage of the plain, 

Where heallh and plenty cbeered the labouring swain, 

Where smiling spring its earliest visit paid, 

And parting sumoier's lingering blooms delayed: 

Dear lovely bowers of innocence and ease, 

Seats of my youth, when every sport could please, 

How often have I loitered o'er thy green, 

Where humble happiness endeared each scene! 

How often have I paused on every charm, 

The sheltered cot, the cultivated farm, 10 

The never-failing brook, the busy mill, 

The decent church that topped the neighbouring hiil, 

The hawtborn busb, with seats beneath the shade, 

For talking age and whispering lovers made ! 

How often have I biessed the coming day, 

When toil remitting lent its turn to play, 



I. auburn. — Ein Dorf dieses Namens liegt in Wiltshire. Ver- 
natlicli jedoch ist der poetisclie Klnng des Wortes das Motiv fär die 
Wahl desselben. Die dem Gedichte zu Groode liegende Ortlichkeit 
ist das Dorf Lissoy in Irland, in dem das Pfarrhaos des Vaters stand 
und der Dichter die Kioderjahre zubrachte. Vergl. v. 6. Walter Scott 
sagt darüber: Lissoy, near Ballymahon, where the poet's brother, a 
clergyman, had bis Jiving, claims the honour of belog the spot from 
which the localities of the Deserted Village were derived. The chnrch 
wbich tops the neighbouring hill, the mill, and the brook, are still 
poioted out; and a hawthorn has suffered the penalty of poetical celeb- 
rity, being cut to pieces by those admirers of the bard who desired 
to have classical tooth-pick cases and tobacco-stoppers. \Much of this 
supposed locality may be fanciful, but it is a pleasing tribute to the 
poet in the Und of his fathers.^' (M iscellaneous Prose Works, vol. 111. 
p. 250. ed. 1834.) 

3 4. Das Dorf erfreute sich eines frühen Frühlings und eines 
lange anhaltenden Sommers. 

II. the Tiever-faiUng brook — der Bach, dem es nie (an Wasser) fehlt. 



48 THE DESERTED VILLAGE. 

And all the village train, from labour free, 

Led up their sports beneath the spreading tree, 

Wbile many a pastime circled in the shade, 

The young contending as the old surveyed, 20 

And many a gambol frolicked o'er the ground, 

And sleights of art and feats of strength went round ; 

And still as each repeated pleasure tired, 

Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired : 

The dancing pair that simply sought renown, 

By holding out, to tire each other down ; 

The swain mistrustless of bis smutted face, 

While secret laughter tittered round the place; 

The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love, « 

The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. 30 

These were thy charms, sweet village ! sports like tbese, 

Witb sweet succession, taught even toil to please ; 

These round thy bowers their cheerfui influence shed, 

These were thy charms — but all these charms are fled. 

Sweet smiling village, loveliest of the lawn, 
Thy sports are fled, and all thy charms withdrawn ; 
Amidst thy bowers the tyrant's band is seen, 
And desolation saddens all thy green: 
One only master grasps the whole domain, 
And half a tillage stints thy smiling piain; 40 

No more thy glassy brook reflects the day, 
ßut, choked wilh sedges, works its weedy way; 
Along thy glades, a solitary guest. 



17. village train — vergl. 149. 252. 320. 337. 

25 — 30 führen aus, was mit 'sncceeding sports' 24 ang^edentet wird. 

27. mistrustless = not saspectiog that his face was smntted. 

35. lawn — vergl. 65 und 'Traveller' 319. 

37. tyranVs hand — Unter tyrant soll Generaüieotenant Robert 
Napier gemeint sein, ein Engländer, der nach seiner Rückkehr aus 
Spanien, wo er Reichtümer gesammelt hatte, im Jahre 1738 in der 
Nähe von Ballymahon grofsen Grandbesitz erwarb, zu dem auch das 
Dorf Lissoy gehörte, und mehrere seiner Pächter wegen Nichtbezahlong 
der Pacht von Haus und Hof vertrieb. Vergl. 275—278 und Ein- 
leitung S. 41. 

42. works äs weedy way — die Allitteration drückt die An- 
strengung aus, mit welcher das Wasser des mit Schilfgras angefüllten 
Baches sich durch das Unkraut hindurcharbeitet. — Die Lesart weary, 
welche spätere Ausgaben haben, ist eine Korruption und findet sich in 
keiner zu Goldsmiths Lebzeiten erschienenen Ausgabe. 



THE DßSERTED VILLAGE. 49 

The hoUow-sounding bittern guards its nest; 

Amidst thy desert walks the lapwing flies, 

And tires their echoes with unvaried cries. 

Sunk are thy bowers in shapeless ruin all, 

And the long gross o'ertops the mouldering wall ; 

And, trembling, shrinking from the spoiler's hand, 

Far, far away thy children leave the land. 50 

111 fares the land, to hastening ills a prey, 
Where wealth accumulates, and men decay : 
Princcs and lords may flourish, or may fade; 
A breath can make them, as a breath has made; 

44. bittem — Rohrdommel, hit. boUurvs, frans, bator; so genannt, 
weil ihr Geschrei dem Brülieo des Stieres ähnlich ist — An anderer 
Stelle schildert sie Goldsmith folgendermafsen : **Those who have walked 
OB an evening by the sedgy sides of nnfreqnented rivers, mnst 
remember a variety of notes from different water-fowl: the loud 
aeream of the water-goose, the eroaking of the mallard, the whining of 
the lapwing, and ^e tremulous neighing of the jacksnipe; bot of all 
these sonnds , there ü none so dismaÜy hollow as the hooming of the 
hiüem. \l is impoMiMe for words to give those who have not heard 
this evening call an adeqaate idea of its aoiennity. It is Hke an in- 
termpted hello wing of a bull, bot hollower and louder, and is heard 
at a mile's distance, as if issning from some formidable belog tbat 
resided at the bottom of the waters. / remember in the place where 
I was a boy with what terror this bird's note affected the whole vil- 
lage; they considered it as a presage of some sad erent, and generally 
fonnd or made one to sncceed it." Goldsmith, Animated Natore vol. Vi. 

45. lapwmg — Kibitz; nach dem klaglichen Laute, den er hören 
läfst, volkstümlich auch pewet oder pewit (franz. dix-huit) genannt. 

51. Der im folgenden ausgesprochene Gedanke, dafs die Anhaofang 
Ton Reichtümern eine Abnahme der Bevölkerung zur Folge habe, ist 
ein irrtümlicher. Mit dem Wachsen des National Wohlstandes wächst 
naturgemäfs auch die Bevölkemng, sowie die Aboahme dieser stets 
ein sicheres Zeichen der Verarmung des Landes ist. Der Dichter war 
jedoch so fest von der Richtigkeit seiner Meinung, dafs der wachsende 
Reichtum das Land entvölkere, überzeugt, dafs er wiederholentlich darauf 
zurückkommt. Vergl. 275 £F; Traveller 397 ff; und die Geschichte, 
welche Forster in seinem 'Leben Goldsmiths' S. 305 erzählt: "He 
(Goldsmith) told Sir Joshua Reynolds that four or five years before 
the 'Deserted Village' was published, he had, by sundry excursioos 
into various parts of Eogland , verified his fears of the teodency of 
overgrowing wealth to depopulate the land; and his remark to a friend 
who called npou bim the second morning after he had commenced the 
poem was nearly to the same effect: — 'Some of my friends differ 
with me on this plan,' he said, after describiog the scheme, 'and 
think this depopulatioo of viilages does not exist; but I am myself 
satisfied of the fact. 1 remember it in my own country, and have 
Seen it in this.'" 

54. a breath — d. i. das blofse Wort eioes Königs. 
Goldsmith. 4 



^0 THE DESEBTED VILLAGB. 

But a bold peasantry, their country's pride, 
Wben ODce destroyed, can never be supplied. 

A time there was, ere England's griefs began, 
Wben every rood of ground maintained its man; 
For bim ligbt labour spread her wbolesome störe, 
Just gave what life required, but gave no more ; 60 

His best companions, innocence and healtb; 
And bis best riches, igoorance of wealth. 

ßut times are altered ; trade's unfeeling train 
Usurp tbe land, and dispossess tbe swaio ; 
Along tbe lawn, wbere scattered banilets rose, 
Unwieldy wealth and cumbrous pomp repose ; 
And every want to opulence allied, 
And every pang tbat folly pays to pride. 
Tbose gentler hours tbat plenty bade to bloom, 
Those calm desires tbat asked but little room, 70 

Tbose bealtbful sports tbat graeed tbe peaceful scene, 
Lived in eacb look, and brigbtened all tbe green ; 
These, far departing, seek a kinder sbore. 
And rural mirth and manners are no more. 

Sweet Auburn ! parent of tbe blissful hour, 
Thy glades forlorn confess the tyrant's power. 
Here, as I take my solitary rounds, 
Amidst thy tangling walks and ruined grounds, 
And, many a year elapsed, return to view 
Wbere once tbe cottage stood, the bawtborn grew, 80 



5S. rood — ist der vierte Teil eines englischen Morgen Landes 
(acre). 

59. her — ursprüngliche Maskulina werden von Dichtern nicht 
selten als Feminina gebraucht. Vergl. Traveller' 317. 

64. usurp — Konstruktion nach dem Sinne. 

65. lawn — vergl. 35 und 'Traveller' 319, 

66 u. 67. Nach allied und pride ist reposes along the lawn zu 
wiederholen, oder noch besser ein aus repose zu entnehmender Verbal- 
begriff wie „ist" oder „befindet sich" zu ergänzen. Die Verbindung 
mehrerer Sätze oder Substantive durch ein Prädikat, das^ streng ge- 
nommen, nur zu dem einen pafst, heifst Zeugma. 

74. Die Wehmut, welche den Dichter überkommt, wenn er an 
den Verlost der ländlichen Freuden und Sitten denkt, tritt effektvoll 
in der AUitteration hervor. 

79. Da es feststeht, dafs Goldsmith nach seiner Rückkehr vom 
Festlande das Dorf Lissoy, in dem er seine Jugendzeit zubrachte. 



THE DESERTED VILLAGE. 51 

Remembrance wakes with all her busy train, 
Swells at my breast, and tarns the past to pain. 

In all my wanderings through this world of care, 
In all my griefs — and God has given my share — 
I 8til] had hopes my latest hours to crown, 
Ämidst these humble bowers to lay me down; 
To husband out Iif«'s taper at the close, 
And keep the flame from wasting by repose: 
I still had hopes, for pride attends us still, 
Amidst the swains to show my book-learned skill, 90 

Around my fire an evening group to draw. 
And teil of all I felt^ and all I saw; 
And, as a bare, whom hounds and horns pursue, 
Pants to the place from whence at first he flew^ 
I still had hopes, my long vexations past, 
Here to retum — and die at home at last. 

blest retirement, friend to life's decline, 
Retreats from care, that never must be mine, 
How happy he who crowns, in shades like these, 
A youth of labour with an age of ease ; 100 

Who quits a world where strong temptations try. 
And, since His hard to combat, Teams to fly! 
For bim no wretches, born to work and weep, 
Explore the mine, or tempt the dangerous deep; 

Dicht wiedergesehen hat, so lassen sich die folgenden Worte mit der 
Annahme, dafs dieses Dorf der Schauplatz der Dichtung sei, nur so in 
Einklang bringen, dafs der Dichter sich im Geiste in seine Heimat zu- 
rückversetzt und mit einer Anschaulichkeit schildert, als ob er per- 
sönlich anwesend wäre. 

88. by repose ist auf keep zu beziehen. Das Licht brennt länger, 
wenn es ruhig gehalten, als wenn es bewegt wird. 

94. from whence — ein sehr gewöhnlicher, von den besten 
Schriftstellern gebrauchter Pleonasmus anstatt from where oder whence. 

95. I still had hopes — vergl. 85 und 89. Wiederholung des- 
selben Ausdrucks am Anfange mehrerer Sätze. (Anapher). 

96. Die Verse dieses Absatzes bezeichnet Washington Irving als 
'exquisitely tender and mournful lines.' 

97. "How touchingly expressive are the succeeding lines, wrung 
from a heart wfaich all the trials and temptations and buffetings of the 
World conld not render wordly; which, amid a thousand foUies and 
errors of the head, still retained its childlike innocence; and which, 
doomed to struggle on to the last amidst the din and turmoil of the 
metropolis, had ever been cheating itself with a dream of rural quiet 
and seclusion." Washington Irving. 

4* 



52 THE DESERTED VILLAGE. 

Nor surly porter Stands in guilty State, 

To spurn imploring famine from the gate; 

Bat on he moves to meet his latter end, 

Angels around befriending virtue's friend ; 

Bends to the grave with unperceived decay, 

While resignation gently slopes the way; 110 

And, all his prospects brightening to the last, 

His heaven commences ere the world be past! 

Sweet was the sound when oft at evening's dose 
Up yonder hill the village murmur rose; 
There, as I passed with careless Steps and slow, 
The mingling notes came softened from below; 
The swain responsive as the milk-maid sung, 
The sober herd that lowed to meet their young, 
The noisy geese that gabbled o'er the pool, 
The playful children just let loose from school, 120 

The walch-dog's voice that bayed the whispering wind, 
And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind ; 
These all in sweet confusion sought the shade. 
And filled each pause the nightingaie had made. 
But now the sounds of population fail, 
No cheerful murmurs fiuctuate in the gale, 
No busy Steps the grass-grown foot-way tread, 
For all the bloomy flush of life is fled. 



105. in guüty state — die Stellung des PfÖrtoers ist iofolge der 
Lieblosigkeit, mit der er die Armen behandelt, eine schuldbeladene. 

107. 108. Der Tugendhafte steht anter dem Schatze von Engeln 
and geht deshalb rahig dem Tode entgegen. — Der absolute Participial- 
satz y. los steht im Sinne von "wlüle angels around befriend him 
who has been a friend to virtue.'* 

110. '^Sir Joshua Reynolds painted a particularly fine picture id 
point of expression, especially of Resignation, and dedicated the priut 
taken from it to Dr. Goldsmith, with some lines ander it, quoted from 
the 'Deserted Village.' This seems to have been done by Sir Joshua 
as a return of the compliment to Goldsmith, who had dedicated the 
poem to him." Northcote's Life of Reynolds. Vergl. Einleitung S. 39 
und Note 1 zur Dedikation. 

116. softened — die Töne, welche von unten heraufdrangen, 
wurden durch die Entfernung gedämpft. 

118. to low lo meet — entgegenbrüllen. 

122. Das laute Lachen kündigte an, dafs das Gemüt sorgenfrei 
war. Vgl. 257 und Vicar Kap. V: "vacant hilarity." 

124. '^The nightingale's pausing song would be the proper epithet 
for the bird's music." Goldsmith, Animated Nature. 



THE DESERTED VJLLAGB. 53 

All but yon widowed, solitary thing, 

That feebly bends beside the plashy spring ; 139 

She, wretched matron, forced, in age, for bread, 

To Strip the brook with mantling cresses spread, 

To pick her wintry faggot from the thorn, 

To seek her nightly shed, and weep tili morn; 

She only left of all the harmless train, 

The sad historian of the pensive piain. 

Near yonder copse, where once the garden smiled, 
And still where many a garden flower grows wild; 
There, where a few torn shrubs the place disdose, 
The yillage preacher^s modest mansion rose. 140 

A man he was to all the country dear, 
And passing rieh with forty pounds a year ; 
Remote from towns he ran bis godly race, 
Nor e*er had changed, nor wished to change bis place ; 
Unpractised he to £awn, or seek for power, 
By doctrines fashioned to the yarying hour; 



129. thing — tod Personen gebrauclit drückt Mitleid oder Gering- 
flchätzno^f aus. Vergl. Vicar XXI: '^Govld such a thin^f as I am {^ive 
you so mach nneasinessf 

132. Der Back ist mit Kresse, wie mit einem Mantel, bedeckt. 
Vergl. über mantling auch Vers 248. 

136. pensive — vergl. ^Traveller' 32 und 419. — Die alte, allein 
znröckgebliebene Pran, welche der Dichter als 'the sad historian of 
the pensive piain' bezeiehnet, soll Catherine Geraghty geheifsen haben. 

138. Inversion für 'and where many a garden flower still grows wild.' 

140. Als Vorbilder des Landpredigers haben Vater, Oheim nnd 
besonders der Broder des Dichters, der Geistliche Henry Goldsmith, 
gedient. Im Vorwort zum 'TraveUer* bezeichnet er den letzteren als 
einen Mann, der anter Hintansetzang von Rohm ond Reichtom sieh 
frühzeitig in die Verborgenheit zorückzog, am mit 40 Pfood jährlieh 
ein glückliches Leben so führen. Vergl. 'Traveller^' Dedikation, Anm. 1. 
Aach Goldsmiths Vater hatte zor Zeit, wo der Dichter geboren warde, 
■ar ein Biokommen von 40 Pfand. 

142. passin ff — ist adverbial gebraocht = überaas, mehr als. 

143. he ran Ms godly race — biblischer Aosdrock. Vergl. 1. Cor. 
IX, 24; Hebr. XII, 1 ond Vicar XVII: 

''In Isliogton there was a man, 

Of whom the world might say, 
That still a godly race he ran, 
Whene'er he went to pray." 
146. Der Dorfprediger hatte keine Obong darin, sich die Gonst der 
Einflofsreichen dadoreh zo verschaffen, dala er, den Zeitverhältnissen 
Reehnoog tragend, seine Lehre nach den wechselnden Ansichten der 
verschiedenen Machthaber änderte. 



54 THE DESERTED VILLAGE. 

Far other aims his heart had learned to prize, 

More skiiled to raise the wretched than to rise. 

His house was known to all the vagrant train, 

He chid their wanderings, bat relieved their pain; i50 

The loDg-remembered beggar was his guest, 

Whose beard descending swept his aged breast ; 

The ruined spendthrift, now no longer proud, 

Claimed kindred there, and had his Claims allowed ; 

The broken soldier, kindly bade to stay, 

Sat by his fire, and talked the night away ; 

Wept o'er his wounds, or, tales of sorrow done, 

Shouldered his crutch, and showed how flelds were won. 

Pleased with his guests, the good man learned to glow, 

And quite forgot their vices in their woe; 160 

Careless their merits or their faults to scan, 

His pity gave ere charity began. 

Thus to relieve the wretched was his pride, 
And even his failings leaned to virtue^s side; 
But in his duly prompt at every call, 
He watched and wept, he prayed and feit för all ; 
And, as a bird each fond endearment tries 
To tempt its new-fledged ofTspring to the skies, 
He tried each art, reproved each dull delay, 
Allared to brighter worlds, and led the way. 170 

Beside the bed where parting life was laid, 
And sorrow, guilt, and pain, by turns dismayed^ 

149. vagrant train — d. i. Schar umherziehender Bettler. Vorjl. 
17. 252. 320. 337. Ein echt irischer Zug. 

155. the broken soldier — der loytlide. — bade als Partizip des 
Perfekts statt bid oder bidden ist ganz nngewö'hniicb. Es findet sich 
jedoch in allen zn Goldsmiths Lebzeiten erschienenen Ausgaben. 

159. to glow — das Herz des Dorfgeistlichen erwärmte sich für 
seine Gäste. 

164. Ähnlich Vicar UI: "His (Burcheirs) passions were then streng, 
and as they were all npon the side of yirtue, they led it up to a 
romantic extreme." 

167. Wie der Vogel jede zärtliche Liebkosung anwendet, um die 
junge ^n%f^e Brut zum Flog in den Lufthimmel zn locken, so versuchte 
der Geistliche jede Kunst, durch Tadel, Lockungen und eigenes Bei- 
spiel seine Herde schöneren Welten entgegen zuführen. 

171. Und — Goldsmith schrieb layed. 

172. dUmayed — ist transitives Verb. Zu ergänzen ist aus par- 
ting life ein entsprechendes Objekt z. B. ,,die Sterbenden*^ 



THE DESERTED VILLAGE. ^ 55 

The reverend Champion stood. At his control, 
Despair and anguish fled the struggling soul ; 
Comfort came down the trembling wretch to raise, 
And his last faltering accents whispered praise. 

At church, with meek and unafTected grace, 
His looks adorned the venerable place; 
Truth from his lips prevailed with double sway, 
And fools, who came to scoff, remained to pray. 180 

The Service past, around the pious man, 
With steady zeal, each honest rustic ran ; 
Even children followed with endearing wile, 
And plucked his gown, to share the good man's smile. 
His ready smile a parent's warmth expressed ; 
Their welfare pleased him, and their cares distressed: 
To them his heart, his love, his griefs were given, 
But all his serious thoughts had rest in heaven. 
As some tall cliff that lifts its awful form, 
Swells from the vale, and midway leaves the storm, 190 



j74. fled — erscheint hier, wie nicht selten in der Poesie, tran- 
sitiv anstatt des gewöhnlichen fled from. 
176. yraise — nämlich to God. 

179. dwible sway — die Macht des Wortes einerseits nnd des 
Beispiels andrerseits. 

189 ff. Der Dorfprediger wird einem Felsen verglichen, der 
ans dem Thale so hoch emporragt, dafs der Gewittersturm nnr nm 
seine Mitte tobt, während ununterbrochener Sonnenschein auf seiner 
Spitze herrscht. Sein Herz nimmt teil an den Sorgen und Kämpfen 
des irdischen Lebens, aber seine Gedanken sind unaufhörlich auf das 
Himmlische gerichtet — Nach Lord Lytton (Miscellaneous Works, 
vol. I, p. 65) hat Goldsmith das Gleichnis einem Gedichte des Abbe 
de Chaulieu entlehnt, der von 1639—1720 lebte, und dessen Verse zur 
Zeit der Wanderungen Goldsmiths auf dem Festlande viel gelesen 
wurden : 

''Tel qu'un rocher dont la t^te 

Egaiant le Mont Athos, 
Voit k ses pieds la temp^te 

Troubler le calme des flots, 
La mer antour bruit et gronde; 
Malgr6 ses emotions 
Snr son front ^lev^ regne une paix profonde" 
Jedermann, fügt Lord Lytton hinzu, wird zugeben, dafs Goldsmith 
das Original, welches er kopierte, wunderbar verbessert hat, und seioe 
Anwendung des ßildes auf den christlichen Prediger giebt ihm eine 
moralische Erhabenheit, auf die es bei Chaulieu keinen Anspruch hat, 
der es auf seine eigene philosophische Geduld unter physischer Krank- 
heit anwendet. 



56 THE DESERTED VILLAGB. 

I 

Though round its breast the rolliog clouds are spread, 
Etemal sunsbine settles od its head. 

Beside yon straggling fence that skirts tbe way 
Witb blossomed furze unprofitably gay, 
There, in bis noisy mansion, skiUed to rule, 
The vülage master taught bis Jittle scbool. 
A man severe be was, and stern to view, 
I knew bim well, and every truant knew; 
Well bad the boding tremblers learned to trace 
Tbe day^s disasters in bis morning face ; 200 

Füll well they laughed witb counterfeited glee 
At all bis jokes, for many a joke bad be; 
Füll well tbe busy whisper, circling round, 
Conveyed tbe dismal tidmgs wben be frowned : 
Yet he was kind, or if severe in aught, 
Tbe love he bore to learning was in fault; 
The village all declared bow much be knew ; 
'Twas certain be could write and cypher too ; 
Lands be could measure, terms and tides presage, 
And even tbe story ran that he could gauge. 210 

In arguing, too, the parson owned bis skil), 
For even though vanquished, he could argue still; 
White words of learned length and thundering sound 
Amazed the gazing rustics ranged around. 
And still they gazed, and still the wonder grew, 
That one small head should carry all he knew. 



J93ff. Über Thomas Byrne, dea Dorfschallehrer von Lissoy, 
welcher der folgeadeo Schilderuog ohne Zweifel zam Vorbilde gedient 
hat, vergl. Einleitung S. 41. 

194. furze — Ginster; ein stachliges, strauchartiges Gewächs mit 
gelben Blüten. 

197. to view — im Sinne von to be viewed. 

198. truant — ein Knabe, der hinter die Schale geht, ein Faulen- 
zer. Franz. troand Landstreicher. Vergl. Goldsmith <Vicar' XIV: 
'^No truant was ever more afraid of retni'oing to school, there to 
behold the master's visage, than I was of going home." 

206. to he in fault — schuld daran sein. — Die Aussprache von 
fault nit stummem 1 ist in der gebildeten Sprache jetzt veraltet, jedoch 
in Mundarten sehr gewöhnlich. 

209. terms and tides — er konnte angeben, wie die Gerichts- 
termine (Easter-term, Michaelmas-term) und die kirchlichen Zeiten 
(Whitsuntide, Shrovetide) fallen. 

210. gau^e (spr. e), aoch gage geschrieben; franz. jauger — Ge- 
fäfse vermittelst eines Aicbmafses ausmessen. 



THE DESEHTED VILLAÖB. 57 

' But past is all his fame. The very spot 
Where many a time he triumphed is forgot. 
Near yonder thorn that lifts its head on high, 
Where once the sign-post caught the passing eye, 220 

Low lies that house where nut-brown draughts inspired, 
Where grey-beard mirth and smiling toii retired, 
Where yillage statesmen talked with looks profound, 
And news much older than their ale went round. 
Imagination fondly stoops to trace 
The parlour splendours of that festive place: 
The white-washed wall, the nicely sanded floor, 
The yarnished clock that clicked behind the door ; 
Tiie ehest contrived a douhle deht to pay, 
A bed hy night, a ehest of drawers by day; 230 

The pictures placed for ornament and use, 
The twelve good rules, the royal game of goose; 

220. sign-post — d«r Pfosten gegenfiber dem Wirtshtuse, an 
dem das Schild aogebracht war. 

221. draughts — y/o Züge nufsbraunea Bieres den Trinker be- 
geisterten. 

222. mirth . . toil — das Abstraktum steht dichteriseh für das 
Konkretum (Metonymie). 

231. use — bezieht sich vermutlich darauf, dafs durch die Bilder 
schadhafte Stellen an den Wanden verdeckt wurden. 

232. the twelve good rules — Sie hiefsen: "1) Ürge no healths. 
2) Profane no divine ordinances. 3) Touch no State matters. 4) He* 
veal no secrets. 5) Pick no quarreis. 6) Make no comparisons. 7) 
Maintain no ill opinions. 8) Keep no bad Company. 9) Encourage no 
vice. 10) Make no long meals. 11) Repeat no grievances. 12) Lay 
BO wagers.'' Die Zusammenstellung dieser Regeln wurde Karl dem 
Ersten zugeschrieben. 

'^There is King Charles and all his golden rules, 
Who proved misfortune's was the best of schools." 
Crabbe *Parish Register', part 1, v. 51 u. 52. — The royal game 
of goose — ein aus Deutschland stammendes Würfelspiel, zu dem ein 
Plan gehört, auf welchem sich 62 Felder in einer Spirallinie um einen 
mit Nummer 63 bezeichneten Kreis ordnen, in welchen die Einsätze, 
kommen. Nach der Höhe der Augen, welche die Spielenden mit zwei 
Würfeln werfen, rücken sie auf den Feldern vor; auf jedem vierten 
oder fünften Felde ist eine Gans abgebildet, und wer auf ein solches 
Feld trifft, darf um die Zahl der Augen, die er geworfen hat, weiter- 
rücken. Auf andern Feldern befinden sich die Abbildungen einer 
Brücke, eines Wirtshauses, eines Brunnens, eines Gefängnisses, eines 
Grabes u. dergl., und wer auf ein solches Feld kommt, mufs etwas 
zum Einsatz zahlen, auf ein früheres Feld zurückgehen, stehen bleiben, 
bis er abgelöst wird, oder das Spiel von vorn anfangen. Wer zuerst 
auf Nummer 63 kommt, hat gewonnen. Vergl. hierzu das Gedieht von 
Göthe: „Das Leben ist ein Gänsespiei'^, Westöstlicher Divan, Buch der 
Betrachtungen. 



58 THE DESERTED VILLAGE. 

The hearth, except when winter chiUed the day, 
With aspen boughs, and flowers, and fennel gay; 
While broken tea-cups, wisely kept for show, 
Ranged o'er the cbimney, glistened in a row. 

Vain transitory splendours! could not all 
Reprieve the tottering mansion from its fall? 
Obscure it sinks, nor shall it more impart 
An hour^s importance to the poor man's heart; 240 

Thither no more the peasant shall repair 
To sweet oblivion of bis daily care; 
No more the farmer^s news, the barber's tale, 
No more the woodman's ballad shall prevail; 
No more the smith bis dusky brow shall clear, 
Relax bis ponderous strength, and lean to hear; 
The host himself no longer shall be found 
Careful to see the mantling bliss go round ; 



234. fennel — Fenchel; eine stark riechende Pflanze mit gelben 
Blüten. 

236. Wie sich aus einem im Jahre 1759 an seinen Brnder Henry 
gerichteten Briefe ergiebt, war die poetische Beschreibung der Dorf- 
schenke vom Dichter bereits froher (vor 1759) gemacht und hier mit 
einigen Änderungen dem 'Deserted Village' eingefügt worden. '^Yonr 
last letter", schreibt der Dichter, '4 repeat it, was too short; yoa 
shonld have given me your opinion of the heroi-comical poem which 
I sent yon; you remember I intended to introduce the hero of the 
poem as lying in a paltry alehonse. Yon may take the following 
specimen of the manner, which I flatter myself is qnite original. The 
room in which he lies may be described somewhat in this way: 

Tbe window, patched with paper, lent a ray, 
That feebly showed the State in which he lay. 
The sanded floor which grits beneath the tread, 
The humid wall with paltry pictures spread; 
The game of goose was there exposed to view, 
And the twelve roles the royal martyr drew; 
Tbe seasons, framed with listing, found a place, 
And Prussia's monarch showed his lamp-black face. 
The morn was cold; he views with keen desire 
A rosty grate unconscious ot a fire; 
An unpaid reckoning on the frieze was scored. 
And five cracked tea-cnps dressed the chimney-board. 
All this is taken, yon see, from nature. ft is a good remark of 
Montaigne's, that the wisest men often have friends with whom they 
do not care how mnch they piay the fool. Take my present follies 
as instances of regard." 

237. splendours — weist auf "the parlour splendours'' 226 zurück. 
248. mantling: bliss — die schäumende Wonne, d. i. das schau- 

mende Bier, welches das Gefühl der Wonne hervorruft; bliss, Wir- 



THE DESERTED VILLAQE. 59 

Nor the coy maid, half willing to be pressed, 

Shall kiss the cup to pass it to the rest. 250 

Yes! let the riph deride, the proud disdain, 
These simple blessings of the lowly train ; 
To me more dear, congenial to my heart, 
One native charm, than all the gloss of art; 
Spontaneous joys, where nature has its play, 
The soul adopts, and owns their first-bom sway; 
Lightly they frolic o'er the vacant mind, 
Unenyled, unmolested, unconfined. 
But the long pomp, the midnight masquerade, 
With all the freaks of wanton wealth arrayed, 260 

In these, ere triflers half their wish obtain, 
The toiling pleasure sickens into pain ; 
And, even while fashion^s brightest arts decoy, 
The heart distrusting asks, if this be joy. 

Ye friends to truth, ye statesmen who survey 
The rieh man's Joys increase, the poor's decay, 
'Tis yoiu*s to judge, how wide the limits stand 



kang für Ursache (Metonymie) ; mantling, weil der Schaam das Getränk 
wie mit einem Mantel bedeckt. Vergl. 132. 

249. Die scbüchterne Magd will erst etwas genötigt sein, obwohl 
sie nicht abgeneigt ist, das Getränk zn kosten. 

252. trmn — Lente, Volk. Ein in dieser allgemeinen Bedentang 
wiederholt gebrauchtes Wort. Vergl. 17. 149. 320. 337. 

254. Ronstr. : „One native charm is more dear to me, more con- 
genial to my heart than . ."; native, im Gegensatze zu art, steht im 
Sinne von natural. 

256. Die Seele giebt den Freuden den Vorzug, die von selbst 
ohne den künstlichen Zwang der Gesellschaft entstehen, und bei denen 
die Natur ihr freies Spiel hat. Alle anderen Freuden kommen] erst 
nach ihnen in Betracht. 

257. Vergl. 122.f|[ 

259 ff. Die Substantive stehen nachdrucksvoll an der Spitze des 
Satzes und werden durch in these wieder aufgenommen. — pomp 
steht hier in der ursprünglichen Bedeutung von "a procession of splen- 
dour and ostentatioo." Vergl. 66 u. 317. 

260. freak — plötzlicher Einfall, Laune. Ein in der Schrift- 
sprache nicht sehr altes Substantiv, das mit dem deutschen Adjektiv 
„frech'* stammverwandt zu sein scheint. 

262. Noch ehe die Freunde von Lustbarkeiten (triflers) ihren 
Wunsch zur Hälfte erfüllt sehen , bringt ihnen' das Vergnügen infolge 
der Anstrengungen, denen sie sich dabei aussetzen, Krankheit und 
Schmerz. 



60 THE DESERTED VILLAGE. 

Between a splendid and a happy land. 

Proud swells the tide with loads of freighted ore, 

And shouting Folly hails them from her shore ; 270 

Boards even beyond the miser's wish abound, 

And rieh men flock from all the world around. 

Yet count our gains. This wealth is but a name 

That ieaves our useful products still the same. 

Not so the loss. The man of wealth and pride 

Takes up a space that many poor supplied ; 

Space for bis lake, bis park's extended bounds, 

Space for bis horses, equipage, and bounds; 

The rohe that wraps bis limbs in silken slotb 

Has robbed the neighbouring fields of half their growtb ; 280 

His seat, where solitary sports are seen, 

Indignant spurns the cottage from the green; 

Aröund the world each needful product flies, 

For all the luxuries the world supplies : 

While thus the land adorned for pleasure all 

In harren splendour feebly waits the fall. 

As some fair female, unadorned and piain, 
Secure to please while youth confirms her reign, 
Sligbts every borrowed charm that dress supplies, 
Nor shares with art the triumph of her eyes; 290 

But when those charms are past, for charms are frail, 
Wben time advances, and when lovers fall, 



268. '^Too mach commerce may iojare a ottion as well as too 
little; and there is a wide difference between a conqneringp and a 
flourishing empire." 'Citizen of the World^ letter 25. 

269. loaas of freighted ore — pleooastisch für loads of ore oder 
ships freighted with ore. Über ore vergi. Traveller' 398. 

270. FoUy — das personificierte Abstraktum steht anstatt des 
Konkretams. 

279. Das dem Sinne nach zu rohe gehörige Attribut silken ist 
mit dichterischer Freiheit mit sloth verbanden. 

280. Das prächtige seidene Gewand kostete so viel wie die HSlfte 
der benachbarten Felder einbrachte. 

282. indignant — das Adverb hat adjektivische Form. Vergl. 323. 
'Traveller' 89. 

284. Alle nützlichen Erzeugnisse des Landes werden ins Aoaland 
geführt, um dafür alle Luxusgegenstände der Welt einzataaschen und 
den Reichen zukommen zu lassen. 

290. Die Schönheit der Augen sichert ihr allein schon den Triumph 
über ihre Verehrer, so dafs sie die Anwendung künstlicher Mittel nicht 
nötig hat. 



THE DESBRTED VILLAGE. 61 

She then shines forth, soHcitous to bless, 

In all the glaring impotence of dress. 

Thus fares the land by luxury betrayed: 

In nature's simplest charms at first arrayed, 

But verging to decline, its splendours rise, 

Its vistas strike, its palaces surprise; 

While, scourged by famine from the smiiing land, 

The mournful peasant leads his humble band ; 300 

And while he sinks without one arm to save, 

The countrj blooms — a garden and a grave. 

Where then, ah ! where shall poverty reside, 
To 'scape the pressure of contiguous pride? 
If to some common's fenceless limits strayed. 
He drives his flock to pick the scanty blade, 
Those fenceless fields the sons of wealth divide, 
And even the bare-wom common is denied. 

If to the city sped — What waits him thcre? 
To See profusion that he must not share; 310 

To see ten thoüsand baneful arts combined 
To pamper luxury, and thin mankind; 
To see those joys the sons of pleasure know 
Extorted from his fellow-creature*s woe. 
Hcre, while the courtier glitters in brocade. 



293. solicüous to Hess — steht im Gegensatz zu secore to please 
288. Während sie früher sicher war, dafs sie gefiel, so ist sie jetzt 
ängstlich bemüht zu beglücken. 

301. to save — ohne einen Arm, der ihm zn Hülfe käme. Attri- 
butiver Infinitiv. 

302. Für die Reichen ist das Land ein Garten, für die Armen 
ein Grab. 

304. Der Druck des angrenzendes Stolzes, d. i. die sich immer 
weiter ausdehnenden stolzen Nachbarn. Ähnlich 'Vicar XIX': The 
mortification of contigaons tyranny. — to *seape — Ausfall eines 
Buchstabens am Anfang des Wortes (Aphäresis). 

305. strayed — das appositive Partizip des Perfekts bezieht sich 
auf das v. 306 nachfolgende Subjekt he, d. i. auf das aus dem Ab- 
straktum poverty v. 303 zu entnehmende konkrete Substantiv „der 
Arme." 

308. the hare-wom common — die vollständig abgenutzte Ge- 
meindeweide; bare-worn ist eine Neubildung des Dichters. 

315. here — ist emphatisch vorangestellt; brocade — Brokat, ein 
mit Gold oder Silber durchwirkter Seidenstofl; Ein mit broach durch- 
bohren stammverwandtes Wort, das ans dem Romanischen später ins 
Englische überging. Ital. broccato; franz. brocart. 



62 THS DESERTED VILLAGE. 

There the pale artist plies tbe sickly trade; 

Here, while the proud their long-drawn pomps display, 

There the black gibbet glooms beside the way. 

The dorne where Pleasure holds her midnight reign, 

Here, richly decked, admits the gorgeous train ; 320 

Tumultuous grandeur crowds the blazing Square, 

The rattling chariots clash, the torches glare. 

Sure scenes like these no troubles e'er annoy 1 

Sure these denote one universal joy I 

Are these thy serious thoughts? Ah ! turn thine eyes 

Where the poor houseless shivering female lies. 

She once, perhaps, in village plenty blessed, 

Has wept at tales of innocence distressed ; 

Her modest looks the cottage might adorn, 

Sweet as the primrose peeps beneath the thorn ; 330 

Now lost to all; her friends, her virtue fled, 

Near her betrayer's door she lays her head, 

And pinched with cold, and shrinking from the shower, 

With heavy heart deplores that luckless hour, 

When idly first, ambitious ot the town, 

She left her wheel and rohes of country brown. 

Do thine, sweet Auburn^ thine, the loveliest train, 
Do thy fair tribes participate her paia? 
Even now, perhaps, by cold and hunger led, 
At proud men's doors they ask a little bread ! 340 

Ah, no. To distant climes, a dreary scene, 
Where half the convex world intrudes between, 



316. orHst — wird von älteren Sehriftstellern in der Bedeutung 
von artisan gebrancbt. 

320. train — vergl. die zu 252 angeführten Stellen. 

322. the rattling chariots clash — onomatopoetische Ausdrucks weise. 

323. sure — adjektivische Form anstatt der adverbialen surely. 
Vgl. 282. »Traveller' 89. 

326. "These poor shivering females have once seen happier days, 
and been flattered into beauty." 'Citizen of the World', letter 117. 

330. Elliptisch für 4ooks which are as sweet as is the primrose 
which peeps beneath tbe thorn.' 

336. Von dem Verlangen getrieben, die Zerstreuungen der grofsen 
Stadt kennen zu lernen, verliefs sie gedankenlos (idly) ihr Spinnrad 
und ihre ländliche Kleidung. 

337 ff. Die Apostrophe an das Dorf Auburn bildet den, Übergang 
zu den Betrachtungen über die Auswanderung 341 ff. — (Jber train 
vergl. 252; thy fair tribes poet. «=? ,,dein schönes Geschlecht.** 



THE DESERTED VILLAGE. 63 

Through torrid tracts with fainting steps they go, 

Where wild Altama murmurs lo their woe. 

Far different there from all that charmed before, 

The various terrors of that horrid shore ; 

Those blazing suns that dart a downward ray, 

And fiercely shed intolerable day; 

Those matted woods where birds forget to sing, 

But silent bats in drowsy Clusters cling; 350 

Those poisonous. fields with rank luxuriance crowned, 

Where the dark scorpion gathers death around ; 

Where at eaeh step the stranger fears to wake 

The rattling terrors of the vengeful snake ; 

Where crouching tigers wait their hapless prey, 

And savage men more murderous stiÜ than they; 

While oft in whirls the mad tornado flies, 

Mingling the ravaged landscape with the skies. 

Far difl'erent these from every former scene, 

The cooling brook, the grassy-vested green, 360 



344. Altama -^ eigentlich Altamaha oder Alatamaha, Flnfs in 
Georgien, im Südosten der Vereinigten Staaten, der durch die Ver- 
einigung des Oconee und des Ocmulgee gebildet wird und sich in den 
atlantischen Ocean ergiefst. Lord Carlisle bemerkt mit Bezug auf diese 
Stelle : 'I remember no English poet, except; indeed, it be Milton, who 
made more harmonious use of proper names in hia verses. I remember 
consoling myself with that couplet for a whole day while I was becalmed 
off the mouth of the Altama/ 

345. 346. Elliptischer Hauptsatz. Es ist die Kopula are zu er- 
gänzen. Vergl. 359. 

347. 3481 Die senkrecht (downward) niederfallenden Sonnen- 
strahlen verbreiten eine so drückende Hitze, dafs sie die Tageszeit 
unerträglich machen. 

349. forget to sing — infolge der grofsen Hitze. 

351. those poisonous fields — das Klima von Georgia ist in dem 
niedrig gelegenen Teile ungesund und heils, der höher liegende Teil 
ist gesunder, aber europäische Auswanderer würden nur im nordwest- 
lichen Gebirgsgebiete vor schädlichen klimatischen Einflüssen sicher 
sein, wo die Sommer weniger schwül und die Winter mild sind. 
(Ritter.) 

352. -gathers death — sammelt tödliches Gift aus schädlichen 
Pflanzen. 

355. Der Dichter , befindet sich entweder im Irrtum oder erlaubt 
sich eine poetische Übertreibung. Der Tiger kommt in Amerika 
nicht vor. 

357. tornado — Windsbraut. Wegen der Heftigkeit, mit der die 
Wirbelwinde in heifsen Ländern auftreten, giebt ihr der Dichter das 
Beiwort mad. 

359. Elliptisch für far different are these. Vergl. 345. 



64 THE DESERTED VILLAGE. 

The breezy covert of the warbling grove, 
Tbat only sheltered thefts of harmless love. 

Good Heaven! what sorrows gloomed that parting day, 
That called them from their native walks away; 
When the poor exiles, every pleasure past, 
Hung round the bowers, and fondly looked their last, 
And took a long farewell, and wished in vain 
For seats like these beyond the western main; 
And shuddering still to face the distant deep, 
Returned and wept, and still returned to weep. 370 

The good old sire the first prepared to go 
To new-found worlds, and wept for others' woe; 
But for himself, in conscious virtue brave, 
He only wished for worlds beyond the grave. 
His lovely daughter, lovelier in her tears, 
The fond companion ot his helpless years, 
Silent went next, neglectful of her charms, 
And left a lover's for a father's arms. 
With louder piain ts the mother spoke her woes, 
And blest the cot where every pleasure rose, 380 

And kissed her thoughtless babes with many a tear, 
And clasped them close, in sorrow doubly dear; 
Whilst her fond husband strove to lend relief 
In all the silent manliness of grief. 

luxury! thou cursed by Heaven's decree, 
How ill exchanged are things like these for thee ! 



361. the warhUng grove — das Beiwort ist voo den Vögeln im Haine 
tof den Hain selbst übertragen. Vern^l. 'the finoy deep' Tarveller 187. 

366. Zu last ist ein aas dem Verb looked zo entnehmender Sab- 
stantivbegriff (lock) za ergänzen. 

367. Das Substantiv farewell hat io der Prosa jetzt den Ton auf 
der ersten Silbe. 

871. Hre — vergl. 'Traveller' 229. 

373. in conscious virtue brave — d. i. er war ohne Furcht, da er 
sich eioes tugeodhafteo Lebens bewafst war. 

378. Sie liefs ihren Liebhaber in der Heimat zurück, um ihren 
Vater in die Fremde zu begleiten. 

384. silent ist logisch mit grief zu verbinden. Der Kummer des 
Mannes war nicht minder grofs, aber im Gegensatz zu dem der Frau 
still, wie es dem Charakter des Mannes geziemt 

386. these — bezieht sich oicht auf vorher bestimmt aogefiihrte 
Dinge, sondern ganz allgemein auf den im Gedicht behandelten Gegen- 
stand, das Glück und die unschuldigen Freuden des Landlebens. 



THE DE8EETED VILLAGE* 65 

How do thy potions, with insidious joy, 

Diffuse their pleasures only to destroy! 

Kingdoms, by thee to sickly greatness grown, 

Boast of a florid vigour not their own. 390 

At every draught more large and large they grow, 

A bloated mass of rank unwieldy woe ; 

Till, sapped their strength, and every part unsound, 

Down, down they sink, and spread a ruin round. 

Even now the devastation is begun. 
And half the business of destruction done; 
Even now, methinks, as pondering here I stand, 
I see the rural virtues leave the land. 
Down where yon anchoring vessel spreads the saii 
That idly waiting flaps with every gale, 40o 

Downward they move, a melancholy band, 
Pass from the shore, and darken all the Strand. 
Contented toil, and hospitable care, 
And kind connubial tenderness, are there; 
And piety with wishes placed above. 
And steady loyalty, and faithful love. 
And thou, sweet Poetry, thou loveliest maid, 
Still first to fly where sensual joys invade; 
Unfit, in these degenerate tiuies of shame, 
To catch the heart, or strike for honest fame; 410 

Dear charming nymph, neglected and decried, 
My shame in crowds, my solitary pride; 
Thou source of all my bliss, and all my woe, 
That found'st me poor at tirst, and keep'st me so; 



389. Reiche, welche durch den Luxus unnatürlich stark geworden 
sind, rühmen sich einer blühenden Gesundheit, die sie in Wirklichkeit 
nicht haben. 

394. Nachdem der Luxus die Lebenskraft der Reiche untergraben 
hat, gehen sie zu Grunde. Vergl. 'Traveller' 144. 

402. shwe — the border of the land, or extremity where the 
land is broken off*; das abgerissene, steile Ufer; der Boden oberiialbc 
des Strandes; Strand — der unmittelbar am Meere gelegene, vom Wasser 
bespülte sandige Streifen Landes. 

405. wishes placed above — Wünsche, die auf das Himmlische 
gerichtet sind. 

410. to strike for — kämpfen um. 

412. my solitary pride — mein Stolz in der Einsamkeit. Der 
Dichter schämt sich seiner Kunst, da das Volk dem bemfsmäfsigea 
Goldsmith. 5 



66 THE DESBRTED VltLAQE. 

Thou guide, by which the nobler arts excel, 

Thou nurse of every virtue^ fare thee well ! 

Farewell, and oh ! where'er thy voice be tried, 

On Torno's cliffs, or Pambamarca's side, 

Whether where equinoctial fervours glow, 

Or Winter wraps the polar world in snow, 420 

Still let thy voice, prevaüing over time, 

Redress the rigours of the inclement clime; 

Aid siighted truth with thy persuasive strain ; 

Teach erring man to spurn the rage of gam; 

Teach him that states of native strength possessed, 

Though very poor, may still be very West ; 

That trade^s proud empire hastes to swift decay, 

As ocean sweeps the laboured mole away; 

While self-dependent power can time defy, 

As rocks resist the billows and the sky. 430 



Poeten nicht die gebührende Anerkennung zollt and das Dichten mehr 
Vergnügen als Gewinn bringt. 

415. nobler — steht nicht im Gegensatz zu poetry, sondern zu den 
handwerksmäfsig betriebenen Künsten. Erst durch die Poesie werden 
die edieren Künste wie Baoknnst, Malerei, Mosik zur Vollendang ge- 
bracht. 

417. be irieä — wo du immer deine Stimme ertSnen lassen mögest. 

418. Tomo — eigentlich Torneä, Flofs in Schweden, der sidh in 
den bottnischen Meerbusen ergiefst, und dessen unterer Lauf die Grenze 
zwischen Schweden und Rufsland bildet. Bei dem Eisenwerke Kengis, 
wo er zwei 40' hohe Wasserfälle bildet, sind die Ufer beträchtlich steil. 
Goldsmith erhielt Kenntnis von der Gegend durch die Reise des fran- 
zösischen Mathematikers Maupertnis, der 1736 nach Lappland reiste, 
um dort den Bogen des Meridians zu messen. — Pambamarca — eine 
13 500' hohe Bergspitze in den Kordilleren von Quito. Goldsmith 
schöpfte seine Kenntnis jenes Landes aus dem Reiseberichte eines 
spanischen Mathematikers, Don Antonio UUoa, der 1735 eine zu wissen- 
schaftlichen Zwecken nach Peru abgesandte französische Expedition 
begleitete. 

419. equinodial — im Sinne von equatorial gebraucht. 

430. Die letzten 4 Verse sind von Johnsou hinzugefügt worden. 
'Dr. Johnson favoured me, at the same time, by marking the lines 
which he furnished to Goldsmith's Deserted Village, whieh are only 
the last four.' Boswell's Life of Johnson. 



Ö7 

Anhang. 

Varianten des Textes. 
1. The Traveller. 

17. JVith simple plenty crotvned — erste Aasgabe, geändert in der 
sechsten: where mirth and peace abonnd. 

^5. extendmg — 1: extended. 

38 ff. Die erste Ausgabe hat: 

Amidst the störe 'twere thankless to repine. 
'Twere affectation all, and school-tanght pride, 
To spnm the splendid things by heaven sapply'd. 

58. hoard — 1 : sum. 

63. htU ^ U yet. 

66. Boldly asserts that country for his own (1^ geändert in 2). 

68. his long nigkts — 1: live-long nights (geändert in 2). 

69. negro — 4: sayage. 

73. such IS — 1: nor less (geändert in 6). 
75 ff. Erste Ausgabe, geändert in der zweiten : 

And yet, perbaps, if states with states we scan, 
Or estimate their bliss on Reason's plan, 
Though patriots flatter, and though fools contend, 
We still shali find nncertainty snspend, 
Find that each good, by Art or Natnre given 
To these or those, bot makes the balance even: 
Find tbat the bliss of all is mach the same, 
And patriotic boasting reason's shame. 
83 n. 84 fehlen in der 1. Ausgabe, sind hinzugefügt in 2. 
85. And though rough rooks er gloomy snmmits frown (1, geändert in 2). 
88. commerce — 1: splendoars (geändert in 2). 
91 u. 92 fehlen in 1, hinzugefügt in 6. 
99. try — 1: view (geändert in 2). 
107. Its uplands — 1: her uplands (geändert in 6). 
109. tops — 1: top (geändert in 6). 
126. man seevns — 1: men seem (geändert in 6). 
139. 140. But, more ansteady than the soutiiern gale, 

Soon commerce turn'd on other shores her sail. 
(Erste Ausgabe, geändert in 6.) 
141. 142 fehlen in 1. 
143. 144 fehlen in 4. 
145 ff. lauten in der I.Ausgabe: 

Yet, thoogh to fortune lost, here still abide 
Some splendid arts, the wrecks of former pride; 
From which the feeble heart . . . 
Auf 154 folgt in 1 : 

At Sports like these, while foreign arms advance, 
In passive ease they leave the world to chance. 
Anstatt 155 u. 156 steht in 1: 

When struggling Virtue sinks by long controul, 
She leaves at last, or feebly mans tbe soal; 
in 4: When noble aims have suffer'd long cootroui, 
They sink at last, or feebly man the soul. 
161. There in the ruin — 1: amidst the ruin (geändert in 6). 
173. sues — 1: sooths (geändert in 6). 
201 u. 202 fehlen in 1, stehen in 2. 
205. child — 1: babe (geändert in 6). 
209. such — 1: these (geändert in 6). 



68 

213. JoT — 1: sioce (geäodert in 6). 

215. whence — 1: hence (geändert in 6). 

222. Not qaench'd by waat, oor fton'd by strong desire (1, geändert in 6). 

240. / tum — 1 : We turn (geändert in 6). 

288. to grow — 1 : to go (geändert in 6). 

289 n. 290 fehlen in 1, hinzugefügt in 2. 

291. fFhile ocean pent and — 1 : While the pent oceAn (geändert in 2). 

299. bosom reign — 1: breast obtain ^geändert in 2). 

312. that slumber in — 1: that sleep beneath (geändert in 6). 
318. courts — 1: broods (geändert in 2). 

325 — 328 lauten in der 1. Ausgabe: 

Stern o'er each bosom reason holds her State. 

With daring aims, irregnlarly great, 

I see the lords of human kind pass by, 

Pride in their port, defiance in their eye. 
331. their native — 1; a native (geändert in 2). 

341 u. 342 fehlen in der 1. Ausgabe. 

342 lautet in der 4. Ausgabe: 

All kindred Claims that soften life unknown. ^ 

343 lautet in der 1. Ausgabe: 

See, thongh by circling deeps together he Id. 
347. 348 lauten in 1, geändert in 6: 

Whilst over-wrought, the general system feels 

Its motion stopt, or phrenzy fires the wheels. 
349. nature^s ties — 1: social bonds (geändert in 6). 
356. the land .,^thß nurse — 1: that land ... that nurse (geändert in 6). 
358. And monarchs toil, and poets pant for fame (1, geändert in 6). 
Auf 362 folgen in der 1. Ausgabe : 

Perish the wish; for, inly satisfy'd, 

Above their pomps 1 hold my ragged pride. 
Dagegen fehlen 363 bis 380. 
Hinter 374 hat die 4. Ausgabe: 

Much on the low, the rest, as rank supplies, 

Should in columnar diminution rise; 

While, should one order ... 
416. marks with murderotu aim — 1 : takes a deadly aim (geändert in 6), 

2. The Deserted Village. 
67. opulence — 1. 2: luxury. 
Auf 80 folgen in 1.2: 

Here, as with doubtful, pensive Steps I ränge, 
Trace every scene, and wonder at the change, 
Remembrance . . . 
87 u. 88 lauten in 1. 2: 

My anxious day to husband near the close. 
And keep life's flame from wasting by repose. 
99. how happy he — 1. 2: how blest is he. 
109. bends — 1.2: sinks. 
128. for all — 1. 2: but all. 
145. unpractüed — 1.2: unskilful. 
148. skiUed — 1. 2: beot. 

313. those joys — 1. 2: each joy. 

378. a fathefs arms — 1. 2: her father's arms. 
384. silent — 1. 2: decent. 



Drook Ton W. Pormetter itt Berlin C, Neue OranstrafM 30. 



THE 

VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

A TALE 

BT 

OLIVER GOLDSMITH. 



EEKLÄRT 



VON 



Prof. Dr. THEODOR WOIFF, 

OBERLEHRER AN DER LÜI5EKSTÄDTISCHBN 06ERREALSCHX7LE 
ZU BERLIN. 



ZWEITE AUFLAGE. 



BERLIN. 

WBIDMANNSOHB BUCHHANDLUNG. 
1890. 



Vorwort. 



Von den zu Lebzeiten Goldsmiths erschienenen ffinf Aus- 
gaben des Vicar of Wakefield enthält nur die zweite Änderungen 
und zwar überwiegend Kürzungen des Textes. Die fünfte vom 
Jahre 1773, deren Text der folgenden Bearbeitung zu Grunde 
gelegt ist, unterscheidet sich von der zweiten nur durch Ab- 
weichungen in der Orthographie und Interpunktion, und in 
wenigen Fällen auch in der grammatischen Form und im sprach- 
lichen Ausdruck. Die vorliegende, für den Schulgebrauch be- 
stimmte Ausgabe giebt diesen Text nach Ausscheidung der- 
jenigen Stellen , welche aus pädagogischen Gründen unzulässig 
erschienen, und mit Änderung der veralteten oder jetzt nur 
selten angewandten Schreibweise einzelner Wörter, so wie der 
Interpunktion nach dem in der gegenwärtigen Schriftsprache 
herrschenden Gebrauch. Für die zur Schullektüre nicht wohl 
geeigneten Kapitel 7 bis 9, 16 bis 19 und einen Teil von Kap. 21, 
deren Auslassung ohne Unterbrechung des Zusammenhangs 
unstatthaft war, ist eine im Wortlaut sich möglichst eng an den 
Text anschliefsende Inhaltsangabe eingefügt worden. 

In den Anmerkungen sind die ^auf die Zeit-, Kultur- und 
Litteraturgeschichte bezüglichen Sacherklärungen, so wie Sinn- 
und Worterklärungen überall da gegeben, wo für das Verständ- 
nis einer Stelle die sprachlichen Kenntnisse der Schüler und die 
gewöhnlich gebrauchten Schulwörterbücher nicht ausreichen 
dürften. Die Aussprache ist im Texte unter Anwendung des 
Gravis ' für Wortaccent und Länge des Vokals, des Acuts ' für 
Wortaccent und Kürze des Vokals und der Quantitätszeichen - 
und ^ für Länge und Kürze ohne Rücksicht auf den Wortton 
bei denjenigen Wörtern, bei denen Schüler anzustofsen pflegen, 
angegeben worden. 



In der vorliegenden zweiten Auflage haben erhebliche Ände- 
rungen des Textes nicht stattgefunden. Dagegen sind die An- 
merkungen nach den Erfahrungen, welche der Herausgeber beim 
Gebrauch des Buches im Unterricht gemacht hat, und unter Ver- 
wertung der neuesten einschlägigen Litteratur teils vervoll- 
ständigt, teils in veränderter Fassung gegeben worden. 

Die übrigen Schriften Goldsmiths und die Litteratur seiner 
Zeit sind berücksichtigt und aufser den wichtigsten Gram- 
matiken, Wörterbüchern, Encyklopädieen und Litteraturge- 
schichtswerken folgende Ausgaben und Biographieen benutzt 
oder zu Rate gezogen worden : The Vicar of Wakefield. Erste 
Ausgabe. Salisbury. PrintedbyB.Collins. ForF.NewberyinPater- 
Noster-Row, London 1766, 2 vols. — Zweite Ausgabe. London. 
Printed for F. Newbery, in Pater-Noster-Row 1766. 2 vols. — 
5. Ausgabe. London. Printed for T. Carnan and F. Newbery, 
jun. at Number 65, in St. Paul's Church-Yard 1773. — 6. Aus- 
gabe. London. Printed for T. Carnan and F. Newbery, jun. at 
Number 65, in St. Paul's Church-Yard 1779; — die Ausgaben 
von Ebers 4. Aufl. 1816, W. Scott 1821, Winterling 1833, Pit- 
man 1848, Plessner 15. Aufl. 1868, Schaub 19. Aufl. 1873, 
Sankey 1876, Wilke 1878, The Globe Edition 1878, Bendan 
1880, Dobsoa 1886, Waller (o. J.), Laurie (o. J.), Sporschil 
(oJJ.), the Chandos Classics (o.J.); die Biographieen von Mitford 
1831, Prior 1837, W. Irving 1844, Forster 1854, Spalding 1858, 
Thackeray 1858, Macaulay 1862, Roquette 1866, Masson 1878- 

Herrn Professor Dr. Lücking bin ich für Rat und Unter- 
stützung zu herzlichem Danke verpflichtet. 

Berlin, im Juni 1890. 

Th. Wolff. 



Einleitung. 



Oliyer Goldsmith wurde zu Pallas oder Pallasmore, einem 
kleinen, im Süden der Grafschaft Longford am Flusse Inny ge- 
legenen Dorfe Irlands, am 10. November 1728 geboren. Sein 
Vater, Charles Goldsmith, war zur Zeit der Geburt Olivers pro- 
testantischer Geistlicher des Dorfes mit einem jährlichen Ein- 
kommen von vierzig Pfund. Im Jahre 1730 rückte er in die 
Stelle des Oheims seiner Frau als Rektor der Pfarrei von Kil- 
kenny West in der Grafschaft West Meath und bezog das Pfarr- 
haus des Dorfes Lissoy. Bier verlebte Oliver seine Jugend, er- 
hielt den ersten Unterricht im elterlichen Bause von einer Ver- 
wandten, besuchte vom sechsten bis zum achten Jahre die Dorf- 
schule, welche von einem alten Soldaten, Thomas Byrne, der an 
den Kriegen der Königin Anna teilgenommen hatte, gehalten 
wurde, und darauf drei höhere Schulen in benachbarten Städten. 
Am 11. Juni 1744 trat er, um Theologie zu studieren, in das 
Dreifaltigkeitscollege der Universität Dublin als sizar ein. Die 
sizars erhielten Wohnung, Kost und Unterricht im^ntgeltlich, 
hatten jedoch vielfach Zurücksetzung zu erdulden. Sie trugen 
besondere Kleidung, die aus schwarzem, talarartigem Gewand 
ohne Ärmel von grobem Stoff bestand, mufsten den Hof fegen, 
die Speisen in das Speisezimmer tragen, afsen später als die 
übrigen Studenten und hatten in der Kirche einen abgesonderten 
Platz. Diese verachtete Stellung wurde für Goldsmith dadurch 
noch unerträglicher, dafs er wegen seines häfslichen, von Pocken- 
narben entstellten Gesichts, seiner kleinen, untersetzten, schlecht 
gebauten Gestalt, seines unbeholfenen Benehmens und seiner 
empfindlichen, trotzigen Natur häufig die Zielscheibe des Spottes 
seiner Studiengenossen war und von dem ihm vorgesetzten 
Lehrer> Rev. Wilder, einem Mann von heftiger Gemütsart und 
rauhem, unfreundlichem Wesen, aufs schonungsloseste be- 
handelt wurde. Nach 4^ Jahren leid vollen, wiewohl erfahrungs- 
reichen Studentenlebens erwarb er am 27. Februar 1749 den 
Grad eines Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Arts) und kehrte sodann 



in die Heimat zurück. Der Vater war gestorben, und die Familie 
befand sich iu ziemlich dürftigen Verhältnissen. Ein wohlhaben- 
der Oheim, der Geistliche Thomas Contarine, ein Mann von 
edlem Charakter, nahm sich derselben an und veranlafste den 
NeifeD, welcher drei Jahre lang in sorgloser Mufse im elter- 
lichen Hause zugebracht hatte (1749 — 52), sich beim Bischof 
von Elphin um die Ordination als Geistlicher zu bewerbeu. Er 
wurde zurückgewiesen, weil er dadurch Anstofs gegeben haben 
soll, dafs er sich dem Bischof in unpassender Kleidung vorge- 
stellt hatte. Er übernahm nunmehr eine Hauslehrerstelle in 
einer irischen Famihe und begab sich alsdann mit Unterstützung 
seines Onkels Contarine zunächst nach Dublin, um die Rechte, 
und kurze Zeit darauf nach Edinburgh, um Medizin zu studieren. 
Hier blieb er 18 Monate (1752—54). Nach Ablauf derselben 
schiffte er sich nach dem Festlande ein, um seine medizinischen 
Studien auf der Universität Leiden in Holland fortzusetzen, auf 
welcher damals der berühmte Professor Albinus lehrte. In 
Leiden verweilte er etwa ein Jahr. Mit der Absicht, die Welt 
kennen zu lernen, verliefs er im Februar 1 755 diese Stadt, und 
nun begann für Goldsmith ein unruhiges, sorgenvolles Wander- 
leben. Ohne Geld und Empfehlungen zog er zu Fufs durch 
Flandern, Brabant, Frankreich, die Schweiz und Italien, lebte 
von der Gastfreundschaft der Universitäten, der Mönche in den 
Klöstern und der Bauern in den Dörfern, schlief in Scheunen 
und bettelte sich singend und Flöte spielend durch das Land. In 
Belgien besuchte er Antwerpen, Löwen und Brüssel, besichtigte 
die grofsen Sandsteinbrüche des Petersberges bei Mastricht, in 
Frankreich hielt er sich kurze Zeit in Ronen und Paris auf, kam 
im Winter nach Schafl'hausen, bewunderte am Rheinfall „des 
Wassers gefrorene Säulen'^ und zog über Basel und Bern nach 
Genf. In Italien verweilte er in Florenz, Mailand, Verona, Man- 
tua und Padua und soll in letzter Stadt den Doktorgrad erworben 
haben. Wahrscheinhch liegt der Erzählung von den Wanderungen 
des Georg Primrose im 20. Kapitel des Vicar of Wakefield des 
Dichters eigene Reise zu Grunde. Am 1. Februar 1756, 28 Jahre 
alt, landete er in Dover; 14 Tage später erschien er in den „ein- 
samen, schrecklichen'* Strafsen von London, arm an Geld, aber 
reich an Erfahrung, an Länder- und Menschenkenntnis. Sein 
Onkel Contarine war gestorben. Die Briefe, die er an seine Fa- 
milie richtete, blieben unbeantwortet. So war er denn auf sich 
angewiesen, und da er bisher zwar vielerlei versucht, jedoch ver- 
absäumt hatte, sich für einen bestimmten Beruf auszubilden, so 
trieb ihn der Kampf ums Dasein nun von einer Beschäftigung 



7 

zur andern. Eine Zeit lang war er Gehulfe in dem Geschäft 
eines Apothekers, versuchte es alsdann, jedoch ohne Glück, mit 
der ärztlichen Praxis , war darauf vorübergehend Korrektor in 
der Buchdruckerei des berühmten Romanschriftstellers Samuel 
Richardson und sodann Unterlehrer {usher) an Dr. Milners la- 
teinischer Schule in Peckham. Hier machte er die Bekannt- 
schaft des Buchhändlers Griffiths, der eben eine monatlich er- 
scheinende Zeitschrift 'the Monthly Review' herausgab, und ging 
auf das Anerbieten ein, für dieselbe gegen Wohnung, Kost und 
Bezahlung Beiträge zu liefern. Doch schon nach fünf Monaten 
verliefs er infolge eines Streites Griffiths' Haus, vertrat eine 
Zeit lang den erkrankten Vorsteher der Knabenschule in Peck- 
ham, an der er vorher gewesen war, und bewarb sich um die 
Stelle eines Hospitalarztes, fiel jedoch in dem Examen, dem er 
sich deshalb zu unterziehen hatte, am 21. Dezember 1758 durch. 
Mit dem Eintritt in Griffiths' Haus beginnt Goldsmiths 
schriftstellerische Thätigkeit. Aufser einer grofsen Anzahl von 
Aufsätzen, die er für verschiedene litterarische Zeitschriften 
schrieb, und die sich in einer später herausgegebenen Samm- 
lung von Essays zum Teil wiederfinden, veröffentlichte er 1759 
anonym eine Abhandlung über die Beschaffenheit der Litteratur 
in den wichtigsten Ländern Europas zur Zeit des Dichters, an 
Inquiry into the Present State of Polite Leaming in Europe, und 
the Chinese Letters, später unter dem Titel the Citizen ofthe World 
herausgegeben, in denen ein in England reisender Chinese über 
politische und gesellschaftliche Verhältnisse der Zeit Betrach- 
tungen anstellt, die Verderbnis der Sitten, die Unnatur der Klei- 
dung, die übermäfsige Strenge der Gesetze geifselt und ge- 
legentliche Vorkommnisse auf humoristische Weise bespricht. 
Im Jahre 1762 verlegte Goldsmith seinen Wohnsitz nach Isling- 
ton, einer damals „hübschen, säubern, meist aus Stein gebauten 
\ Stadt mit einer Kirche und Glocken*' in der Nähe von London. 
Die Bekanntschaft mit Joshua Reynolds, dem gröfsten Maler 
Englands im vorigen Jahrhundert und Begründer der englischen 
Malerschule, welche in diese Zeit fällt, war für ihn von hoher 
Bedeutung. Durch ihn wurde er in den Klub der Neun, eine 
von Reynolds gegründete litterarische Gesellschaft, eingeführt, 
der lange Zeit der Sammelplatz der berühmten Dichter, Gelehrten 
und Künstler Londons war. Hier trat er in Verkehr mit dem 
auf die Litteratur Englands einen gewaltigen Einflufs ausüben- 
den Lexikographen Samuel Johnson, dem grofsen Redner und 
Staatsmann Edmuud Burke, dem Litterarhistoriker Hawkins, 
dem grofsen Schauspieler David Garrick, dem Biographen Bos- 



well, dem Balladensammler Percy u. a. Im Jahre 1763 erschien 
in einer Reihe von Briefen eines Edelmanns an seinen Sohn eine 
volkstumlich geschriebene, nach den Geschichtswerken von 
Rapin, Carte, Kennet und Hume zusammengestellte History of 
England und am Schi ufs des folgenden Jahres das Gedicht the 
Traveller-, or, a Prospect-of Society, das erste Werk mit Gold- 
smiths Namen, welches innerhalb 8 Monate viermal aufgelegt 
wurde, nach dem Urti^iTe^er Zeitgenossen Samuel Johnson und 
Charles Fox für eins der schönsten Gedichte in englischer Sprache 
galt und Goldsmith mit einem Male auf die Höhe litterarischen 
Ruhmes stellte. Der Gedankengang desselben ist einfach und 
edel. Der Dichter versetzt sich auf eine einsame Alpenhöhe und 
überblickt die zu seinen Füfsen liegenden Länder. Jedes hat 
seine Vorzuge ; aber wo, fragt er, ist das wahre Gluck zu finden? 
Um diese Frage zu beantworten, ruft er sich die Länder, die er 
durchwandert hat, Italien, die Schweiz, Frankreich, Bolland und 
England ins Gedächtnis zurück, denkt an die Verschiedenheit 
der Landschaft, des Klimas, der Regierungsform, der Sitten, des 
Volkscharakters und gelangt zu dem Schlufs, dafs das wahre 
Glück nicht von äufsern Umständen, sondern von der innern 
Beschaffenheit des Menschen abhängig ist. „Still to ourselves in 
every place consigned Our own felicity we make or find." Am 
27. März 1766 erschien die Erzählung the Vicar of Wakefield. 
Goldsmith hatte sie bereits 1764 vollendet und, da er sich ge- 
rade in grofserNot befand, durch Vermittelung von Samuel John- 
son an den Buchhändler Franz INewbery verkauft, der sie erst 
veröffentlichte, als „der Wanderer'* Goldsmiths Namen berühmt 
gemacht halte. Ihr folgte 1768 das Lustspiel the Good-natured 
Man, 1769 „die römische Geschichte*', nachdem ihm im Jahre 
vorher von der königlichen Akademie der Künste der Ehrentitel 
„Professor der alten Geschichte*' verliehen worden war, und 
1770 das mit aufserordentlichem Beifall aufgenommene Gedicht 
the Deserted Village, von dem innerhalb 5 Wochen 4 Auflagen 
erschienen. Im Juli desselben Jahres machte er eine Reise nach 
Paris und zog sich alsdann eine Zeit lang auf das Land in der 
Nähe von London zurück, um sich in der Zurückgezogenheit 
des Landlebens und im Genufs reiner Luft für umfassendere Ar- 
beiten zu kräftigen. Später finden wir ihn wieder in London. Zu 
den wichtigsten Schriften, die er vom Jahre 1771 an verfafste, 
gehören eine Geschichte Englands in 4 Bänden, an der die über- 
sichtliche Gruppierung der Thatsacben, der fliefsende, anmutige 
Stil und die Einfachheit und Klarheit des Ausdrucks gerühmt, 
der Mangel an Gründlichkeit der Forschung und an Tiefe der 



9 

Beobachtung getadelt wird, das Lustspiel She Stoops to Conquer^ 
eine griechische Geschichte, einige Biographieen und kleinere 
Gedichte, ein naturwissenschaftliches Werk in 8 Banden the Ui- 
Story of the Earih and of Änimated Nature und ein satirisches 
Gedicht Retaliatim (Wiedervergeltung). Aufserdem hatte er 
den Plan, mit Unterstützung seiner Freunde eine Encyklopädie 
der Künste und Wissenschaften herauszugeben, der jedoch 
nicht mehr zur Ausfuhrung kam. £r starb am 4. April 1774 
im Alter von 45 Jahren. Seine Freunde setzten ihm im Poeten- 
winkel der Westminsterabtei ein Denkmal in Form eines 
Brustbildes mit einer lateinischen Inschrift, welche Johnson 
verfafste. 

Von den Schriften Goldsmiths hat die Erzählung the Vicar 
of Wakefield eine weit über die Grenzen des Mutterlandes hin- 
ausgehende Verbreitung gefunden und auf ihrer Wanderung 
durch die Kulturlänc^er der Erde besonders in Deutschland eine 
Beliebtheit erlangt, welche mit derjenigen auf heimatlichem 
Boden wetteifert. Vom 27. März 1766, dem Tage ihres Er- 
scheinens, bis 1774, dem Todesjahre des Dichters, erschienen 5 
Ausgaben, und zwar die ersten drei innerhalb 5 Monate, 1792 
bereits die 268te. Sie ist in die meisten europäischen Sprachen 
übersetzt und wiederholt dramatisch bearbeitet worden. Die 
erste Ausgabe in deutscher Sprache erschien 1767. Die mo- 
ralische Wirkung, welche sie ausübte, war eine ganz aufser- 
ordentliche, und Goethe gesteht dankbar den hohen Einflufs zu, 
den sie auf seine Entwicklung gehabt hat Auch heute noch, ob- 
wohl mehr als 100 Jahre seit ihrem Erscheinen verflossen sind, 
^hat sie von der Anziehungskraft, die sie für die Zeitgenossen 
besafs, wenig verloren. Wegen ihrer einfachen, klaren, muster- 
giltigen Sprache einerseits und des fesselnden, lehrreichen In- 
halts andrerseits wurde sie frühzeitig zu Unterrichtszwecken 
verwandt und als Lesestoff dem Anfangsunterricht in der eng- 
lischen Sprache zu Grunde gelegt Die erste Schulausgabe mit 
Bezeichnung der Aussprache erschien zu Halle 1787. In den 
Schulgrammatiken wurden die Beispiele mit Vorliebe dem Vicar 
of Wakefield entlehnt 

Das Prosaidyll „der Landprediger von Wakefield'^ bildet in 
der Kette der englischen Prosadichtungen des vorigen Jahr- 
hunderts das letzte Glied. Es vereinigt in sich die Hauptrich- 
tungen, die in der Litteratur der Novellisten hervortreten, und 
, nimmt in gewissem Grade an den Eigenschaften teil, welche die 
Werke von Goldsmiths Vorgängern kennzeichnen. In der Dar- 
stellung wirklichen Lebens und persönlicher Erfahrungen wird 



10 



Defoes realistische Richtung, ia der Neigung zum Gefühlvollen, 
in den Schilderungen der Macht und Folgen der Leidenschaft 
und in der Wirkung auf das Gemöt mit der Absicht tugendhafte 
Regungen zu wecken, Richardsons Gefuhlsrichtung bemerkbar. 
Mit Fielding und Smollet hat Goldsmith die Kenntnis der mensch- 
lichen Natur und die Meisterschaft in der Charakterzeichnung, 
mit Swift und Sterne den feinen Witz und die Kunst der ironi- 
schen Darstellung gemeinsam. Eigentümlich ist der Dichtung 
ein dreifaches: die Neuheit des Gegenstandes, die eigenartige 
Schönheit der Sprache und die sittlich bildende Kraft des In- 
halts. Es war ein neuer und glucklicher Gedanke von Goldsmith, 
den Stoff aus dem englischen Familienleben zu wählen. Das 
Pfarrhaus ist der Schauplatz der Handlung, ein schlichter Land- 
geistlicher mit seiner Familie und einigen Bekannten sind die 
handelnden Personen, eine Reihe von häuslichen Trubsalen, 
von denen die Familie des Pfarrers betrofii^n wird, ist der ein- 
fache Gegenstand der Erzählung. Allein es ist kein blofses 
Phantasiegemälde, das vorgeführt wird, sondern es sind des 
Dichters eigene Erlebnisse, die Erinnerung an das Pfarrhaus des 
Vaters, an Eltern und Geschwister, seine Kindheit, Schicksale 
und Leiden, welche das Familienbild beleben und ihm Wahr- 
heit und Interesse verleihen. Wie ihm im Landpfarrer der 
eigene Vater vor Augen stand, so führt er in dem Sohne Georg 
sich selbst in die Erzählung ein, schildert seine eigene bewegte 
Jugend, seine Wanderung auf dem Festlande und seine Mühen 
im Ringen nach einer Lebensstellung. Es ist ein Teil von des 
Dichters eigener Natur, welche in den Familiengliedern des 
Pfarrers steckt Sie sind gleich ihm ohne Falsch, voll Herzens- 
gute und Vertrauen auf die Rechtschaffenheit der Menschen, und 
deshalb leicht zu täuschen. Alle haben, wie er selbst, eine Nei- 
gung zum Eitlen und zum vornehmen Leben und geraten durch 
Sorglosigkeit und Unbedachtsamkeit von einer Widerwärtigkeit 
in die andere. Neben der allen Familiengliedern gemeinsamen 
Naturanlage hat jedes wieder seinen besondern Charakter, nach 
dem es Anteil an der Handlung nimmt und aus dem heraus sich 
sein Geschick gestaltet. 

Wenn an der Erzählung ausgesetzt worden ist, dafs sich 
die Ausführung des Vorwurfs nicht streng an einen vorgezeich- 
neten Plan bindet, und besonders in den letzten Abschnitten die 
Vorgänge mehr äufserlich aneinander gereiht, als innerlich ver- 
bunden erscheiuen, wenn die Richtigkeit der Zeichnung des eng- 
lischen Familienlebens bestritten worden ist, und Unwahrschein- 
lichkeiten und Widersprüche der Schönheit der Dichtung Ab- 



11 

bruch thuD, so werden diese Mängel in der Sache ausgeglichen 
durch eine in der Form vollendete Darstellung. Im Lobe von 
Goldsmiths Stil treffen alle, welche über ihn Urteile gefällt haben, 
Gegner und Verehrer, Zeitgenossen und Kritiker späterer Zeit, 
einmutig zusammen. „Er schrieb wie ein Engel'S sagte der 
grofse Schauspieler Garrick, der von den Mitgliedern des Litte- 
rarischen Klubs am wenigsten geneigt war, Goldsmiths Vorzuge 
anzuerkennen. „Er besafs die KunstS so urteilt Johnson, „ein- 
gehend zu sein ohne Weitschweifigkeit, und allgemein ohne Un- 
Deutlichkeit. Seine Sprache war wortreich und doch nicht über- 
schwenglich, im Ausdruck genau und doch ungezwungen, glatt 
und doch nicht weichlich.^' Nach Macaulays Urteil hat es viele 
gröfsere Schriftsteller gegeben, aber vielleicht keinen, der überall 
gleich anmutig war. „Sein Stil war immer rein und fliefsend 
und gelegentlich scharf und energisch. Seine Erzählungen waren 
stets unterhaltend, seine Schilderungen stets malerisch, sein 
Humor reich und heiter, doch nicht ohne eine gelegentliche Fär- 
bung von liebenswürdiger Schwermut. In allem, was er schrieb, 
zeigte sich ein gewisses Gefühl für das Anmutige und Schick- 
liche.^* Washington Irving rühmt den zarten, fliefsenden, leich- 
ten, durchsichtigen, wunderbar einfachen und anmutigen Stil 
in Goldsmiths Werken, dessen magischer Zauber sie allein 
schon vor der Vergessenheit bewahre. Insbesondere gehört der 
erzählende Teil des Vicar of Wakefield zu dem Besten, was die 
engUsche Prosa hervorgebracht hat, und wird wegen der einfachen, 
klaren, natürlichen, fliefsenden Sprache, in der er geschrieben, noch 
lange als klassisches Vorbild einer leichten prosaischen Schreib- 
weise dienen. In den Gesprächen pafst sich die Sprache den 
Personen und Verhältnissen an und ist nach den Umständen 
feierlich, röhrend, witzig, vertraulich. Selbst wo Goldsmith die 
Kleinen sprechen läfst, thut er es in einer ihrer kindlichen 
Fassungskraft und Gemütsart entsprechenden Weise. Die Ein- 
führung einer neuen Person in die Erzählung geschieht auf ganz 
dramatische Art, so dafs man den Vorgang gleichsam vor den 
Augen sich vollziehen sieht. Wo im Verlauf der Erzählung in 
den Verhältnissen der handelnden Personen sich eine geeignete 
Stelle findet, werden Betrachtungen über Religion, Politik, 
Litteratur und Kunst angestellt, Tagesbegebenheiten besprochen 
und Vorschläge zur Änderung unvollkommener Einrichtungen 
des öffentlichen Lebens gemacht, so wie Volkslieder, Märchen 
und Geschichten eingestreut. Goldsmith liebt es, den Leser 
durch Kontraste in Spannung zu erhalten und die Phantasie 
von heitern Vorgängen sofort zu tragischen Scenen zu fuhren. 



12 

Charakteristisch für Goldsmiths Sprache ist die hauGge Wieder- 
kehr gewisser Wörter und Wendungen und da, wo sie feierlich 
wird, der Reichtum an rhetorischen Figuren aller Art. 

Ein dritter Vorzug der Dichtung, und nicht der geringste, 
liegt in der sittlich bildenden Kraft des Inhalts. Die ganze Er- 
zählung ist von dem sittlichen Gedanken getragen, dafs das 
Gute siegt und das Böse unterliegt. ''Good predominant over 
evil, is briefly the purpose and moral of the little story" sagt 
Goldsmiths Biograph Forster. „Ihr Zweck ist'S fährt er fort, 
. „uns zu zeigen, dafs Geduld im Leiden, standhaftes Vertrauen 
( auf die göttliche Vorsehung, stille Arbeit, freudiges Streben und 
( nachsichtige Vergebung der Fehler und Schwächen anderer die 
\ leichten und sichern Mittel sind, welche in dieser Welt Freude 
} bereiten und den Schmerz edlen Zwecken dienstbar machen. 
f Ihr Zweck ist, uns zu zeigen, dafs der Heldenmut und dieSelbst- 
V Verleugnung, welche für die Pflichten des Lebens nötig sind, 
\nicht übermenschlicher Art sind, dafs sie neben Thorheiten, 
einzelnen Schwächen und harmloser Eitelkeit bestehen können, 
und dafs in der Besserung der Menschheit und ihrem Fort- 
schreiten durch irdischen Kampf zu endlichem Gluck auch den 
in niedrigster Stellung befindlichen Menschen ihr Platz ange- 
wiesen und ihre Rolle zuerteilt ist.*' Der Pfarrer ist das Muster 
jnes wahren Christen. Er vergiebt dem Feinde und ist selbst 
im tiefsten Elend noch bemuht, die Nebenmenschen zu bessern. 
Der Grundzug seines Charakters ist unerschütterliches Gottver- 
trauen, das ihn auch im äufsersten Unglück nicht verläfst. Auf 
demselben beruht einerseits seine kindliche Frömmigkeit, die in 
ihm jene heitere Seelenstimmung schafft, wie sie nur reinen Ge- 
mütern eigen ist, und die sich besonders in seiner Versöhnlich- 
keit und seinem Edelmute zu erkennen giebt, andrerseits die 
christliche Ergebung, mit der er nicht nur das über ihn ver- 
hängte Leiden erträgt, sondern es selbst durch sittlichen Ent- 
schlufs wählt, wenn es nach seiner Überzeugung nötig ist. Er 
vergilt Böses mit Gutem und läfst sich die Widerwärtigkeiten 
des Lebens zur Veredlung des Charakters dienen. Sein Beispiel 
zeigt, dafs selbst unter den niedrigsten Verhältnissen der edle 
Mensch sich einen würdigen Wirkungskreis schafft. Auch die 
übrigen Personen sind Träger sittlicher Ideeen, welche durch 
ihr Beispiel entweder das Gute lehren oder das Böse als ver- 
achtenswert hinstellen. Alle voreiligen und bisweilen thörichten 
Handlungen führen schliefslich zum glücklichen Ausgang und 
selbst die schlechten Handlungen Thornhills und Jenkinsons 
dienen sittlichen Zwecken, indem sie zuletzt zeigen, dafs der 



11 



13 

Gang der menschlichen Geschicke von der göttlichen Vorsehung 
geleitet wird. 

Von den zahlreichen Urteilen über den Vicar of Wakefield 
sind von besonderem Interesse zwei von Goethe, welcher als 
Student in Strafsburg das Buch durch Herders Vorlesung kennen 
lernte. In der Darstellung aus seinem Leben schildert er den 
„grofsen Eindruck'^ den das Werk bei ihm zurückgelassen, und 
als Greis von 80 Jahren, nachdem er die Erzählung noch ein- 
mal ganz durchgelesen hatte, schreibt er an seinen Freund Zelter, 
welchen grofsen Einflufs dieselbe auf seine geistige Entwicklung 
gehabt habe. „Ein protestantischer Landgeistlicher, heifst es im 
zehnten Buche von „Dichtung und Wahrheit", ist vielleicht der 
schönste Gegenstand einer modernen Idylle; er erscheint, wie 
Melchisedech, als Priester und König in einer Person. An den 
unschuldigsten Zustand, der sich auf Erden denken läfst, an den 
des Ackermanns, ist er meistens durch gleiche Beschäftigung, 
so wie durch gleiche Familienverhältnisse geknüpft; er ist Vater, 
Hausherr, Landmann und so vollkommen ein Glied der Gemeine. 
Auf diesem reinen, schönen, irdischen Grund ruht sein höherer 
Beruf; ihm ist übergeben, die Menschen ins Leben zu führen, 
für ihre geistige Erziehung zu sorgen, sie bei allen Hauptepochen 
ihres Daseins zu segnen, sie zu belehren, zu kräftigen, zu trösten, 
und, wenn der Trost für die Gegenwart nicht ausreicht, die Hoff- 
nung einer glücklichern Zukunft heranzurufen und zu verbürgen. 
Denke man sich einen solchen Mann, mit rein menschlichen 
Gesinnungen, stark genug, um unter keinen Umständen davon 
zu weichen, und schon dadurch über die Menge erhaben, von 
der man Reinheit und Festigkeit nicht erwarten kann; gebe 
man ihm die zu seinem Amte nötigen Kenntnisse, so wie eine 
heitere, gleiche Thätigkeit, welche sogar leidenschaftlich ist, in- 
dem sie keinen Augenblick versäumt, das Gute zu wirken — 
und man wird ihn wohl ausgestattet haben. Zugleich aber fuge 
man die nötige Beschränktheit hinzu, dafs er nicht in einem 
kleinen Kreise verharren, sondern auch allenfalls in einen klei- 
neren übergehen möge; man verleihe ihm Gutmütigkeit, Ver- 
söhnlichkeit, Standhaftigkeit und was sonst noch aus einem ent- 
schiedenen Charakter Löbliches hervorspringt, und über dies 
alles eineheitere Nachgiebigkeit und lächelnde Duldung eignerund 
fremder Fehler: so hat man das Bild unseres trefflichen Wakefield 
so ziemlich beisammen. Die Darstellung dieses Charakters auf 
seinem Lebensgange durch Freuden und Leiden, das immer 
wachsende Interesse der Fabel, durch Verbindung des ganz Na- 
türlichen mit dem Sonderbaren und Seltsamen, macht diesen 



14 

Roman zu einem der besten, die je geschrieben worden; der 
noch überdies den grofsen Vorzug hat, dafs er ganz sittlich, ja 
im reinen Sinne christlich ist, die Belohnung des guten Willens, 
des Beharrens bei dem Rechten darstellt, das unbedingte Ver- 
trauen auf Gott bestätigt und den endlichen Triumph des Guten 
über das Böse beglaubigt, und dies alles ohne eine Spur von 
Frömmelei oder Pedantismus. Vor beiden hatte den Verfasser 
der hohe Sinn bewahrt, der sich hier durchgängig als Ironie zeigt, 
wodurch dieses Werkchen uns ebenso weise als liebenswürdig 
entgegenkommen mufs." — Am 25. Dezember 1829 schreibt 
der treue Schüler des Doktor Primrose, wie Goethe sich nennt, 
an Zelter (Briefwechsel zwischen Goethe und Zelter, Berlin 1834. 
Band V. S. 349): „In diesen Tagen kam mir von ungefähr der 
Landpriester vonWakefield zu Händen, ich mufste das Werklein 
vom Anfang bis zu Ende wieder durchlesen, nicht wenig ge- 
röhrt von der lebhaften Erinnerung, wie viel ich dem Verfasser 
in den siebziger Jahren schuldig geworden. Es wäre nicht 
nachzukommen, was Goldsmith und Sterne gerade im Haupt- 
punkte der Entwicklung auf mich gewirkt haben. Diese hohe 
wohlwollende Ironie, diese Billigkeit bei aller Übersicht, diese 
Sanftmut bei aller Widerwärtigkeit, diese Gleichheit bei allem 
Wechsel und wie alle verwandte Tugenden heifsen mögen, er- 
zogen mich aufs löblichste, und am Ende sind es denn doch 
diese Gesinnungen , die uns von allen Irrschritten des Lebens 
endlich wieder zurückfuhren." 



THE 

VICAR^ OF WAKEFIELD'. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Description of the Family of Wakefield, io which a kindred 
Likeness prevails, as well of Minds as of Persons. 

I WAS ever* of opinion, that the honest man who married* 
and brougbt up a large family did more Service than he who 
continued Single. From this motive, I had scarce'^ taken orders^ 
a year before I began to tbink seriously of.matrimony, and cbose 
my wife, as she did her wedding-gown, not for a fine glossy sür- 

^) Ficar: in der Episkopalkirche Englands der Pfarrer als In- 
haber einer Pfründe, deren Einküofte einer geistlichen Körperschaft 
oder einem Laien zukommen. Der Name stammt aus der Zeit, wo diese 
Pfründen Klöstern gehörten, welche die geistlichen Geschäfte dorcb 
Mönche als ihre „Stellvertreter" verrichten liefsen, bis sie unter 
Heinrich IV. gesetzlich angehalten wurden, Weltgeistliche auf Lebens- 
zeit und mit hinreichendem Einkommen anzustellen. Er erhielt sich 
auch dann noch, als onter Heinrich VHL die Klöster aufgehoben und 
die Pfründen auf geistliche Korporationen und weltliche Personen über- 
tragen wurden. 

2) Jf^akefield'. der Name ist dichterisch ohne unmittelbare Bezie- 
hung auf die im Norden Englands in der Grafschaft York gelegene 
Stadt gewählt. 

^) ever: in der Bedeutung immer nur noch Ausdruck des höheren 
Stils; in der Umgaogssprache jetzt always. 

*) married . . hrought up . . did . . continued: Nach Ausdrücken des 
Sagens und Denkens steht, wenn der Hauptsatz das Präteritum hat, in 
den abhängigen Sätzen gleichfalls das Präteritum (neben dem Präsens), 
obgleich das Gesagte oder Gedachte allgemein gilt. 

^) scarce: gewöhnlich scarcely (hardly) . . before (when) kaum .. , als. 

^) io take Orders die (bischöflichen) Weihen (als Diakon und als 
Priester) empfangen. 



16 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

face, but such qualities as would wear well. To do her justice, 
she was a good-natured notable^ woman; and as for breeding, 
Ihere were few country ladies who could show more. She could 
read any Engh'sh book without much spelling; but for pickhug, 
preserving, and cookery, none could excel her. She prided her- 
seif also upon being an excellent contriver in housekeeping, 
though I could never find that we grew richer with all her con- 
trivances. 

However, we loved each other tenderly, and our fondness 
increased as we grew old. There was, in fact, nothing that 
could make us angry with the world or each other. We had an 
elegant house, situated in a fine country, and a good neighbour- 
hood^. The year was spent in möral or rural amusement, in 
visiting our rieh neighbours, and relieving such as were poor. 

As we lived near the road, we often had® the traveller or 
stranger visit us to taste our gooseberry^° wine, for which we had 
great reputation; and I profess, with the veracity of an historian, 
that I never knew^* one of them find fault with it. Our 
Cousins, too, even to the fortieth remove, all remembered their 
affinity, without any help from the herald's Office", and came 
very frequently to see us. Some of them did us no great honour 
by these claims od kindred, as we had the blind, the maimed, 
and the hall amongst the number. Ilowever, my wife always in- 
sisted that, as they were the same fleshand hlood, they should^^ 

'^) notable == ihrihyj häuslich, wirtschaftlich; voo Schriftstellern 
selten gebraucht, in der Umgangssprache veraltet. 

^) neigboorhood == those who live within the reach of communica- 
tion; von G. meist in der Bedeutung Gemeinde gebraucht. 

^) had . . Visit us: to have mit dem Accus, uod dem lofin. ohne to 
oder dem Partizip des Präsens «= im Bereiche seiner Wahrnehmung (= 
sehen) oder Erfahrung (== erleben) haben. 

10) gooseberry wme (spr. gooz'-ber-ry) Stachelbeerwein (frz. vin de 
groseilles). 

11) I never knew . . . findi nach to know in der Bedeutung erleben 
steht der Infinitiv ohne to. 

12) Heroldes officei das Wappenamt in London, welches die Ver- 
zeichnisse der Namen und Wappen der adeligen Familien führt und über 
Stammbaum und Herkunft von Titeln nnd Besitztümern Auskunft er- 
teilt. Es wird verwaltet von einem 1483 von Richard 111. eingesetzten, 
aus 3 Wappeokönigen (kiogs-at-arms), 6 Herolden (heralds-at-arms) und 
4 Unterherolden (pursuivants-at-arms) bestehenden Kollegium, the herald's 
College, an dessen Spitze der Lord Marschall (earl marsbal) von Eng- 
land steht, eine Würde, die seit 1672 in der Familie des Herzogs von 
Norfolk erblich ist. 

13) insisted that , . they should , .: die im abhängigen Satz eothal- 
tene Willensäufserung bezeichnet eine von einer gebietenden Macht 
ausgehende Anordnung; deshalb should. 



CHAPTER I. 17 

Sit with US at the same table. So that, if we had not very rieh, 
we generally had very happy friends about us; for this remark 
will hold good through life, that the poorer the guest, the better 
pleased he ever is with being treated^^; and as some meo gaze 
with admiration at the colours of a tulip or the wing of a 
butterfly, so I was, by nature, an admirer of happy human faces. 
However, when any one of our relations was found to be a per- 
son of a very bad character, a troublesome guest, or one we de- 
sired to get rid of, upon bis leaving my house^*^ I ever look 
care to lend him a riding-coat or a pair of boots, or sometimes 
a borse ^^ of small value, and I always had the satisfaction of 
finding he never came back to return them. By this the house 
was cleared of such as we did not like; but never was the family 
of WakeOeld known to turn the traveller or the poor dependant 
out of doors. 

Thus we lived several years in a State of much happiness, 
not but that^' we sometimes had those little rubs which Provi- 
dence sends to enhance the value of its favours. My orchard 
was often robbed by schoolboys, and my wife's custards^^ plun- 
dered by the cats or the children. The 'Squire ^® would some- 
times fall asleep in the most patbetic parts of my sermon, or 
bis lady return my wife^s civilities at church with a mutilated 
curtsey^^. But we soon got over the uneasiness caused by such 



^*) with being treated = with being eDtertained witboat expense. 
Das passive Gemodium steht anstatt eines abstrakten Substantivs mit 
passiver Bedeutung = ,,die Bewirtung, die ihm zu teil wird.*' 

^) upon his leaving my house: das Gerundium mit upon steht im 
Sinne eines mit „wenn*' zu übersetzenden Temporalsatzes. Das von 
dem Subjekt des Hauptsatzes verschiedene Subjekt desselben ist dem 
Pronomen his zu entnehmen. 

^^) a horsei G. gebraucht, abweichend vom jetzt herrschenden 
Sprachgebrauch, meist an vor gesprochenem A, z. B. an horse, an hat, 
an heap, an hnsband n. a. 

^^) not but that ... but (we soon got over) nicht als ob nicht (nicht 
ohne dafs, obgleich) . . . aber . . ; but mit oder ohne that nach vorher- 
gehender Verneinung steht als subordinierende Konjunktion im Sinne 
des weit seltener gebrauchten that . . not, frz. que . . ne mit dem Kon- 
junktiv. 

^^) custards: Eierrahm, eine aus Eiern, Milch und Zucker bereitete 
Speise. 

^^) ^Squire Gutsherr; Abkürzung von Bsquire (frz. ecuyer), der 
nächsten Rangstufe nach dem Ritter (knight). An Stelle der veralteten 
Bezeichnung the 'Squire ist jetzt the country-gentleman getreten. 

20) curtsey, auch courtesy [spr. cürt^-sj] geschrieben, der Knicks 
(frz. rev^rence) ; davon zu unterscheiden courtesy [spr. cür'-te-sy] Höf- 
lichkeit (frz. courtoisie). 

Goldsmith, The Vicar of W»kefield. 3. Auflage. 2 



18 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

accidents, and usually in three or four days began to wonder 
how they vexed us. 

My children, the ofTspring of temperance, as they were 
educated without softness, so they were at once well formed 
and healthy; my sons hardy and active, my daughters beautiful 
and blooming. When I stood in the midst of the little circle, 
which promised to be the Supports of my declining age^^, I could 
not avoid repeating the famous story of Count Abensberg^*, 
who, in Henry the Second's prögress^* through Germany, while 
other courtiers came with their treasures, brought bis thirty-two 
children, and presented them to bis sovereign as the most 
valuable oiTering he had to bestow. In this manner, though I had 
but six, I considered them as a very valuable present made to 
my country, and cönsequently looked upon it as my debtor^*. 
Our eldest son was named tifiürge, after bis uncle, who left us 
ten thousand pounds. Our second child, a girl, I intended to 
call after her aunt Grissel**, but my wife insisted upon her 
being called 011 via ^^. In less than another year we had another 
daughter, and now I was determined that Grisse) should be her 
name; but a rieh relation taking a fancy^^ to stand godmother, 
the girl was, by her directions, called Sophia; so that we had 
two romantic^names in the family; but I solemnly*^ protest I 
had no band in it. Moses was our next, and after an interval of 
twelve years we had two sons more. 

It would be fruitless to deny my exultation when I saw my 



21) declining agei Pleooasmus, da age = declioe of life ist. 

22) Counl Abensberg [spr. deutsches A]: Babo H., Graf zu Abeos- 
berg und Burggraf za Kegensburg, hatte 30 oder nach späterer Über- 
lieferang 32 Söhne und 8 Töchter, zu deren Andenken in der Ring- 
mauer der Stadt Abensberg in ^Bayern 30 runde und 8 viereckige 
Türme angebracht wurden. Die von Goldsmith erwähnte Geschichte 
ist in mehrfacher Überlieferung vorhanden. Nach der einen , Gold- 
smiths Quelle, erschien der Vater mit seinen 32 Söhnen, von denen 
jeder einen Bedienten hatte, vor Heinrich II. (1002 — 1024), als dieser 
zu Regensburg ein Kaiserjagen veranstaltete, nach einer andern vor 
Konrad II. (1024—1039), als er 1029 zu Regensburg Reichstag hielt. 

*3) progress: Rundreise eines Fürsten; der Plural progresses ist 
nur in dieser Bedeutung gebräuchlich. 

2^) dehior : b vor t ist stamm, ausgenommen in subtile (vgl. frz. dette). 
2^) Grissel Abkürzung von Griselda. 

23) OUvia : ein Lieblingsname des Dichters, den er noch einmal im 
Lustspiel the Good-natured Man verwandt hat. 

2*^) a rieh relation taking a fancy: absoluter JVominativ mit prädi- 
kativem Partizip im Sinne eines Kausalsatzes. 

28J solemnly, n nach m stumm am Ende des Wortes und vor Kon- 
sonanten. 



CHAPTER I. 19 

Utile ones about me; but the vanity and the satisfaction of ray 
wife were even greater than mine. When our visitors would 
say, «Well, upon my word, Mrs. Primrose, you have the finest 
children in the whole country.» «Ay^*, neighbour,» she would 
answer, «they are as Heaven made them, handsome enough, if 
they be good enough; for handsome is that handsome does'^.» 
And then she would bid the girls hold up their heads, who, to 
conceal nothing, were certainly very handsome. Mere outside is 
so very trifling a circumstance with me, that I should scarce 
have remembered to mention it, had it not been a general töpic 
of conversation in the counlry. Olivia, now about eighteen, had 
that luxuriancy of beauty with which painters generally dravv 
Hebe'M open, sprightly, and commanding. Sophia's features were 
not so striking at first, but often did more certain execution ; 
for they were soft, mödest, and alluring. The one vanquished 
by a Single blow, the other by efforts successfully repeated. 

The temper of a woman is generally formed from the turn 
of her features; at least it was so with my daughters. Olivia 
wished for many lovers; Sophia to secure one. Olivia was often 
affected, from too great a desire to please: Sophia even repressed 
excellence, from her fears to offend. The one entertained me 
with her vivacity when I was gay; the other with her sense when 
I was serious. But these qualities were never carried to excess 
in either, and I have often seen them exchange characters for 
a whole day together^^ A suit of mourning has transformed 
my coquelte intg a prüde, and a new set of ribbons*'* has given 
her youngest^* sisler more than natural vivacity. My eldest son 



*^) ^y [spr. äi], als eigentliche Bejahung durch yes verdrängt, 
dient jetzt zar ßetenerung oder Bestatigoog des Gesagten =ja doch! 
ei freilich! Als Bejahongspartikel wird es noch bei Abstimmuogen 
gebraucht. 

^) handsome is that handsome does [d in handsome stumm] Sprich- 
wort; that, von Personen gebraucht, = he who (in Sprichwörtern und 
Sentenzen auch who), ist veraltet. 

^^) Hebe: Göttin der Jugend, Tochter des Zeus und der Here, 
Dienerin der Götter, denen sie den Nektar reicht. 

32) for a whole day togetheri einen ganzen Tag lang ununter- 
brochen; together fafst die vorhergehende Zeitangabe zusammen und 
verstärkt sie. 

^) set of ribbons [auch ribands geschrieben] Garnitur; set (Satz), 
Anzahl zusammengehöriger Personen oder Gegenstände. 

^) youngest, genauer younger, da nur zwei Schwestern sind. Der 
Superlativ von zweien ist in der Umgangssprache und aach bei Schrift- 
stellern nicht ungewöhnlich. G. unterscheidet die beiden Schwestera 
stets durch the eldest und the youngest. 

2* 



20 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

George was bred at Oxford ^^, as I intended bim for one of the 
learned professions. My second boy Moses, wbom I designed ** 
for business, received a sort of miscelläneous education at bome. 
But it is Dcedless to attempt describing the particiliar characters 
of young people tbat bad seen but very little of the world. In 
Short, a family likeness prevailed throughall, and, properly speak- 
ing, they bad but one cbaracter — that of being all equally 
generous, credulous, simple, and inolTensive. 



CHAPTER II. 

Family Misfortunes. — The Loss of Fortane only serves tO iocrease 
the Pride of the Worthy. 

THE temporal concerns of our family were chiefly committed 
to my wife's mänagement; as to the spiritual, I took them en- 
tirely under my own direction. The prölits of my living, which 
amounted to but thirty-five pounds a year, 1 made over to the 
orphans and widovvs of the clergy of our diocese; for, having a 
sufficient fortune of my own^ I was careless of temporalities, and 
feit a secret pleasure in doing my duty without reward. 1 also 
set a resolution^ of keeping no cüräte^ and of being acquainted 
with every man in the parish, exhorting the married men to 
temperance, and the bachelors to malrimony; so tbat in a few 
years it was a common saying, that Ihere wel-e three stränge 
wants at Wakefield — a parson* wanting pride, young men want- 
ing wives, and alehouses wanting customers. 

Matrimony was always one of my favourite töpics, and I 
wrole several sermons to prove its happiness: but there was a 
peculiar tenet which I made a point of supporting; for I main- 



3^) Oxford: Uo iy er sität Stadt Englaads, zwischeo dem CberweU 
und dem Isis oder der obern Themse g^elegen, 52 engl. Meilen (vgl. III,. 
21) norduordwestlich von London. 

^) design [s scharf] frz. d^signer und dessiner. 

') a sufficient fortune of my own „eigenes Vermögen genug*', oder 
„selbst ein hinreichendes Vermögen^S 

^) set a resolution: gewöhnlicher to take oder to form a resolution. 

^) curatei eigtl. who has the eure of the parishioners' souls, Seel- 
sorger. Gewöhnlich ein Geistlicher, welchen der Pfründeninhaber al» 
^Stellvertreter oder Gehülfen annimmt und nach Übereinkommen besoldet. 

^) parson [s scharf]: aus persona d. i. ecclesiae entstanden. Im 
Gegensatz zu vicar ein Pfarrgeistlicher, der im Besitz aller Recht» 
einer Pfarrstelle ist. 



CHAPTER II. 21 

tained wilh Whiston*, that it was unlawful for a priest of the 
Church of England^, after the death of his first wife, to take a 
second; or, to express it in one word, I valued myself upon 
being a strict moDogamist ^ 

It was thus, perhaps, from hearing marriage so often re- 
commended, that my eldest son, just upon leaving College, 
fixed his affections upon the daughter of a neighbouring clergy- 
man, who was a dignitary* in the Church, and in circumstances 
to give her a large fortune. But fortune was her smallest accom- 
plishment. Miss Arabella Wilraot was allowed by all (except my 
two daughters) to be completely pretty. Her youth, health, and 
innocence were still heightened by a complexion so transparent, 
and such a happy sensibility of look^ as even age could not gaze 
on with indifference. As Mr. Wilmot knew that I could make a 
very handsome settlement on my son, he was not averse to the 
match; so both families lived together in all that harmony which 
generally precedes an expected alliance. Being convinced, by 
experience, that the days of courtship are the most happy of 
our lives, I was willing enough to lengthen the period; and the 
värious amusements which the young couple every day shared 
in each other's Company seemed to increase their passion. We 
were generally awaked in the morning by music, and on fine 
days rode a-hunting^°. The hours between breakfast and dinner 
the ladies devoted to dress and study: they usually read a page, 
and Ihen gazed at themselves in the glass, which, even philo- 



5) JFhistmi William, geb. 1667, Theologe, Matheinalikcp, Physiker, 
«eit 1703 Nachfolger Newtons als Lehrer der Mathematik za Cambridge, 
1710 wegeo Verbreitung arianischer Glaubenslehren seiner Stelle ent- 
setzt, nährte sich in London kümmerlich durch Vorlesungen und schrift- 
stellerische Thätigkeit und starb 1752. 

^) Church of England', die englische Staatskirche , auch Anglican, 
Episcopal, Established Church genannt, schliefst sich in Kultus und Ver- 
fassung an die katholische, im Lehrbegriff an die reformierte Kirche an. 

'^) monogamüt'. Anhänger der Lehre, welche den Geistlichen nicht 
erlaubt, nach dem Tode der Frau sich wieder zu verheiraten. Sie 
wurde begründet durch 1. Tim. 3, 2: „A bishop then must be blame- 
less, the hnsband of one wife." 

®) a dignitary in the Church ein Mitglied der höhern Geistlichkeit: 
Erzbischof, Bischof, Dechant, Archidiakon. 

^) such a happy sensibility , , as: das relative Adverb as vertritt 
nach so und such das Relativpronomen which. Der Relativsatz hat 
den Sinn eines Konsekutivsatzes. 

^®) rode a-hunting: die meisten Wendungen mit a vor dem Gerun- 
dium sind in der gebildeten Umgangssprache veraltet. Jetzt rode out 
hunting. 



22 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

sophers might own, often presented the page of greatest beauty^^ 
At dinner niy wife took the lead^^; for, as she always insisted 
upon carving everything herseif, it being^* her mother's way, 
she gave us upon these occasions the history of every disb. When 
we had dioed, to preveDt the ladies leaviog us^^, 1 generally 
ordered the table to be removed; and sometimes, with the niusic- 
master's assistance, the girls would give us a very agreeable 
cöncert. Walking out, drinking tea, country dances^*^ and för- 
felts shortened the rest of the day, without the assistance of 
Cards, as I hated all manner of gaming, except backgänimon^^, 
at which my old friend and I sometimes took a twopenny^^ hit. 
Nor can I here pass over an ominous circumstance that hap- 
päned the last time we played together. 1 only wanted to fling a 
quätre, and yet I threw deüce äce five times running^^. 

Some months were elapsed ^^ in this manner, tili at last it 



") the page of greatest heauiyi selbst Philosophen konnten zugeben, 
dafs der Spiegel oft die Seite gröfster Schönheit darstellte, d. i. auf 
seiner Fläche oft höhere Schönheit zeigte, als die, welche aof einer 
Buchseite enthalten ist. Die Wahl des Aosdracks ist durch das vor- 
hergebende „they usually read a page'' veranlafst. 

^^) took the Lead: die Erklärung des Ausdrucks ist in Kap. 32: My 
wife expected to have bad the pleasure of sittiog at the head of the 
table, aud carving the meat for all the Company. 

^^) it being: das absolute it mit prädikativem Partizip steht im 
Sinne eines Kausalsatzes. 

1^) to prevent the ladies leavvng us: a) da in den Originalausgaben 
der sächsische Genetiv von Pluralen auf s meist nicht gekennzeichnet 
ist, z. ß. the neighbours hospitality (VI), the youog ladies virtue (XI), 
my daughters fortunes (XXII), the prisouers names (XXV) u. a., so 
läi'st sich au dieser Stelle nicht entscheiden, ob der Genetiv mit dem 
Gerundium oder der Accusativ mit dem Partizip gemeint ist. Nach der 
Stelle: ^^preventing the flames spreading to our com" (XXII, 10) zu ur- 
teilen, liegt wahrscheinlich die Konstr. des Accus, mit dem Partiz. 
vor. — b) ISach dem Essen pflegen die Damen das Speisezimmer zu 
verlassen. 

^^) country dance ist nicht der französische Kontretanz (engl, qua- 
drille. ßeim couutry dance stehen iu der einen Reihe die Herren, in 
der andern die Damen. 

^ö) backgammon: Brettspiel, Puffspiel; das Würfelspiel im Innern 
des Dambretts. 

^'') twopenny: ungefähr 16 Pfennig. 

^8) running: er brauchte nur eine Vier zu werfen, um das Spiel zu 
gewinnen, warf aber fünfmal hintereinander zwei Asse. 

19) were elapsed: jetzt nur had elapsed oder passed. Das mit be 
verbundene Partizip intransitiver Verba der Bewegung und des Werdens 
ist jetzt adjektivisch und bezeichnet den Zustand, der das Ergebnis 
einer vollendeten Handlung ist; das mit have verbundene Partizip druckt 
die vollendete Handlung aus. 



CHAPTER II. 23 

was thought convenient to fix a day for the nuptials of the 
young couple, who seemed earnestly to desire it. During the 
preparations for the weddiog, I need not describe the busy im- 
p6rtance of my wife, nor the sly looks of my daughters: in fact, 
my attention was fixed on another object — the completing 
a tract*" which I intended shortly to publish in defence of my 
fävourite principle. As I looked upon this as a masterpiece, 
both for argunient^^ and style, I conld not, in the pride of my 
heart, avoid showing it to my old friend Mr. Wilmot, as I made 
no doubt of receiving bis approbation; but not tili too late I dis- 
covered that he was most violently attached to the contrary 
opinion, and with good reason ; for he was at that time actually 
courting a fourth wife. This, as may be expected, produced a 
dispute attended with some äcrimony, which threatened to 
interrupt our intended alUance; but, on the day before that 
appointed^^ for the ceremony, we agreed to discuss the subject 
at large. 

It was mänaged with proper spirit on both sides; he as- 
serted that I was heterodox; I retorted the charge: he replied, 
and I rejoined. In the meantime, while the cöntroversy was 
hottest, 1 was called out by one of my relations, who, with a 
face of concern, advised me to give up the dispute, at least tili 
my son^s wedding was over. «How,» cried P*, «relinquish** the 
cause of truth, and let him be a husband, already driven to the 
very verge of absurdity: You might as well advise me to give up 
my fortune as my argument^^» tYour fortune,» returned my 
friend, *\ am now sorry to inform you, is almost nothing. The 
merchant in town^'*, in whose hands your money was lodged, 
has gone off to avoid a Statute of bankruptcy^^, and is thought 



'^°) the completing a tracti korrekter „of a tract", weil das durch 
den Artikel bestimmte Gernndiam reines Substantiv geworden ist. 

^^) argumenti a) Beweis, Inhalt; b) Streitsache, Disput = (dispute). 

^^) appointed: vollständig which was appointed. 

23) cried I: cry im Sinne von exclaim klingt veraltet. 

^*) relinquish : der Infin. ohne to im elliptischen Ausruf des Erstaunens 
oder der Entrüstung. Zu ergänzen I should. 

*^) towni London. 

26) to avoid a Statute of bankruptcy [t stumm]. A Statute ist 
ein Parlamentsbeschlufs (act of parliament), der die königliche Be- 
stätigung erhalten hat und die Kraft eines Gesetzes besitzt. — Synon.: 
bankruptcy, förmlicher Bankerott, oft strafbar; failure, öffentlich er- 
klärte Zahlungsunfähigkeit, oft durch Vergleich beigelegt. — Das erste 
den Bankerott betreffende Gesetz unter Heinrich VIII. war segen be- 
trügerische Schuldner gerichtet und gab dem Lord Kanzler die Voll- 



24 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

not to have left a Shilling in Ihe pound^^ I was unwilling to 
shock you or the family with the account tili after the wedding; 
bat now it may serve to moderate your warmth in the argument; 
for, I suppose, your own prudence will enforce the necessity of 
dissembling, at least tili your son has the young lady's fortane 
secüre.» «Well,» returned I, «if what you teil me be true, and if 
I am to be a beggar, it shall never make me a rascal, or induce 
me to disavow my principles. TU go this moment, and inform 
the Company of my circumstances: and, as for the argument, I 
even here retract my former concessions in the old gentleman's 
favour, nor will I allow him now to be a husband in any sense 
of the expression.» 

It would be endless to describe the difl'erent sensations of 
both families when I divulged the news of our misfortune; but 
what others feit was slight to what the lovers appeared to endure. 
Mr. Wilmot, who seemed before sufficiently inclined to break off 
the match, was by this blow soon determined: one virtue he 
had in perfection, which was prudence, too often the only one 
that is left us at seventy-two. 



CHAPTER ni. 

A Migration. The fortuoate Circamstances of our Lives are generally 
fouod at last to be of our owo procuriog. 

The only hope of our family now was, that the report of 
our misfortunes might be malicious or prematüre; but a letter 
from my ägent in town soon came with a confirmation of every 
particular. The loss of fortune to myself alone would have been 
trifling ; the only uneasiness I feit was for my family, who were 



macht, das Vermögen des Schuldners in Beschlag zu nehmen und unter 
die Gläubiger zu verteilen. £in Gesetz der Königin Elisabeth be- 
schränkte den Bankerott auf Geschäftsleute (traders) und bestrafte ihn 
mit Verhaftung des Schuldners und Verteilung seines Vermögens unter 
die Gläubiger. Nach Parlamentsbeschlüssen unter Anna wurde der 
ZahlnngsuDfähige von spätem Schuldverbindlichkeiten befreit, wenn er 
die Mehrzahl seiner Gläubiger zufrieden gestellt und vom Lord Kanzler 
eine Bescheinigung erhalten hat, dafs er die Anforderungen des Ge- 
setzes erfüllt hat. 

^'^) a shiUing in the pound: man glaubt, dafs er nicht einen Schilling 
vom Pfund (5%) übrig gelassen hat. 



CHAPTER m. 25 

to be humble without an education to render them callous to 
contempt \ 

Near^ a fortnight had passed before I attempted to restrain 
their affliction ; for prematüre consolation is but ihe remem- 
brancer of sorrow. During this ioterval, my thoughts were 
employed on some future means of supporting them; and at 
last a small eure of fifteen pounds a year was ofTered me^ in a 
distant neighbourhood, where 1 could still enjoy my principles 
without molestation. With this proposal l joyfully closed*, 
having determined to increase my sälary by mänaging a little 
farm. 

Having taken this resolution, my next care was to get 
together the wrecks of my fortune; and, all debts coUected and 
paid, out of fourteen thousand pounds we had but four hundred 
remaining. My chief attention, therefore, was now to bring 
down the pride of my family to their circumstances ; for I well 
knew that aspiring beggary is wretchedness itself. «You cannot 
be ignorant, my children,* cried I, «that no prudence of ours 
could have prevented our late misfortune; but prudence may 
do much in disappointing its effects. We are now poor, my 
fondlings, and wisdom bids us conform*^ to our humble Situa- 
tion. Let US, then, without repining, give up those splendours 
with which numbers are wretched, and seek in humbler circum- 
stances that peace with which all may be happy. The poor live 
without our help; why, then, should not we learn to live without 
theirs? No, my children, let us from this moment give up all 
pretensions to genlility^; we have still enough left for happiness 
if we are wise, and let us draw upon content for the deflciencies 
of fortune ^* 



1) contempt: der einzige Kummer, den der Vicar empfand, war, 
dafs seine Familie sich jetzt demütigen sollte, ohne eine Erziehung er- 
halten zu haben, welche sie gegen Verachtung unempfindlich machte. 

^) near beinahe; Adverb der Quantität (veraltet); jetzt nearly. 

) offered me: G. gebraucht beim Passiv der transitiven Verba 
den unbezeichneten Dativ, wenn derselbe ein persönl. Fürwort ist. In 
der Umgangssprache geschieht dies noch jetzt; sorgfältige Schriftsteller 
setzen in der Regel den Dativ mit to. 

*) to dose with a proposal auf einen Vorschlag eingehen; to close 
(Verb) hat weiches s; close (Adjekt.) scharfes s. 

^) bids US conform: der Infin. to conform, den spätere Heraus- 
geber setzen, findet sich in den ältesten Ausgaben nicht. 

^) pretensions to gentüity Ansprüche an vornehmes Leben. 

'^) let US draw upon etc.: Aufforderung, in der Zufriedenheit einen 
Ersatz für den Mangel an Glücksgütern zu suchen. To draw upon 
(einen Wechsel) ziehen auf (kaufmännischer Ausdruck). 



26 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

As my eldest son was bred a scholar^ I determtned to send 
him to town*, where bis abilities might conti ibute to our support 
and bis own. The Separation of friends and families is, perhaps, 
one of tbe most distressful circumstances attendant on penury^". 
Tbe day soon arrived on which we were to disperse for tbe 
first time. My son, after taking leave of bis mother and tbe 
rest, wbo mingled tbeir tears with their kisses, came to ask^^ a 
blessing from me. Tbisl gave bim from my heart; and wbicb", 
added to five guineas^', was all tbe patrimony I bad now to 
bestow. tYou are going, my boy,» cried I, «to London on foot, 
in tbe manner Hooker ^S your great ancestor, travelled tbere 
before you. Take from me tbe same borse tbat was given bim 
by tbe good bisbop JeweP*, tbis staff^^, and take tbis book too; 
it will be your conifort on tbe way: these two lines in it are 
wortb a miliion — / have beert young, and now am old; yet 



8) a Scholar ist prädikativer Nominativ. 

^) town: nachher genannt, yoa are going to London; vgl. 11,25. 

10) penury Verarmung; nicht Armut. 

11) to ask: Konstr.: 1) to ask a p. a th. 2) to ask for (bitten um), 
after (fragen nach); 3) to ask a th. of (seltener from) a p. jmd. bitten 
um, jmd. fragen nach. 

1^) andjvhich: der Relativsatz ist dem Hauptsatze durch and bei- 
geordnet. Übers, was oder und das. 

1^) guinea: eine Goldmünze im Werte von 21 Shillings = 21 Mark; 
so genannt, . weil die ersten Stücke aus dem Golde geprägt wurden, 
welches aus Guinea nach England kam. 

1*) Hooker, Richard (1554—1600), Lehrer in Oxford, später Pre- 
diger an der Templerkirche in London, seit 1591 Pfarrer in Boscombe 
in Wiltshire, seit 1595 Pfarrer in Bishopsbourne in Keut. Berühmter 
Theologe. Hauptschrift: Eight Books of the Laws of £cclesiastical Polity. 

1^) Jewel, John (1522 — 71), Professor in Oxford, durchwanderte, 
unter der blutigen Maria vertrieben, zu Fufs einen Teil des westlichen 
Deutschlands, kehrte unter Elisabeth zurück und wurde Bischof von 
Salisbury. Er war ein eifriger Verteidiger des englischen Protestan- 
tismus. Hauptschrift: Apology for the Church of England. 

1*) thts staff: die Geschichte wird in Walton's Life of Hooker fol- 
gendermafsen erzählt: At the bishop's (Jewers) partiog with him (Hooker), 
the bishop gave him good counsel and bis benediction, but forgot to 
give him mooey, which when the bishop had considered, he sent a ser- 
vant in all haste to call Richard back to him; and at Richard's retnrn 
the bishop said to him, ^Richard, I have sent for you to lend yon a 
horse, which has carried me many a mile, and, I thank God, with 
mnch ease'; and presently delivered into bis band a walking-staflf, with 
which he professed he had travelled through many parts of Germany. 
And he said, ^Richard, I do not give, but lend you my horse; be snre 
you be honest, and bring my horse back to me at your return this 
way to Oxford'. 



CHAPTER III. 27 

never saw i^^ the righteous man forsdken, nor his seed hegging 
their bread^^. Let this be your consolatioii as you travel on. Go, 
my boy; whatever be thy fortune, let me see thee^* once a year; 
still keep a good heart, and farewell*. As he was possessed of 
integrity and honour, 1 was under nö apprehensions from throw- 
ing him nakM into the aniphitheatre of life; for I knew he 
would act a good part, whether vanquished or victorious. 

His departure only prepared the way for our own, which 
arrived a few days afterwards. The leaving a neighbourhood*^ 
in which we had enjoyed so many hours of tranquillity was not 
wilhout a tear, which scarce fortitude itself could suppress. 
Besides, a journey of seventy miles^^ to a family that had 
hitherto never been above ten from home, filled us with ap- 
prehension ; and the cries of the poor, who followed us for some 
miles, contributed to increase it. The first day's journey brought 
US in safety wilhin Ihirty miles of our future retreat, and we 
put up*^ for the night at an obscure inn in a village by the way. 
When we were shown a room, I desired the landlord, in my 
usual way, to let us have his Company, with which he complied, 
as what he drank would increase the bill next morning. He knew, 
however, the whole neighbourhood to which I was removing, 
particularly 'Squire Thornhill, who was to be my landlord, and 
who üved within a few miles of the place. This gentleman he 
described as one who desired to know little more of the world 
than its pleasures, being particularly remarkable for his attach- 
ment to the fair sex. Though this account gave me some pain, 
it had a very different effect upon my daughters, whose features 
seemed to brighten with the expectation of an approaching 
triumph; nor was my wife less pleased and cönfident of their 
allurements and virtue. While our thoughts were thus employed, 
the hostess entered the room to inform her husband that the 
Strange gentleman, who had been two days in the house, wanted 



") never saw 1: altertümliche, dichterische Ausdrucksweise; jetzt 
never did I see, 

^8) / have been young, and now am old; yet have I not seen the 
righteous forsaken, nor ids seed hegging bread. Psalm 37, 25. 

^^) thee: zur Zeit des Dichters wurde thou (neben you) noch in ver- 
traulicher Anrede gebraucht. Jetzt findet es nur noch in der Poesie, 
der feierlichen Prosa und der religiösen Sprache, sowie bei den Quä- 
kern und im Dialekt Verwendung. 

20j fjf^ leaving a neighbourhood: jetzt korrekter of a n.; vgl. II, 20. 
Über neighbourhood s. 1, 8. 

21) miles: die englische Meile hat 1760 yards « 1609,315 Meter. 

22) to put up . . at: einkehren in (intrans.); unterbringen (trans.). 



28 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

money, and could not satisfy them for bis reckoning*^ «Want 
money'V replied the host, «that must be impossible^*; for it 
was no later tban yesterday be paid tbree giiineas to our beadle 
to spare an old broken soldier tbat was to be whipped through 
tbe town for dog-stealing.» The hostess, however, still per- 
sisting 2^ in her first assertion, be was preparing to leave the 
room, swearing that he would be satisfied one way or anotber, 
wben I begged the landlord would introdnce me to a stranger 
of so mach charity as be described. With this be compiied, 
showing in a gentleman who seemed to be about thirty, dressed 
in clothes that once were laced. His person was well formed, and 
his face marked with tbe lines of tbinking. He had something 
Short and dry in his address, and seemed not to understand 
ceremony, or to despise it. üpon the landlord's leaving^^ the 
room, 1 could not avoid expressing my concern to the stranger 
at seeing a gentleman in such circumstances, and ofTered bim 
my purse to satisfy tbe present demand. «I take it with all my 
beart, Sir,» replied he, «and am glad that a late oversight*^ in 
giving what money l had about me has shown me that there 
are still some men like you. I must, however, previously entreat 
being informed^® of the name and residence of my benefäctor, 
in Order to repay him as soon as possible». In this I satisfied 
ihm fuUy, not only mentioning my name and late misfortunes, 
but the place to which I was going to remove. «This», cried he, 
«happens still more lucky^^ tban I hoped for, as I am going the 
same way myself, having been detained here two days by the 



23) satisfy them for his reckonin^ = ^ay his bill; reckoniog Rech- 
DUDg, inbes. the charge of a host, Gasthausrechuuog. 

*^) want money! Infinitiv ohne to und ohne Subjekt im elliptischea 
Ausruf des Erstaunens. Vgl. II, 24. 

2^) that must he impossible: das ist ja aomöglich; must drückt die 
logische Notwendigkeit aus. 

^) The hostess . . persisting : absoluter Nominativ mit prädikativem 
Partizip. 

2"^) lipon the landlord' s leaving the room: upon in Verbindung mit 
dem Gerundium bezeichnet einen Vorgang, unmittelbar nach welchem 
etwas geschieht, und steht im Sinne eines mit «^gleich nachdem'* 
zu übersetzenden Temporalsatzes. Vgl. I, 15. 

*^) oversight Unbedachtsamkeit, von to oversce übersehen, nicht be- 
achten (veraltet). 

**) entreat being injormed: das Objekt zu entreat ist ein passives 
Gerundium. Die Ausdrucksweise klingt veraltet. Jetzt I must be^ 
to be informed. 

^) lucky: die beiden ersten Ausgaben haben luckily, was dem gegen- 
wärtigen Sprachgebrauche entspricht. 



CHAPTER III. 29 

floods^^ which I liope by^^ to-morrow will be found passable*. 
I testified the pleasure i should have in bis Company, and, my 
wife and daughters joining in entreaty, be was prevailed upon 
to stay supper ^^. The stranger's con versa lion, wbicb was at 
once pleasing and instructive, induced me to wisb for a con- 
tinuance of it; but it was now high time to retire and take 
refresbment against the fatigues of the foliowing day. 

The nexl morning we all set forward togetber: my family 
on borseback, while Mr. ßurchell, our new companion, walked 
along the foolhpalh by the roadside, observing with a smile that, 
as we were ill-mounted, he would be loo generous to attempt 
leaving us behind***. As the floods were not yet subsided**, we 
were obliged to hire a guide, who trotted on before, Mr. Burchell 
and 1 bringing up the rear^^. We lightened the fatigues of the 
road with philosophical disputes, which he seemed to understand 
perfectly. But what surprised me most was, that ihough he was 
a money-borrower, he defended bis opinions with as much öb- 
stinacy as if he had been my pätron. He now and then also in- 
formed me to whoni the different seats belonged that lay in our 
view as we travelled the road. «That,» cried he, pointing to a 
very magnificent house which stood at some distance, «belongs 
to Mr. Thornhill, a young gentleman who enjoys a large fortune, 
though entirely dependent on the will of bis uncle, Sir*^ William 
Thornhill, a gentleman who, content with a little himself, per- 
mits bis nephew to enjoy the rest, and chiefly resides in town*®. 
«What!» cried I, «is my young landlord then the nephew of a 
man whose virtues, generosity, and singularities are so univer- 
sally known? I have heard Sir William Thornhill represented 
as one of the most generous, yetwhimsical*^ men in the kingdom 
— a man of consümmate benevolence.» — «Somelhing, perhaps, 
too much so,» replied Mr. Burchell, «at least, he carried bene- 



3^) floods [spr. 00 = ü, wie in bud]. Ebeoso noch blood. 

32) i)yi von der Zeit „gegen". 

^j to stay supper: gewöhnlich to stay to supper. Im ersten Falle 
ist to stay transitives, im zweiten intransitives Verb. 

34) behind: der Sinn ist: Da wir schlecht beritten seien, erlaube 
es ihm seine Grofsmnt nicht, es darauf anzulegen, uns hinter sich zu 
lassen. 

3*) were subsided: jetzt had. Vgl. U, 19. 

^) Mr. Burchell bring^g up: absoluter Nom. mit prüdik. Partizip. 

^') Sir (Herr): Titel des Baronets und des Ritters; stets vor dem 
Vornamen. 

38) town: London; vgl. II, 25; III, 9. 

3ö) whimsical [s weich] man Sonderling. 



80 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

volence to an excess when young; for his passions were then 
strong, and as they were all upon the side of virtue, they led it 
up to a romantic extreme ^°. He early began to aim at the 
qiialifications of the soldier and scholar, was soon distinguished 
in the army, and had some repiUation among men of learning. 
Adulation ever foUows the ambitious; for such alone receive 
most pleasure from flattery. He was surrounded with crowds, 
who showed him only one side of their character; so that he 
began to lose a regard for private interest in universal sympathy. 
He loved all mankind; for fortune prevented him from knowing 
that there were rascals. Physicians teil us of a disorder in which 
the whole body is so exquisitely sensible, that the slightest touch 
gives pain. What some have thus suflered in their persons, this 
gentleman feit in his mind : the slightest distress, whether real or 
fictitious, touched him to the quick^\ and his soul laboured 
under a sickly sensibility of the miseries of others. Thus dis- 
posed to relieve, it will be easily conjectured he found numbers 
disposed to solicit; his profusions began to impair his fortune, 
but not his good-nature; that, indeed, was seen to increase as 
the other seemed to decay. He grew imprövident as he grew 
poor ; and though he talked like a man of sense, his actions 
were those of a fooL Still, however, being surrounded with 
importunity, and no longer able to satisfy every request that 
was made him, instead of money he gave promises*^. They were 
all he had to bestow, and he had not resolution enough to give 
any man pain by a denial. By this he drew round him *^ crowds 
of dependants, whom he was sure to disappoint, yet wished to 
relieve. These hung upon him for a time, and left him with 
merited reproaches and contempt. But in proportion as he be- 
came contemptible to others, he became despicable to himself. 
His mind had leaned upon their adulation, and that suppört 
taken away**, he could find no pleasure in the applause of his 
heart, which he had never learned to reverence. The world now 



^) they led it up to a romantic extreme: it ist auf virtue zu be- 
ziehen. Da seine Leidenschaften alle auf Seiten der Tugend waren, so 
führten sie dieselbe zu einer romanhaften Übertreibung. 

^^) io the quick: aufs empfindlichste; the quick das lebende, gegen 
den Schmerz empfindliche Fleisch. 

^^) promises: das Subst. hat scharfes, das Verb weiches s. 

^3) round him: das persönliche Fürwort anstatt des reflexiven hat 
sich in der Prosa nach Präpositionen mit lokaler Bedeutung erhalten. 
Sonst dichterisch und veraltet. 

**) that Support taken away: absoluter Nominativ mit prädikativem 
Partizip des Perfekts im Sinne eines Temporalsatzes. 



CHAPTER III. 31 

began to wear a different äspect: the flattery of his friends be- 
gan to dwlDdle into simple approbation; approbation soon took 
the more friendly form of ad vice; and advice, when rejected, 
produced their ^ep^oaches*^ He now, therefore, found that 
such frieuds as benefits bad gathered round him , were little 
estimable; he now found that a man's own heart must be ever 
given to gain that of another. I now found that — that*^ — 
I forgot*^ whal I was going to observe; in short, Sir, he resolved 
to respect bimseif, and iaid down a plan of restoring his falling 
fortune. For this purpose, in his own whimsical manner, he 
travelied through Europe on foot; and now, though he has 
scarce attained the age of thirty, his circumstances are more 
äffluent than ever. At present, his bounties*^ are more rational 
and möderate than before; but still he preserves the character 
of a bumourist-^ and finds most pleasure in eccentric virtues.» 
My attention was so much taken up by Mr. BurchelPs ac- 
count, that I scarce looked forward as we went along, tili we were 
alarmed by the cries of my family; when, turning*°, 1 perceived 
my youngest daughter in the midst of a rapid stream, thrown 
from her horse, and struggiing with the torrent She had sunk 
twice, nor was it in my power to disengage myself in time to 



*5) the flattery . . . reproaches: Steigeraog mit Wiederaofaahme des 
YoraufgeheadeD Wortes (Klimax). 

**) / now found that — that: die Aposiopese erklärt sich aus der 
Verlegenheit, in welche Burchell durch dea unbeabsichtigtea Überg^ang 
der Rede aus der dritten in die erste Person gerät. Göthe wird von 
Herder getadelt, weil ihm dieser Übergang nach der Absicht Goldsmiths 
bei der Vorlesung des Buches entgangen war. „Dafs wir gleich zu 
Anfang, wo BnrcheU, indem er bei einer Erzählung aus der dritten 
Person in die erste übergeht, sich zu verraten im ßegrifif ist, dafs wir 
nicht gleich einsehen oder wenigstens gemutmafst hatten, dals er der 
Lord, von dem er spricht, selbst sei, verzieh er (Herder) uns nicht, 
und als wir zuletzt, bei Entdeckung und Verwandlung des armen, 
kümmmerlichen Wanderers in einen reichen, mächtigen Herrn, uns 
kindlich freuten, rief er erst jene Stelle zurück, die wir nach der Ab- 
sicht des Autors überhört hatten, und hielt über unsern Stumpfsinn 
eine gewaltige Strafpredigt. (Dichtung und Wahrheit. Buch 10). Vgl. 
den Schlufs der Einleitung. 

^^) I forgot: gewöhnlicher I forget, wie die beiden ersten Ausgaben 
haben, weil das Präsens (neben dem Präteritum) gebraucht wird, wenn 
das Ergebnis einer der Vergangenheit angehörenden Thätigkeit bis in 
die Gegenwart hineinreicht. 

*^) bounties (frz. honte) Freigebigkeit. 

*^) a humourist: ein Sonderling. 

^0) tuming: der Pfarrer wandte den Blick, der während des Ge- 
sprächs mit Burchell seitwärts gerichtet war, infolge des Hilferufs seiner 
Familie nach vorn. 



32 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

bring her relief. My sensations were even too violent to permit 
my attempiing her rescue. She must have certainly perished 
had not my companion, perceiving her danger, instantly plunged 
in to her relief, and, with some difficulty, brought her in safety 
to the opposite shore. By taking the current a littie farther up^S 
the rest of the family got safely over, where we had an oppor- 
tunily of joining our acknöwledgments to hers. Her gralitude 
niay be more readily imagined tban described; she thanked her 
dehverer more with looks than words, and continued to lean 
upon bis arm, as if still willing to receive assistance. My wife 
also hoped one day to have the pleasure of returning bis kind- 
ness at her own bouse. Tbus, after we were refreshed" at 
the next inn, and had dined togetber, as Mr. Burchell was going 
to a diflerent part of the country, he took leave, and we pursued 
our jouiney; my wife observing as he went, that she liked bim 
extremely, and protesting, that if he had birth and fortune to 
entitle bim to match into such a family as ours, she knew no 
man she would sooner fix upon. Icould not but smile to bear** 
her talk in this lofty strain; but I was never much displeased 
with those barmless delusions that tend to make us more happy. 



CHAPTER lY. 

A Proof that eveo the hamblest Portone inay grant Happiness, which 
depends, not oa CircumstaDces, but Constitution ^ 

The place of our retreat was in a littie neighbourbood, con- 
sisting of farmers, who tilled their own grounds, and were equal 
strangers to öpulence and pöverty. As they had almost all the 
conv^niences of life within themselves, they seldom visited towns 
or cities^ in search of superfluity. Remote from the polite, they 
still retained the primeval simpiicity of manners; and, frugal 
by babit, they scarce knew that temperance was a virtue. They 

^^) hy taking the current a littie farther up: indem sie etwas auf- 
wärts über den Strom setzten. 

^''^) after we were refreshed: after und since werden gern mit dem 
Präteritum anstatt des Plusquamperfekts verbunden« 

^^) to hear: der Infinitiv mit to nach smile vertritt einen Temporalsatz. 
^) Constitution: Gemütsbeschaifenheit. 

^) towns and cities: Märkte und Städte; town (Zaun) im Gegensatz 
znm ofiTenen Dorfe (village) urspr. ein mit einer Mauer oder einem Wall 
umgebener Ort, der einen regelmäfsigen Markt hat, jedoch nicht Bischofs- 
sitz ist oder gewesen ist; city (frz. cit^) im Gegensatz zu town ein 
Ort mit Korporationsrechten, welcher Bischofssitz ist oder gewesen ist. 



CHAPTER IV. 33 

wrought* wilh cheerfulness on days of labour, but observed 
festivals as intervals of idleness and pleasiire. They kept up the 
Christmas cärol*, sent trüe-love knots on Valentine morning^ 
eat pancakes on Shrövetide, showed their wit on the first of April, 
and religiously cracked nuts on Michaelmas eve^ Being apprised 
of our approach, the whole neigbourhood came out to meet 
their minister, dressed in their finest clothes, and preceded by 
a pipe and täbor^ A feast also was provided for our receptiön, 
at wbich we sat cheerfuliy down; and what the conversation 
wanted in wit was made up in laughter. 

Our little habitation was situated at the foot of a sloping 
hill, sheltered with a beautiful underwood behind, and a prat- 
tling river before; on one side a meadow, on the other a green. 
My farm consisted of about twenty äcres® of excellent land, 
having given* a hundred pound^® for my predecessor's good- 



^) wroughti jetzt worked, ausgen. in wrougt iron Schmiedeeisen aod 
in übertraereoer Bedeutang voo sittlicher Eiawirkuog. 

*) Christmas carol [spr. cns'-mas cär'-ol] Weihoachtslied. Carol 
eigtl. Tanz mit Gesang. Von den beiden Arten von Christmas carols, 
dem ernsten Gesänge religiösen Inhalts und dem heitern, der Festfeier 
angepafsten Liede, ist das letztere gemeint. Es wurde beim Trinken 
der VVeihnachtsbowle (Wassail song), beim Auftrageu des Wildschweins- 
kopfes (Boar's head carol), während der Weihnachtsklotz (Yule-log) ver- 
brannt wurde, im Falnilienkreise gesungen. 

^) Valentine momingi am Morgen des 14. Februar, der dem hei- 
ligen Valentin, einem nach der Legende unter Claudius enthaupteten 
Presbyter, geweiht ist, beschenken sich junge Leute mit auf künstliche 
Weise verschlungenen Bändern, true-love knots (das abstrakte love 
steht für das konkrete lover) oder auch true-lover's koots [der Haupt- 
ton liegt auf true] genannt, dem Sinnbild unzertrennlicher Liebe, oder 
mit andern symbolischen Zeichen gegenseitiger Zuneigung. 

^) Michaelmas eve [spr. Mic'-kel-m«s] der Abend vor dem Michaels- 
feste, welches auf den 29. Sept. fällt. Auch am 31. Oktober, dem 
Abend vor Allerheiligen, war es Sitte, INüsse zu knacken und zu brennen. 
Vgl. XI, 1 u. 2. 

^) pipe and tabor: die Pfeife (pipe) hat drei Fingerlöcher und wird 
mit der linken Hand gespielt, während die rechte Hand mit einem 
Schlägel eine kleine Trommel von cylindrischer Form (tabor) schlägt, 
die dem Spieler umgehängt wird. 

^) twenty acres: uogefahr 8 Hektare; ein acre (englischer Morgen) 
= 40,16 Ar. 

^j having^ giveni das logische Subjekt des zusammengesetzten Par- 
tizips der Vergangenheit ist dem Pronomen my (farm) zu entnehmen. 

^^) pound: Pfund (Sterling); bei G. bald mit, bald ohne Plural- 
zeichen, ohne erkennbaren Unterschied im Gebrauche und in der Bedeu- 
tung. Jetzt zur Bezeichnung der Münze und des Gewichts stets pounds. 
Wenn andere Münzsorten hinzugefügt werden, zuweilen (selten) noch 
pound. In Zusammensetzungen stets paund ohne s\ z. B. a thirty- 
pound note. 

Goldsmith, The Yicar of Wakefield. 2. Auflage. 3 



84 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

wilP^. Nothing could exceed the neatness of my little enclo- 
sures, the elms and hedge-rows appearing with inexpressible 
beauty. My house consisted of but one story, and was covered 
with thatch, which gave it an air of great snugness; the walls on 
the inside were nicely whitewashed, and my daughters under- 
took to adorn them with pictures of their own designing^^. 
Though the same room served us for parlour and kitchen, that 
only made it the warmer. Besides, as it was kept with the 
utmost neatness — the dishes, plates, and coppers being well 
scoured, and all disposed in bright rows on the shelves — the 
eye was agreeably relieved , and did not want richer furniture. 
There were three other apartments; one for my wife and me, 
another for our two daughters within our own^^, and the third, 
with two beds, for the rest of the children. 

The little republic to which I gave laws was regulated in 
the following manner. By^* sunrise we all assembled in our 
common apartment, the fire being previously kindled by the ser- 
vant. After we had saluted each other with proper ceremony — 
for I always thought fit to keep up some mechänical forms of 
good breeding, without which freedom ever destroys friendship 
— we all bent in gratitude to that Being who gave us another 
day. This duty being performed, my son and I went to pursue 
our usual industry abroad, while my wife and daughters employed 
themselves in providing breakfast, which was always ready at a 
certain time. 1 allowed half an hour for this meal, and an hour 
for dinner, which time was taken up in innocent mirth between 
my wife and daughters, and in philosophical arguments between 
my son and me. 

As we rose with the sun , so we never pursued our labour 
after it was gone down", but returned home to the expecting 
family, wbere smiling looks, a neat hearth, and pleasant fire 
were prepared for our reception. Nor were we without guests : 



^1) for my predecessor^s good-wilU die Vergütung für die freiwillige 
Abtretung des Grundstücks von Seiten des früheren Pächters vor Ab- 
lauf des Kontrakts. 

12) designingi [mit scharfem s] frz. dessin. Vgl. I, 36. 

1^) within our own: neben dem unsrigen (mit dem Durchgang durch 
unser Zimmer). 

1*) by sunrise: gegen Sonnenaufgang; by (seltener against) bezeichnet 
die Annäherung an einen Zeitraum; at den Zeitpunkt; about die unge- 
fähre Zeitangabe. 

1^) was gone down: jetzt it had gone down; it von der Sonne 
nach dem natürlichen Sprachgebrauch; he durch Personifizierung und 
Nachahmung derselben in der Prosa. 



CHAPTER IV. 35 

sometimes Farmer Flamborough^^, our talkative neighbour, and 
often tbe blind piper, would ^^ pay us a visit, and taste our goose- 
berry^® wine, for tbe making of wbich we had lost neither tbe 
receipt^* nor tbe reputation. Tbese barmless people bad several 
ways of being good Company; wbile one played, tbe otber would 
sing some sootbing ballad, Jobnny Armstrong's last good-nigbt, 
or tbe cruelty öf Barbara Allen *°. Tbe nigbt was concluded in 
tbe manüer we began tbe morning, my youngest boys being 
appointed to read tbe lessons^^ of tbe day; and be that read 
loudest, distinctest, and best was to bave a hälfpenny^^ on Sun- 
day to put into tbe poor^s box. 

Wben Sunday came, it was indeed a day of finery, wbich 
all my sumptuary ^dicts could not restrain. How well soever** 
I fancied my lectures against pride bad conquered tbe vanity of 
my daugbters, yet I still found them secretly attacbed to all their 
former finery; tbey still loved laces, ribbons, bugles'* and cat- 
gut^'*; my wife berself retained a passion for ber crimson pa- 
duasoy^^, because I formerly bappened to say it became ber. 

Tbe lirst Sunday, in particular, tbeir bebaviour served to 
mortify me. I bad desired my girls tbe preceding night to be 



^ö) Farmer Flamhorough: die BezeichoüDgeo der Würde, des Amtes, 
der BeschäftigUDg n. dgl. vor £igeDnanien stehen häufig ohne Artikel. 
^'^) would'. hier im Sinne von ,,fand Gefallen daran*^ 
^8) goosebery: über die Aussprache s. I, 10. 
1^) receipt: p ist stumm. 

20) Johnny Armstrong' s last good-night, showing how John Arm- 
strong, with his eight-score meu, fought a bloody battle with the 
Scotch kiog at £dinborougb, eine alte schottische Ballade, war ein 
Lieblingslied von Goldsmith, wie aus einem Briefe an Mr. Hodson her- 
vorgeht: If I go to the opera . . . I sit and sigh for Lishoy fireside, 
and ^Johnny Armstrong's last good- night' from Peggy Golden. Der 
Text derselben ist in Evan's Ausgabe alter Balladen, die Melodie in 
Chappell's Populär Music of Olden Time; der Text der beliebten 
englischen Ballade ^the cruelty of Barbara Allen* in Percy's Reliques 
of Ancieut £oglish Poetry, die Melodie in Chappell's Old English Songs 
and Ballads zu finden. 

21) lessons: Abschnitte der heiligen Schrift (Perikopen). 

22) halfpenny: eine Bronzemünze im Werte von 5 Pfennig. — The 
poor's box (veraltet); jetzt the poor-box. 

23) how soever (selten) leitet einen Satz mit konzessivem Sinne ein. 
2*) bzigles: (schwarze) Glaskorallen. 

2^) catgut: Seidengaze (zum Sticken). 

26) paduasoy [spr. pj(d'-ü-«-soy oder päd'-ü-soy] von dem Namen 
der Stadt Padua in Italien und dem franz. soie Seide (franz. pou- oder 
poult-de-soie) : 1) ein schwerer, glanzloser Seidenstofi^, 2) ein Kleid oder 
Mantel von diesem Stofif. In der Litteratur des vorigen Jahrhunderts 
als ein prächtiges Kleidungsstück oft erwähnt. Jetzt veraltet. 

3* 



36 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

dressed early the next day; for I always loved to be at church 
a good while before tbe rest of the congregation. They punctualiy 
obeyed my directioDs; but when we were to assemble in the 
morningat breakfast, downcame my wife and daughters, dressed 
out in all their former splendour: their hair plastered up with 
pomatum, their faces patched to taste^^, their trains bundled 
up into a heap behind, and rustliug at every motion. I could 
not help smiling at their vanity, particularly that of my wife^ 
from whom I expected more discretion. In this exigence, there- 
fore, my only resource was to order my son, with an important 
air, to call our coach. The girls were amazed at the command ; 
but I repeated it with more solemnity than before. «Surely, my 
dear, you jest,» cried my wife; «we can walk it*® perfectly well: 
we want no coach to carry us now.» — «You mistake, child,» 
returned I, «we do want a coach; for if we walk to church in 
this trim, the very children in the parish will hoot after us.» — 
«Indeed,» repiied my wife, «I always imagined that my Charles 
was fond of seeing bis children neat and handsome about bim.» 
— «You may be as neat as you please,» interrupted I, «and [ 
shall love you the better for it; but all this is not neatness, but 
frippery. These rufflings, and pinkings*^, and patchings will 
only make us hated by all the wives of our neighbours. No, my 
children,» continued I, more gravely, «those gowns may be altered 
into somethiug of a pjainer cut; for finery is very unbecoming 
in US, who want the means of decency. I do not know whether 
such flouncing and shreddiug®^ is becoming even in the rieh, if 
we consider, upon a möderate calculation, that the nakedness 
of the indigent world may be clothed from the trimmings of the 
vain.» 



27) patched to taste (jetzt tastefully) geschmackvoll mit Schöo- 
pflästercheo beklebt. Es war in der ersten Hälfte des vorigen Jahr^ 
hunderts bei den Damen Englands Mode, kleine Stücke von schwarz- 
seidenem PQaster auf das Gesicht zu legen. Durch die Stellung der- 
selben gaben sie zugleich ihre politische Gesinnung zu erkennen. Die 
Anhängerinnen der Torypartei legten sie auf die rechte, die der Whig- 
partei auf die linke Seite der Stirn. 

28) we can walk it: it steht pleonastisch beim Intransitiv ohne 
Beziehung auf ein bestimmtes Substantiv; hier bezeichnet es ein räum- 
liches Mals == the distance. 

'^) rufflings and pinkings: Krausen und Spitzen; von to ruGfle 
kräuseln und to pink durchstechen, auszacken. 

^) such flouncing and shredding: solches Besetzen mit Schleppen 
und Streifen; to flounce ein Damenkleid mit einem Besatz (flounce) 
versehen, der nachschleppt und das Rauschen beim Gehen verursacht; 
shreddings, von to shred zerschneiden, sind lange, schmale Streifen, 
die auf ein Damen kleid genäht werden. 



CHAPTER V. 87 

This remonstrance had the proper effect ; they iivent with 
great composure, that very instant, to change their dress ; and 
the next day I had the satisfaction of Unding my daughters, at 
their own request, employed in cutting up their trains into 
Sunday waistcoats*^ for Dick and Bill**, the two little ones, and 
what was still more satisfactory, the gowns** seemed improved 
by this curtailing. 



CHAPTER V. 

A oew aod great Acquaiotaace introdoced. What we place most hopes 
upon, geoerally proves most fatal. 

At a small distance from the house my predecessor had 
made a seat, overshaded by a hedge of hawthorn and honey- 
suckle ^ Here, when the weather was fine and our labour soon 
iinished, we usually sat together to enjoy an extensive landscape, 
in the calm of the evening. Here, too, we drank tea, which was 
now become^ an occasional banquet; and, as we had it but 
seldom, it diffused a new joy, the preparations for it being made 
with no small share of hüstle and ceremony. On these occasions 
our two little ones always read for us'^, and they were regularly 
served after we had done. Sometimes, to give a variety to our 
amusements, the girls sung^ to the guitar; and whlle they thus 
formed a little concert, my wife and I would stroli down the 
sloping field, that was emhellished with blue-bells and centaury\ 
talk of our children with rapture, and enjoy the breeze that 
wafted both health and harmony. 



3^) waistcoats: spr. wes'-kets. 

32) Dick and Bill: AbkürzuDgeo für Richard und Wilhelm. 

'3) g^own in der Bedeutung „Damenkleid'' ist veraltet; jetzt 
dress. — Gown dient noch zur Bezeichnung für die Amtstracht der 
Richter und Universitätslehrer. 

^) hawthorn: Hagedorn, der gemeinsame Name der Dornpflanze, die 
gewöhnlich zur Bildung lebendiger Hecken verwandt wird ; honeysuckle, 
Geifsblatt, auch woodbine genannt, eine zur Gattung der Lonicera ge- 
hörige Heckenpflanze. 

2) wiu become: jetzt had become. Vgl. 11, 19. 

3) read for us: lasen uns vor ; for anstatt to zur Bezeichnung des 
Öativs, ist selten; gewöhnlich read to us. 

*) sung: in der Prosa veraltet; jetzt sang. 

^) blue-bell and ceniaury: blue-bell (Campanula rotundifolia) die eng- 
lische Hyacinthe oder blaue Glockenblume wegen der blauen, glocken- 
ähnlichen Blüten; centaury (Centaurea) Tausendgüldenkraut. 



f^S THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

In this nianner we began to find that every Situation in life 
inay bring its own peculiar pleasures: every morning waked us to a 
repetition of toil, but the evening repaid it with väcant bilarity®. 

It was about the beginning of autumn, on a holiday (for I 
kept such as intervals of relaxation from labour), that Ihad drawn 
out my family to our usual place of amusement, and our young 
musicians began their usual concert. As we were thus engaged, 
we saw a stag bound nimbly by, within about twenty paces of 
where we were sitting, and by its panting it seemed pressed by 
the hunters. We had not much time to reflect upon the poor 
animaFs distress, when we perceived the dogs and horsemen 
come sweeping along at some distance behind, and making the 
very path it had taken. 1 was instantly for returning in with my 
family, but either curiosity or surprise, or some more hidden 
rootive, held my wife and daughters to their seats. The hunts- 
man who rode foremost passed us with great swiftness, followed 
by four or five persons more, who seemed in equal haste. At 
last a young gentJeman of a more genteel appearance than the 
rest came forward, and for a while regarding us, instead of pur- 
suing the chase^ stopped short, and giving his horse to a servant 
who attended, approached us with a careless superior air. He 
seemed to want no introduction, but was going to salute ' my 
daughters as one certain of a kind reception; but they had early 
learnt the lesson of looking presumption out of countenance. 
Upon which he let us know that his name was Thornhill, and 
that he was owner of the estate that lay for some exlent round 
US. He again, therefore, offered^ to salute the f^male part of 
the family, and such was the power of fortune and fine clothes, 
that he found no second repulse. As his address, though confi- 
dent, was easy, we soon became more familiär; and perceiving 
musical instruments lying near, he begged to be favoured with 
a song. As 1 did not approve of such disproportioned acquain- 
tances, I winked upon my daughters in order to prevent their 
compliance; but my hint was counteracted by one from their 
mother, so that, with a cheerful air, they gave us a favourite song 
of Dryden's ®. Mr. Thornhill seemed highly delighted with their 

^) vacant kUarityi sorglose Heiterkeit. 

'^) to salute: mit einem Kufs begröfseD. 

^) offeredi to offer to sich aoschickea, erdreisten zn. 

ö) of DrydetCs (sc. songs): of partitiver Genetiv; John Dryden 
(1631—1700) englischer Dichter. Hauptwerke: The Conqoest of Gra- 
nada, Heldendrama, 1672; Absalom and Achitophel, satirisches Gedicht» 
1681; Ode an die heilige Cäcilie, gewöhnlich Alexander's Feast ge- 
nannt, 1697; Fabeln 1700. 



CHAPTER V. 39 

Performance and choice, and then took up the guitar himself. 
He played but very indiflerently; however, my eldest daughter 
repaid bis former applause wilh interest, and assured bim tbat 
bis tones were louder tban even tbose of ber master. At tbis 
compbment be bowed, whicb sbe returned witb a curtsey. He 
praised ber taste, and sbe commended bis understanding; an 
age could not bave made tbem better acquainted; wbile tbe fond 
motber too, ^ually bappy, insisted upon ber landlord's stepping 
in, and taking a glass of ber gooseberry. Tbe wbole family 
seemed earnest to please bim : my girls attempted to entertain 
bim witb töpics tbey tbougbt most modern; wbiie Moses, on tbe 
contrary, gave bim a question or two from the äncients, for wbicb 
be bad tbe satisfaction of being laugbed at. My little ones were 
no less busy, and fondly stuck close to^^ tbe stranger. All my 
endeavours could scarce keep tbeir dirty fingers from bandling 
and tarnisbing tbe lace on bis clotbes, and lifting up tbe flaps 
of bis pocket-holes to see wbat was tbere. At tbe approacb of 
evening be took leave; but not tili be bad requested permission 
to renew his visit, wbicb, as be was our landlord, we most 
readily agreed to. 

As soon as be was gone, my wife called a Council on tbe 
cönduct^^ of tbe day. Sbe was of opinion, tbat it was a most 
fortunate bit, for tbat^^ sbe bad known even stranger tbings tban 
tbat brougbt to bear^^. Sbe boped again to see tbe day in 
wbicb we migbt bold up our beads wilb tbe best of^bem^*; and 
concluded, sbe protested sbe could see no reason wby tbe two 
Miss Wrinklers^* sbould marry great fortunes, and ber cbildren 
get none. As tbis last argument was directed to me, I protested 
1 could See no reason for it neitber^^; nor wby Mrs. Simpkins got 
tbe ten tbousand pound^^ prize in tbe lottery, and we sat down 



^^) to stick close to: [close s scharf] sich dicht aoschmiegeii an. 
1^) conduct: Verlauf. 

12) for that: (darum dafs) weil, ist subordinierende Konjunktion. 

13) brotight to bear: sie hätte es erlebt, dafs noch seltsamere Dinge 
zustande gekommen wären, als etwa eine Heirat ihrer Tochter mit dem 
Gutsherrn. 

1*) the best of tkemi das dem Superlativ im partitiven Genetiv 
beigefügte Personalpronomen (of them) bezieht sich auf den aus dem 
Superlativ zu entnehmenden Sustantiv begriff. 

1^) the two Miss Wrinklersi das Ploralzeichen beim Eigennamen 
wegen des Titels (Mifs); aber the two sisters Wrinkler. 

1®) wo . . . neither (veraltet) statt 7io . . . either. Bei Dichtern und 
in der Volkssprache findet sich noch das negative Pronomen anstatt 
des indefiuitiven. 

1^) pound: ohne s, weil attributiv gebraucht. Vgl. IV, 10. 



40 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

with a blank^^ tl prolest^*, Chdrles,» cried my wife, «this is Ihe 
way you always damp my girls and me when we are in spirits. 
Teil me, Sophy, my dear, what do you ihink of our new visitor? 
Don't you think he seemed to be good-natured?» — «Immensely 
so, iodeed, mamma,» replied she; «I think he has a great deal 
to say upon everything, and is never at a loss; and the more 
trifling the subject, the more he has to say.» — «Yes,» cried Olivia, 
che is well enough for a man; but, for my part, 1 don't much 
like him, he is so extremely impudent and familiär; but on the 
guitar he is shocking.» These two last speeches 1 interpreted by 
contraries. 1 found by this, that Sophia internally despised, 
as much as Olivia secretly admired him. tWhatever may be your 
opinions of him, my children,» cried I, cto confess a truth, he 
has not prepossessed me in bis favour. Disproportioned friend- 
ships ever terminate in disgust; and I thought, notwithstanding 
all his ease, that he seemed perfectly sensible of the distance 
between us. Let us keep to companions of our own rank.» 1 
would have proceeded, but for*° the Interruption of a servant 
from the ^Squire, who, with his compliments, sent us a side of 
venison^^, and a promise to dine with us some days after. This 
well-timed present pleaded more powerfully in his favour than 
anything I had to say could öbviate. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Happiness of a Coontry Fireside. 

As we carried on the former dispute with some degree of 
warmth, in order to accömmodate matters, it was universally 
agreed that we should have a part of the venison for supper; 
and the girls undertook the task with alacrity. «l am sorry,» 
cried I, «that we have no neighbour or stranger to take part in 
this good cheer; feasts of this kind acquire a double relish from 
hospitality.» — «Bless me^» cried my wife, «here comes our good 

^^) to sü down wäh a blank: mit eiaer Niete sitzen bleibea. 

19) / protest: eia häu6g wiederkehreoder Aasdruck, ist im Sinne 
von „ich versichere, wahrlich" veraltet; jetzt gewöhnlich I declare oder 
I assure yon. 

^) but for mit nachfolgendem Sabstantiv hat den Sinn eines ver- 
neinten Bedingangssatzes = wenn nicht gewesen wäre. 

21) a side of venison [spr. ven'zn] ein Stück Wildbret (die Hälfte 
eines Rehes). 

^) bless me: elliptischer Wunschsatz statt may God bless me. 



CHAPTER VI. 41 

friend Mr. Burchell, that saved our Sophia, and that run' you 
down fairly in the argument.» — «Confute^ me in argument, 
child!» cried I. «You mistake there, my dear; I believe there are 
but few that can do that. l never dispute your abilities at making 
a goose-pie, and I beg youll leave argument to me.» As I spoke, 
poor Mr. ßurchell entered the house, and was welcomed by the 
family, who shook him heartily by the band, while little Dick 
officiously reached him a chair. 

I was pleased with the poor man's friendship for two 
reasons: because I knew that he wanted mine, and I knew him 
to be friendly as far as he was abie. He was known in our 
neighbourhood by the character of the poor gentleman that 
would do no good when he was young, though he was not yet 
thirty. He would at intervals talk wilh great good sense, but in 
general he was fondest of the Company of children, whom he 
used to call harmless little men. He was fämous, I found, for 
singing them ballads and telling them stories, and seldom went 
out without something in bis pockets for them, a piece of ginger- 
bread* or a hälfpenny whistle. He generally came for a few days 
into our neighbourhood once a year, and lived upon the neigh- 
bours' hospitalily. He sat down to supper among us, and my 
wife was not sparing of her gooseberry wine. The tale went 
round; he sung^ us old songs, and gave the children the story 
of the ßuck of Beverland, wilh the hislory of Patient Grissel, 
the adventures of Calskin, and then Fair Rösamond's bower*. 
Our cock, which always crew^ at eleven, now told us it was 
timefor repose; but an unforeseen difficulty started about lodg- 
ing the stranger: all our beds were already taken up, and it 

2) run: veraltetes Präteritum statt ran. 

^) confutei elliptischer Infinitiv ohne to im Ausruf des Unwillens. 
Vgl. 11,24; in, 24. 

*) gvngerhreädi Pfefferkuchen; ginger Ingwer. 

^) sung: jetzt sang. Vgl. V, 4. 

^) Bück of Beverland . . . : alte Volksdichtungen. Die Geschichte 
von der geduldigen Griseldis, der Heldin einer mittelalterlichen Volks- 
sage, erschien zuerst als Novelle in Boccaccio's Decameron. Von Ge- 
burt ein armes Köhlermädchen, wird Griseldis wegen ihrer Schönheit 
und Sittsamkeit von dem Markgrafen Walther von Saluzzo zur Gemahlin 
erwählt. Um ihren Gehorsam und ihre Geduld zu prüfen, wird sie 
von ihm scheinbar verstofsen, im Schlofs von Saluzzo eingekerkert und 
erst wieder aufgenommen, nachdem sie alle Proben bestanden hat. Die 
englische Ballade stammt aus dem Jahr 1599. — Die Ballade Gatskin 
hat Ähnlichkeit mit unserm Märchen Aschenbrödel. — Der Stoff der 
Ballade Fair Rosauiond's bower gehört der Zeit Heinrichs II. von England 
(1154—89) an. The story of the Bück of Beverland ist unbekannt. 

'') crewi jetzt gewöhnlich crowed. 



42 THB VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

iivas too late to send him to the next alehouse. In this dilemma, 
little Dick offered him his pari of the hed, if his brother Moses 
would let him lie with him. tAnd I,» cried Bill, «will give Mr. 
Durcheil my pari, if my sisters will take me to theirs.» — «Well 
done, my good children,» cried I, «hospitality is one of the first 
Christian duties. The beast retires to his shelter^, and the bird 
flies to its nest; but helpless man can only find refuge from his 
feilow-creature. The greatest stranger in this world was He 
that came to save it. He never had a house, as if willing to see 
what hospitality was left remaining amongst us. Deborah, my 
dear,» cried I to my wife, «give those boys a lump of sugar each; 
and let Dick's be the largest, because he spoke first.» 

In the morning early I called out my whole family to help 
at saving an after-growth of hay*, and our guest offering his 
assistance, he^^ was accepted among the number. Our labours 
went on lightly; we tumed the swath^^ to the wind. I went fore- 
most, and the rest followed in due succession. I could not avoid, 
however, observing the assiduity of Mr. ßurchell in assisting my 
daughter Sophia in her part of the task. When he had finished 
his own, he would join in hers, and enter into a close conver- 
sation; but I had too good anopinion of Sophia^s understanding, 
and was too well convinced of her ambition, to be under any 
uneasiness from a man of broken fortune. When we were 
finished ^^ for the day, Mr. Burchell was invited as on the night 
before; but he refused, as he was to Ue that night at a neigh- 
bour's, to whose child he was carrying a whistle. When gone, 
our conversation at supper tumed upon our late unfortunate 
guest. «What a strong instance,» said I, «is that poor man of the 
miseries attending^* a youth of levity and extravagance! He by 
no means wants sense, which only serves to äggravate his former 
folly. Poor forlörn creature! where are now the revellers, the 
flatterers, that he could once inspire and command? Their 
former raptures at his wit are now converted inlo särcasms at 
his folly; he is poor, and perhaps deserves poverty; for he has 



^) hü shelter: die beideo ersten Ausgaben haben Jits; beast als 
Maskul. ist dichterisch. Die folgenden Worte enthalten Anklänge an 
die Bibelstellen Matth. 8, 20; Luc. 9, 58; Job. 3, 17. 

®) to save an after-growth of hay: das Grummet einbringen. 

^°) our guest . . ., he: absolnter Nominativ (our guest) mit prädi- 
kativem Partizip, aufgenommen durch he als Subjekt. Diese Konstruk- 
tion gilt grammatisch als nicht ganz korrekt. 

'^) swath [spr. a = ö] Schwaden (Garbe abgemähten Grases). 

12) were finished: jetzt had finished, had done, were ready. Vgl. II, 19. 

1^) aüending a youth = which are attendant on a youth. 



CHAPTER VI. 43 

neither the ambition to be independent) nor the skill to be use- 
ful.» Prompted perhaps by some secret reasons, I delivered tbis 
Observation wjth too much acrimony, which my Sopbia gently 
reproved. «Whatsoever^* bis former conduct may be^*^, päpä, bis 
circumstances should exempt bim from censure now. His pre- 
sent indigence is a sufficient puoishment for former folly; and 
1 have heard my papa bimself say, that we should never strike 
one unnecessary blow at a victim over whom Providence holds 
the scourge of its resentment.»^^ — «You are right, Sophy,» cried 
my son Moses; «and one of the äncients finely represents so 
malicious a conduct by the attempts of a rustic to flay Marsyas^^ 
wbose skin, the fable teils us, had been wholly stripped oif by 
anotber. Besides, I don't know if this poor man's Situation be 
so bad as my fatber would represent it. We are not to judge of 
the feelings of others by what we might feel if in tbeir place. 
However^* dark the babitation of the mole to our eyes, yet the 
animal itself finds the apartment sufliciently lightsome. And, to 
confess a truth, this man^s mind seems fitted to bis Station; for 
I never heard any one more sprightly than he was to-day, when 
he conversed with you.» This was said without Ihe least design; 
however, it excited a blusb, which she strove to cover by an 
aflected laugh, assuring him that she scarce took any notice of 
what he said to her, but that she believed he might once have 
been a very fine gentleman. The readiness with which she 
undertook to vindicate herseif, and her blushing, were Symptoms 
1 did not internally approve; but I repressed my suspicions. 

As we expected our landlord the next day, my wife went 
to make the venison päsly. Moses sat reading, while I taught the 
utile ones. My daughters seemed equally busy with the rest; 
and 1 observed them for a good while cooking somelhing over 
the iire. I at first supposed tbey were assisting their mother; 
but little Dick informed me, in a whisper, that they were making 
a wash^^ for the face. Washes of all kinds I had a natural anli- 

^*) whatsoever: jetzt selten st^tt "whglever, leitet einea Nebensatz 
mit konzessivem Sinne ein. 

1^) may be: ungenau fiir may have been. 

^®) Providence . . . its reseittment: personifiziert ist Fr. meist weib- 
lich, zuweilen auch männlich. 

^'^) Marsyas: aus Phrygien, fand die von Athene weggeworfene Flöte 
und forderte Apollo zu einem musikalischen Wettstreit heraus. Er 
wurde besiegt und ihm lebendig die Haut abgezogen. Ovid Met. VI, 
383 fif. Fast. VI, 703 fF. 

^8) however: elliptischer Konzessivsatz; zu ergänzen ist der Kon- 
junktiv be. 

^^) a wash: ein Schönheitswasser. ' 



44 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

pathy to; for I knew that, instead of mending the complexion, 
Ihey spoiled it. 1 therefore approached my chair by sly degrees*® 
to the fire, and grasping the poker^\ as if it wanted mending, 
seemingly by accident, overturned the whole composition, and 
it was too late to begin another. 



(CHAPTERS VII— IX.) 

Chapter VII. The next day Mr. Thornhill, the young 'Squire, 
with a couple of friends and numerous servants, came to dine 
with the family, and entertained thein by making jokes and rais- 
ing the laugh against poor Moses. Upon bis departure, they en- 
tered into a debate upon the nierits of the young landlord. Olivia 
thought him a very fine gentleman. He talked with ease, and 
could expatiate upon the common topics of conversation with 
fluency. As he always directed bis conversation to her, it was 
no longer doubted but that it was she who caused bis visit. Her 
motber seemed to share the glory of the day, and exulted in her 
daughter's victory as if it were her own. «Who knows,» exclaimed 
she, «how this may end! Ay, who knows that iodeed,» answered 
the Vicar; «for my own part, I don't much like it, and I could 
have been better pleased with one that was poor and honest, 
than this fine gentleman with bis fortune and infidelity.» 

Chapter VIII. The next morning Mr. Burchell renewed bis 
Visit and work in the meadow. The family dined in the field, 
and rechned round a temperate repast, while Mr. Burcbell gave 
cbeerfulness to the feast. The conversation turning on poetry, 
Mr. Burcbell reprehended the English poetry of bis time, as 
being nothing but a combination of luxuriant Images, without 
plot or connexion — a string of epithets tbat improve the 
sound without carrying on the sense — and recited the ballad 
of «the Hermit», delightful for its easy, artless grace, for the pa- 
thetic soflness and sweetness of its tone, and its simple flow of 
incidents and imagery. The parly was disturbed by the arrival 
of tbe'Squire's chaplain who came to inform them thatMr. Thorn- 
hill intended that night giving the young ladies a ball on the 
grassplot before tbeir door. 



20) jjy sly degreesi nach und nach und zwar so, dafs es niemand 
bemerkte. 

21) poker: Stocher, Schüreisen. 



CHAPTERS VII— IX. 45 

Chapter IX. Mr. Burchell had scarcely taken leave when 
the young landlord arrived with a couple of gentlemen and two 
young ladies richly dressed, whom he introduced as women of 
very great distinction and fashion from town. As they were in 
want of ladies to make up a set of country dances, the two 
gentlemen went with Moses in quest of a couple of partners, 
and returned with the daughters of a neighbouring farmer. After 
the dance had continued about an hour, the two ladies who were 
apprehensive of catching cold moved to break up the ball, lipon 
their return to the house, they found a splendid cold supper, 
which Mr. Thornhill had ordered to be brought with him. The 
conversation, at supper, was more reserved than before. The 
two ladies would talk of nothing but high life and high-lived 
Company, and other fashionabie topics. Occasional expressions 
of grossness in their conversation were ascribed to tip-top qua- 
lity breeding, and appeared to the Vicar as the surest symptom 
of their distinction. 



CHAPTER X. 

The Family endeavours to cope with their Betters i. The Miseries of 
the Poor, wheo they attempt to appear above their Gircamstaaces. 

I now began to find that all my long and painful lectures 
upon temperance, simplicity, and contentment were entirely 
disregarded. The distinctions lately paid us by our betters 
awaked that pride which I had laid asleep, but not removed. 
Our Windows again, as formerly, were filied with washes for the 
neck and face. The sun was dreaded as an enemy to the skin 
without doors, and the fire as a spoiler of the complexion within. 
My wife observed that rising too early would hurt her daugh- 
ters' eyes, that working after dinner would redden their noses, 
and sbe convinced me that the hands never looked so white as 
when they did nothing. Instead therefore of finishing George's 
Shirts, we now had them new-mödelling their old gauzes^, or 
flourishing upon catgut^. The poor Miss Flamboroughs, their 



^) io cope with: wetteifern mit, es gleich thua wollen; their betters 
vornehmere Leute als sie. 

2) we now had . . ganzes: vgl. I, 9; ganze, franz. gaze, Blonde; 
ein dünnes Gewebe von Seide, vermutlich genannt nach der Stadt Gaza 
in Palästioa, woher es bezogen wurde. 

3) ßourish upon catgut: auf Seidengaze sticken. Vgl. IV, 25. 



46 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

former gay companions, were cast off as mean acquaintance, 
and ihe whole conversation ran upon high life and high-lived 
Company*, with pictures, taste, Shakespeare*, and the musical . 
glasses^. 

Bnt we could have borne all this, had not a fortune>telling 
gipsy^ come to raise us into perfect sublimity. The tawny sibyl 
no sooner appeared, tban my girls came running to me for a 
Shilling apiece^ to cross her band with silver *. To say the truth, 
I was tired of being always wise, and could not help gratifying 
their request, because I loved to see them happy. I gave eaeh of 
them a Shilling; though, for the honour of the family, it must be 
observed, that they never went without money themselves, as 
my wife always generously let them have a guinea eaeh, to keep 
in their pockets, but with striet injunctions never to change it. 
After they had been clöseted up with the fortune-teller for some 
time, I knew by their looks, upon their returning, that they 
had been promised something great^°. «Well, my girls, how have 
you sped? Teil me, Livy, has the fortune-teller given thee a 
pennyworth?» «I protost, papa,» says the girl, «I believe she deals 
with somebody that's not right^^; for she pösitively declared, 
that 1 am to be married to a 'Squire in less than a twelve- 
month!» — «Well, now, Sophy, my child,» said 1, «and what sort 
of a husband are you to have?» — «Sir,» replied she, «I am to 

*) high life and high-lived Company: vornehmes Lebea uad vor- 
nehme Gesellschaft. 

^) Shakespeare. Im J. 1764 fand zu Stratford, dem Geburtsort 
Shakespeares, die 200jährige Jubelfeier statt. 

^) musical glasses: Glasharmonika. Sie bestand ursprünglich aus 
einer Anzahl Gläser, die auf einem Tische befestigt waren und durch 
Wasser moduliert wurden. Die Töne wurden vermittelst des Fingers, 
eines Haarbogens oder durch Tasten hervorgebracht. Als Erfinder der- 
selben werden die Amerikaner Franklin, der Irlander Puckeridge und 
der deutsche Komponist Gluck genannt. 

^) S^P^' verstümmelt aus Egyptian, nach dem Lande der angeb- 
lichen Herkunft der Zigeuner. 

8) apiece = to eaeh. 

^) to cross her hand with silver: auf der einen Seite der alten 
Silbermünzen befand sich ein Kreuz. Nach dem Aberglauben der Zeit 
wurde ungünstigen Prophezeiungen dadurch vorgebeugt, dafs man die 
Hand der Wahrsagerinnen mit Silber bekreuzte, d. i. das Geldstück mit 
dem Kreuz nach unten in ihre Hand legte. Vgl. Spectator No. 130: 
'I have an honest dairy-maid who crosses their (the gipsies') hands 
with a piece of silver every summer, and never falls being promised 
the handsomest young fellow in the parish for her pains.' 

'^) they had . . . greati persönliches Passivum mit Beibehaltung des 
sachlichen Objekts. 

^^) somebody thafs not right: d. i. der Teufel (Euphemismus). 



CHAPTER X. 47 

have a Lord soon after my sister has married the 'Squire.» — 
«How!» cried I, «is that all you are to have for your two Shillings? 
Only a Lord and a 'Squire for two Shillings! You fools! I could 
have promised you a Prince and a Nabob^^ for half the money.» 

This curiosity of theirs, however, was attended with very 
serious effects: we now began to think ourselves designed by 
the Stars to something exalted, and already anticipated our 
future grandeur. 

It has been a thousand times observed, and I must observe 
it once more, that the hours we pass with happy prospects in 
view are more pleasing than those crowned with fruition. In 
the first case, we cook the dish to our own äppetite; in the 
latter, Nature cooks it for us. It is impossible to repeat the 
train of agreeable reveries we called up for our entertainment. 
We looked upon our fortunes as once more rising ; and, as the 
whole parish asserted that the 'Squire was in love with my 
daughter, she was actually so with him ; for they persuaded her 
into the passion. In this agreeable interval, my wife had the 
most lucky dreams in the world^', which she took care to teil us 
every morning with great solemnity and exactness. [t was one 
night a coffin and cross-bones^S the sign of an approaching 
wedding; at another time she imagined her daughters' pockets 
filled with farthings^*^, a certain sign that they would shortly be 
stuffed with gold. The girls themselves had their omens : they 
saw rings in the candle ^^ ; purses bounced from the fire^^ and 
trüe-love knots " lurked in the bottom of every tea-cup. 

Towards the end of the week, we received a card from the 
town ladies, in which, with their compliments, they hoped to see 
all our family at church the Sunday following. All Saturday 



12) Nabob: eig. Abgeordneter (arabisch); Titel eines Verwalters 
einer Provinz in Ostindien, sodann Bezeichnung für einen Mann, der in 
Ostindien zu grofsem Reichtum gelangt ist und mit orientalischem Luxus 
auftritt, endlich jeder Reiche, der grofsen Aufwand macht. 

13) in the World: dient zur Verstärkung des Superlativs. 

1^) cross-bones: kreuzweise über einander liegende Totenknochen. 

1*) filled with fartMngsi vor filled ist to be zu ergänzen; /ar^Äiw^: 
eig. Vierling; der vierte Teil eines Penny, die kleinste englische 
Münze aus Bronze, etwa 2 Pfennig. 

16) rings in the candle: nach dem Aberglauben werden nicht „Ringe", 
sondern „Briefe" oder „Leichentücher" in der brennenden Kerze ge- 
sehen. 

1^) purses bounced frotn the fire: Kügelchen, welche das Steinkohlen- 
feuer aussprüht, werden „Börsen" genannt und bedeuten Reichtum. 

18) true-love knots: seidene Bänder, mit denen sich Liebende (trüe- 
love oder trüe-lovers) am Valentinstage beschenken. Vgl. IV, 5. 



48 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

morning l could perceive, in consequence of this, my wife and 
daugbters in close Conference together, and now and then glanc- 
ing at me with looks that belrayed a latent plot. To be sincere, 
I bad strong suspicions tbat some absurd proposal was pre- 
paring^* for appearing with splendourthe next day. In tbe even- 
ing, they began their Operations in a very regulär männer, and 
my wife undertook to condüct tbe siege. After tea, wben I 
seemed in spirits^^ she began Ihus: — *! fancy, Cbarles, my 
dear, we sbail bave a great deal of good Company at our churcb 
to-morrow.» — «Perhaps we may, my dear»» returned I, «tbough 
you need be ander no uneasiness about that; you sball have a 
sermon, wbether there be or not.» — «Tbat is what I expect,» 
returned she; «but I think, my dear, we ought to appear tbere 
as däcently as possible, for wbo knows what may bappen?» — 
«Your precautions,» replied I, «are highly commendable. A decent 
behaviour and appearance in churcb*^ is what charms me. We 
should be devout and humble, cheerful and serene.» — «Yes,» 
cried she, «I know that; but I mean we shonld go tbere in as 
proper a manner as possible; not altogetber like tbe scrubs " 
about US.» — «You are quite right, my dear,» returned I, «and I 
was going to make tbe very same proposal. Tbe proper manner 
of going is to go there as early as possible, to have time for 
meditation before tbe Service begins.» — «Phoo, Charles,» inter- 
rupted she, «all tbat is very true; but not what f would be at**. 
I mean, we should go there genteelly. You know tbe churcb is 
two miles off, and f protest I don't like to see my daugbters 
trudging up to their pew all blowzed*^ and red with Walking, 
and looking for all tbe world as if they bad been winners at a 
smock-race*^ Now, my dear, my proposal is this: tbere are our 
two plougb-horses, tbe Colt that has been in our family these 
nine years**, and bis companion Blackberry, that has scarce done 
an earthly thing for this montb past. They are botb grown fat 
and lazy. Why should not they do sometbing as well as we? 



^^) was preparing': eDtstaoden ans a-prepariog (a- = on); jetzt ge- 
wöhnlich was beiog prepared. 

^) to be in spiritsi bei gnter Lanne sein. 

21) in church: nach jetzigem Sprachgebrauch at church. 

22) the scrubs = die gewöhnlichen Leute. 

23) what I toould be at: worauf ich hinaus wollte. 

2*) blowzed: (aufgeblasen) erhitzt; jetzt veraltet, gew. *flushed\ 
25) smock race: Wettlauf von Frauen um einen Unterrock (smock). 
2^) these nine years: das Demonstrativpronomen dient zur Zeitbe- 
stimmung bei unmittelbar vorhergehendem oder nachfolgendem Zeiträume. 



CHAPTER X. 49 

And let me teil you, when Moses has trimmed them a little, 
they will cut a very tolerable figure.» 

To this proposal I objected, that Walking would be twenty 
times more genteel than such a paltry conveyance^% as Black- 
berry was wall-eyed*^, and the Colt wanted a tail; that they had 
never been broke to the rein^^, but had a hundred vicious 
tricks; and that we had but one saddle and pillion^^ in the 
whole house. All these objections, however, were overruled; so 
that 1 was obliged to comply. The next morning I perceived them 
not a little busy^^ in collecting such materials as might be ne- 
cessary for the expedition^^; but, asifound it would be a business 
of time^^, I walked on to the church before, and they promised 
speedily to follow. 1 waited near®* an hour in the reading desk** 
for their arrival; but not finding them come as expected, I was 
obliged to begin, and went through the Service, not without 
some uneasiness at finding them absent. This was increased 
when all was finished, and no appearance of the family. I there- 
fore walked back by the horse-way, which was five miles round, 
though the footway was but two, and, when got about half-way 
home''^, perceived the procession marching slowly forward to- 
wards the church ■— my son, my wife, and the two little ones 
exalted upon one horse, and my two daughters upon the other. 
1 demanded the cause of their delay; but 1 soon found by their 
looks they had met with a thousand misfortunes on the road. 
The horses had at first refused to move from the door, tili Mr. 
ßurchell was kind enough to beat them forward for about two 
hundred yards with his cudgel. Next, the Straps of my wife's 
pilhon broke down, and they were obliged to stop to repair them 
before they could proceed. After that, one of the horses took it 



2*^) paltry conveyance: elende Beförderung. 

28) wall-eyed : glasäugig ; vom Pferde, bei dem das Weifse des Auges 
unverhältnismälsig grofs ist. 

2ö) to break to the rein: zureiten. Das Part, broke ist in der 
Prosa veraltet. 

*°) pillion: Reitkissen für eine Frau, welches hinter den Sattel ge- 
legt wird, um zu zweien auf einem Pferde reiten zu können. 

^^) not a little busy: sehr beschäftigt; Litotes. 

32J expedition: Aufzug, Reise; scherzhafter Ausdruck für das vor- 
hergehende conveyance. 

^) business of time: ein Geschäft, welches Zeit beansprucht, ein 
zeitraubendes Geschäft. 

•*) near: jetzt nearly fast. 

^) reading desk: Lesepult; unter der Kanzel befindlich, von dem 
aus der Geistliche die Liturgie verliest. 

36) when got . . . home: elliptischer Temporalsatz. 
Goldsmith, The Vicar of Wakefield. 2. Auflage. 4 



50 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

inlo bis head*^ to stand still, and neither blowsnor enlreaties could 
prevail with him to proceed. It was just recovering from this 
dismal Situation that I found them ; but perceiving everytbing 
safe, I own their present mortification did not much displease 
me, as it would'*^ give me many opportunities of future triumpb, 
and teach my daugbters more bumiiity. 



CHAPTER XL 

The Family still resolve to hold ap their Heads. 

MiGHAELMAS EVE happcning^ on the next day, we were in- 
vited to burn nuts^ and play tricks at neighbourFlamborougb's. 
Our late mortifications bad bumbled us a little, or it is probable 
we might have rejected such an invitalion with contempt: bow- 
ever, we suffered ourselves to be happy. Our bonest neigbbour's 
goose and dumplings' were fine, and the lamb's-wool*, even in 
the opinion of my wife, wbo was a connoisseur*^, was exceilent. 
It is Irue, bis manner of telling stories was not quite so well. 
Tbey were very long, and very dull, and all about himself, and 
we bad laughed at them ten times before: bowever, we were 
kind enough to laugh at them once more. 

Mr. Burcbell, wbo was of the party, was always fond 
of seeing some innocent amusement going forward, and set 

^'^) took it into his head: it (gramm. Objekt) deutet auf den nach- 
folgenden Infinitiv (das logische Objekt) hin und mufs stehen, weil es 
von demselben durch into his head getrennt ist. 

38) would: steht im Nebensatz der indirekten Rede, weil die direkte 
lauten würde: Your present mortification does not much displease me, 
as it will give me. 

^) happening: absoluter Nominativ mit prädik. Partizip, über 
Michaelmas eve vgl. IV, 6. 

^) hum nuts: Nüfse, welche Personen vorstellen, werden ans Feuer 
gelegt. Verbrennen sie zu gleicher Zeit, so bedeutet es Vereinigung, 
im andern Falle Trennung. Vgl. IV, 6. 

3) goose and dumpUngs: am A.bend vor dem Michaelisfeste pflegt 
man auf dem Lande Gänsebraten und Mehlklöfse zu essen; der Überliefe- 
rung nach zur Erinnerung an die Nachricht von der Zerstreuung der 
Armada, welche eintraf, während Königin Elisabeth dieses Gericht ver- 
zehrte. 

^) lamb^s-wooli ein Wassail drink (vgl. IV, 4), bestand aus einer 
Mischung von warmem Bier, Zucker, Gewürz und dem Fleisch gebra- 
tener Äpfel. Der Name soll von dem irischen Ausdruck (lamasool, d. i. 
Tag der Apfelfrucht) herkommen. 

*) connoisseur [spr. cÖn'-nXs-sör'] Kunstkenner (frz. Fremdwort). 
Vgl. das ital. cognoscente XX, 64. 



CHAPTER XL 51 

the boys and girls to blind-man's bufT. My wife, too, was per- 
sudded to join in the diversion, and it gave me pleasure to think 
sbe was not yet too old. In the meantime, my neighbour and I 
looked on, laughed at every feat, and praised our own dexterity 
when we were young. Hot cöckles ^ succeeded next, questions 
and commands^ followed that, and last of all, they sat down to 
hunt the slipper^. As every person may not be acquainted with 
this prim^val pastime, it may be necessary to observe, that the 
Company at this play plant themselves in a ring upon the ground, 
all except one, who Stands in the middle, whose business it is to 
catch a shoe, which the Company shöve about under their hams' 
from one to another, something like a weaver's Shuttle. As it is 
impossible, in this case, for the lady who is up^^ to face all the 
Company at once, the great beauty of the play lies in hitting her 
a thump with the heel of the shoe on that side least cäpable of 
making a defence. It was in this manner that my eldest daugh- 
ter was hemmed in, and thumped about, all blowzed^^, in spirits, 
and bawling for fair play, with a voice that might deafen a ballad- 
singer, when, confusion on confusion! who should enter the 
room but^^ our two great acquaintances from town, Lady 
Blarney and Miss Carolina Wilhelmina Amelia Skeggs! Descrip- 
tion would but beggar^^; therefore it is unnecessary to describe 
this new mortification. Death! to be seen^* by ladies of such 
high breeding in such vulgär attitudes! Nothing better could 
ensue from such a vulgär play of Mr. Flamboroügh's proposing. 
We seemed Struck to the ground for some time, as if actually 
petrified with amazement. 

The two ladies had been at our house to see us, and find- 
ing US from home, came after us hither, as they were uneasy to 

^) hot coc/des: Baadschlagspiel ; ein Spiel, bei welchem eiaer, dem 
die Augen yerbundeo worden sind, die Hände auf den Rücken legt und 
raten mufs, wer auf diese geschlagen hat. 

'^) questions and commands: ein Spiel, bei dem einer den Mit- 
spielenden auf ihre Fragen befiehlt, was sie aasEuführen haben. 

8) hunt the slipper: Pantoffel haschen ; ein uraltes (primeval), derbes 
Gesellschaftsspiel. 

^) harn: Schenkel, Kniegelenk; jetzt nur Schinken. 

^^) to be up: aufrecht stehen. 

^1) blowzea: veraltet; jetzt flushed. Vgl. X, 24. 

12) who should enter ... but: rhetorische Frage, die einer nega- 
tiven Behauptung gleichkommt. Von G. öfters angewandt^ um etwas 
Unerwartetes auszudrücken. 

13) to beggar: armselig, dürftig ausfallen. 

1*) io be Seen: Infinitiv mit to im emphatischen Ausruf. Zu Ergänzen 
ist ein unpersönlicher Satz, z. B. it is dreadful. 

4* 



52 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

know what accident could have kept us from cburch the day 
before. Olivia undertook to be our prolocutor, and delivered 
the whole in a summary way, only saying, «We were thrown from 
our horses.» At which account the ladies were greatly concerned ; 
but being told the family received no hurt, they were extremely 
glad; but being informed that we were almost killed by the 
fright, they were vastly" sorry; but hearing that we had a very 
good night, they were extremely glad again. Nothing could ex- 
ceed their complaisance to my daugbters ; their professions the 
last evening were warm, but now they were ardent. They pro- 
tested a desire^* of having a more lasting acquaintance. Lady 
Blarney was particularly attached to Olivia; Miss Carolina Wil- 
helmina Amelia Skeggs (I love to give the whole name) took a 
greater fancy to her sister. They supported the conversation 
between themselves, while my daughters sat silent, admiring 
their exalted breeding. But as every reader, however beggarly 
himself ^^ is fond of high-llved dialogues^^, wilh anecdöles of 
Lords, Ladies** and Knights of the Carter^", I must heg leave 
to give him the concluding part of the present conversation. 

«All that I know of the matter,» cried Miss Skeggs, «is this,. 
that it may be true, or it may not be truc; but this I can assure 
your Ladyship, that the whole rout** was in amaze; bis Lord- 
ship turned all manner of colours, my Lady feil into a swoon : 
but Sir Tomkyn, drawing bis sword, swore he was hers to the 
last drop of bis blood.» 



1^) vastly: als Ausdruck der Ironie von G. wohl absichtlich §^e- 
wählt. Sonst klingt es veraltet. 

^^) they protesled a desire . . . : sie gaben den Wunsch nach einer 
Bekanntschaft von längerer Dauer zu erkennen. 

1*^) however beggarly himselfi von wie geringem Stande, in welcher 
dürftigen Lage er selbst sein mag. 

^S) high-lived dialogues: vornehme Gespräche; high-lived jetzt 
selten; durch fashionable verdrängt. 

1^) Lords j Ladies : Lord (eig. Brotwart, Brotherr) ist der Titel des 
hohen Adels, zu welchem duke, marquess, earl, viscount und baron ge- 
hören. Die Gemahlinnen der Lords heifsen Ladies. Aus Höflichkeit 
giebt man diesen Titel auch den Frauen der baronets und knights. 

^^) Carter : Orden des Hosenbands, auch Orden des heiligen Georg 
genannt, der höchste der englischen Ritterschaft, der Überlieferung nach 
von Eduard IIL zwischen 1340 und 1350 gestiftet Abzeichen ist ein 
Band von blauem Sammet, das an dem linken Fufs über dem Knie ge- 
tragen wird und den Wahlspruch trägt: Honi soit qui mal y pense. 
Daneben der heilige Georg zu Pferde mit dem Drachen an einem blauen 
Bande, das über die linke Schulter gelegt wird. 

^^) rout: Gesellschaft; insbesondere eine Abendgesellschaft des- 
vorigen Jahrhunderts, zu welcher Damen einluden. Jetzt veraltet 



CHAPTER XI. 53 

«Well,» replied ourPeeress, «this I can say, that the Duchess 
never told me a syllable of the matter, and I believe her Grace 
would keep nothing a secret^^ from me. This you may depend 
on as fact, that the next morning my Lord Duke eried out three . 
times to his valet-de-chambre, Jernigan! Jernigan! Jernigan! 
bring me my garters.» 

But previously I should have mentioned the very impolite 
behaviour of Mr. Burchell, who, during this discourse, sat wilh 
his face turned to the fire, and, at the conclusion of every sen* 
tence, would cry out Fudge!^^ an expression which displeased us 
all, and in some measure damped the rising spirit of the con- 
versation. 

«Besides, my dear Skeggs,» continued our Peeress, «there is 
nothing of this in the copy of verses that Dr. Burdock made 
upon the occasion.» Fudgel 

«I am surprised at that,» cried Miss Skeggs ; «for he seldom 
leaves anything out, as he writes only for his own amusement. 
But can your Ladyship favour me wilh a sight of them?» Fudge! 

«My dear creature,» replied our Peeress, «do you ihink I carry 
such things about me? Though they are very fine, to be sure, 
and I think myself something of a judge: at least I know what 
pleases myself. Indeed, I was ever an admirer of all Dr. Bur- 
dock's httle pieces; for except what he does, and our dear 
Countess at Hänover Square^*, there's nothing comes out^** but 
the most lowest stuff in nature ; not a bit of high life among 
them.» Fudge! 

«Your Ladyship should except,» says t' other*^, «your own 
things ^^ in the *Lady's Magazine' ^^. I hope you'U say there's 
nothing low-hved^® there? But I suppose we are to have no 
more from that quarter ?»^° Fudge! 

^) notfdng a secret: nothing ist direktes Objekt, a secret prädika- 
tiver Accasativ. 

23) fudge: pfui! Vulgärer Ausdruck verächtlicher Abweisung lügne- 
rischer Schwätzer. Veraltet. 

24) Hanover Square: Platz im Westen von London, mit Garten- 
anlagen und einem Standbilde William Pitts. 

2*) there' s nothing comes out: volkstümlich statt there is nothing 
that comes out. Ebenso die pleonastische Verstärkung des Superlativs 
the most lowest stuff und not a bit of nicht ein Bifschen. 

^) f other = the other ; aus that other ward the tother und daraus 
t* other. 

2^) things: d. i. verses. 

28) Lady^s Magazine: eine litterarische Zeitschrift, in welcher 
Goldsmith 1760 eine Lebensbeschreibung Voltaires veröffentlichte. 

2») low-Uved: gemein (veraltet). Vgl. XI, 18. 

^) quarier: sc. of the year. 



54 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

«Why, my dear,» says the Lady, «you know my reader and 
companion has left me, to be married to Captain Roach, and as 
my poor eyes won't suffer me to write myself, 1 have been for 
some time looking out for anotber. A proper person is no easy 
matter to find; and, to be sure, thirty pounds a year is a smali 
stipend for a well-bred girl of character, Ihat can read, write, 
and bebave in Company: as for the cbits about town^\ there is 
no bearing Ibem about one.» Fudgel 

«Thal I know,» cried Miss Skeggs, «by experience; for of 
the three companions I had this last half-year, one of them 
refused to do piain work^^ an hour in a day; another thought 
twenty-five guineas a year too small a salary; and I was obliged 
to send away the third, because I suspected an intrigue. Virlue, 
my dear Lady Blarney, virtue is worth any price; but where is 
that to be found ?> Fudgel 

My wife had been for a long time all attention to this dis- 
course, but was particularly Struck witb Ihe latter part of it. 
Thirty pounds and twenty-five guineas a year made fifty-six 
pounds ^^ ßve Shillings Cnglish money; all which was in a manner 
going a-begging^*, and might easily be secured in the family. 
She for a moment studied my looks for approbation; and, to 
own a truth, I was of opinion, that two such places would fit 
our two daughters exaclly. Besides, if the 'Squire had any real 
affection for my eldest daughter, this would be the way to make 
her every way qualified for her fortune. My wife, therefore, was 
resolved that we should not be deprived of such advantages for 
want of assurance, and undertook to harängue for the family. 
«I hope,» cried she, «your Ladyships will pardon my present 
presumption. It is true, we have no right to pretend to such 
favours; but yet it is natural for me to wish putting my children 
forward in the world. And, I will be hold to say, my two girls 
have had a pretty good education and capacity; at least the 
country can't show better. They can read, write, and cast ac- 
counts; they understand their needle, breadstitch ^^ cross and 



31) as for the chits about town : was die Stadtpiippcbea betrifft. 

32) plaiTtwork: eiofache Näharbeit. 

33) pounds: die jetzt gebräuchliche Pluralform, auch dann, weoD 
noch andere WertaDgaben folgen. Vgl. IV, 10. 

34) all which . . .: die ganze Summe geht gewirsermafseo um An- 
nahme betteln, sucht jemand, der sie in Empfang nimmt. 

3^) breadstitchj cross and change . .: verschiedene Arten weiblicher 
Handarbeit; hreadstüch (statt broadstitch) Plattstich; cross (-stitch) and 
change (statt chainstitch) Kreuz- und Kettenstich; pink auszacken (d. i. 



CHAPTER XII. 55 

change, and all manner of plainwork; they can pink, point, and 
frill, and know something of music; they can do up small clothes, 
work upon catgul^^; my eldest can cut paper, and my youngest*^ 
has a very pretty manner of telling fortunes upon the cards.» 
Fudge! 

When she had delivered this pretty piece of eloquence, the 
two ladies looked at each other a few minutes in silence, with 
an air of doubt and impörtance. At last Miss Carolina Wilhelmina 
Amelia Skeggs condescended to observe that the young ladies, 
from the opinion she could form of them from so slight an 
acquaintance, seemed very fit for such employments. «But a 
thing of this kind, Madam,» cried she, addressing my spouse, 
«requires a thorough examination into characters, and a more 
perfect knowledge of each other. Not, Madam,» continued she, 
«that 1 in the least suspect the young ladies' virtue, prüden ce, 
and discretion ; but there is a form in these things, Madam, there 
is a form.» 

My wife approved her suspicions very much, observing that 
she was very apt to be suspicious herseif, but referred her toall 
the neighbours for a character; but this our Peeress declined as 
unnecessary, alleging that her cousin Thornhiirs recommenda- 
tion would be sufficient, and upon this we rested our petition. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Fortuoe seems resolved to humble the Family of Wake6eld. Morti- 
ficatioDS are often more paiafal thaa real Calamities. 

When we returned home, the night was dedicated to schemes 
of future cönquest^. Deborah exerted much sagacity in conjec- 
turing which of the two girls was likely to have the best place, 
and most opportunities of seeing good Company. The only ob- 
stacle to our preferment was in obtaining the 'Squire's recom- 
mendation; but he had already shown us too many instances of 



darcbbrocheoe Spitzenarbeit anfertigeD); point punktiereo d.i. Spitzea 
oder Kanten ausnähen); frill kräuseln (d. i. Hals- und Busenkransen 
fälteln) ; to do up smaU clothes feine Wäsche zurecht machen. 

^) work upon catgut etc. : vgl. IV, 25 ; X, 3 ; to cut paper (Fi- 
guren) in Papier ausschneiden. 

3"^) eldest . . youngest: über den Superlativ vgl. I, 34. 
^) returned st. had returned ; the night der Abend ; of future con- 
quest objektiver Genetiv. ^ 



66 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

his friendship to doubt of it now. Even in bed my wife kept up 
the usual theme: «Well, faith, my dear Charles, between our- 
selves, I think we have made an excellent day's work of it^.» 
«Pretty well,» cried I, not knowing what lo say. «What, only 
pretty well!* returned she: ♦! Ihink it is very well. Suppose the 
girls should come to make acquaintances of taste ^ in town! This 
I am assured of, that London is the only place in the world for 
all manner of husbands. ßesides, my dear, stranger things 
happen every day: and as ladies of quality are so taken with* 
my daughters, what will not men of quality be ? Entre nous, I 
Protest I like my Lady Blarney vastly, so very obliging*^. How- 
ever, Miss Carolina Wilhelmina Amelia Skeggs has my warm 
heart. ßut yet, when they came to talk of places in town, you 
saw at once how I nailed^ them. Teil me, my dear, don't you 
think I did for^ my children there?» — «Ay*,» returned I, not 
knowing well what to think of the matter; «Heaven grant they 
may be both the betler for it * this day three months !» This was 
one of those observations I usually made to impress my wife an 
opinion of my sagacity; for if the girls succeeded, then it was a 
pious wish fulfiUed, but if anything unfortunate ensued, then it 
might be looked upon as a prophecy. All this conversation, how- 
ever, was only prepäratory to another scheme, and indeed I 
dreaded as much ^°. This was nothing less than that, as we were 
now to hold up our heads a little higher in the world, it would 
be proper to seil the Colt, which was grown old, at a neighbour- 
ing fair, and buy us a horse that would carry single or double 
upon an oecasion, and make a pretty appearance at church or 
upon a Visit. This at first I opposed stoutly; but it was as stoutly 
defended. However, as F weakened, my antägonists gained 
strength, tili at last it was resolved to part with him. 

As the fair faappened on the following day, I had intentions 

2) made an e. datfs work of it: nach to make, to get, to have mit 
näherem Objekt steht bisweilen ohne deutliche Beziehaog ein (pleona- 
stlsches) of it. 

3) acqttaintances of taste: feine, vornehme Bekanntschaften. 
^) to be taken wUh: eingenommen sein fiir. 

*) so very ohliging: elliptisch für she is so v. obl. 

^) to nail: eig. annageln; fam. für „beim Wort nehmen'^ 

'^) to do for : thätig sein, sorgen für. 

®) «y [spr. äi] ja doch, ei freilich; vgl. I, 29. 

^) to he the better for it: um so besser daran sein, sich dabei in 
desto glücklicheren Verbältnissen befinden. 

^^) and indeed I dreaded as much: und in der That hatte der 
Vicar das (so etwas) fast befürchtet. Vgl. I thought as much das habe 
ich mir beinahe gedacht. 



CHAPTER XII. 57 

of going myself ; bul my wife persuaded me that I had got a cold, 
and nothing could prevail upon her to permit me from home^^ 
«No, my dear,» said she, «our son Moses is a discreet boy, and 
can buy and seil to very good advantage; you know all our great 
bargains are of bis pürchäsing. He always Stands out^^ and 
biggles, and actually tires them tili he gets a bargain.» 

As I had some opinion of my son's prudence, I was willing 
enough to entrust bim with this commission; and tbe next 
morning I perceived bis sisters mighty busy^^ in fitting out 
Moses for the fair; trimming bis bair, brushing bis buckles, and 
cocking bis hat with pins'^ The business of the toilet being 
over, we had atlast the satisfaction of seeing him mounted upon 
tbe Colt, with a deal box^** before bim to bring home groceries^* 
in. He had on a coat made of tbat cloth called thunder-and- 
lightning^^ which, thougb grown too short, was mucb too good 
to be thrown away. His waistcoat was of gosling green^*, and 
bis sisters had tied bis bair with a broad black ribbon*^. We all 
foUowed him several paces from the door, bawling after bim 
«Good luck! good luckU tili we could see him no longer. 

He was scarce gone, when Mr. Thornhill's butler came to 
congratulate us upon our good fortune, sayingtbatbeoverheard^^ 
his young master mention our names with great commendation. 

Good fortune seemed resolved not to come alone. Anotber 
footman from tbe same family followed, with a card for my 



^1) to permit s, o. from home : jmd. weglassen. Jetzt fast veraltet. 

^^) Stands out etc. : to staod out tapfer aoshalteo, nicht nachgeben ; 
to higgle feilschen, abhandeln; to iire ermüden, die Verkäufer hin- 
ziehen; to gei a hargain einen Kauf zustande bringen. 

13) mighty busy [spr. u = !] : in der Umgangssprache und bei Dich- 
tern hat sich anstatt des Adverbs auf ly noch die Form des Neutrums 
des Adjektivs erhalten, z. B. doubtless, exceeding, mighty, passing, 
wonderful u. a. 

'^) to cock a hat with pins: einen Hut aufstützen; die Krampe so 
zurecht stecken, dafs der Hut eine dreieckige Gestalt annimmt. 

1*) deal box: hölzerne Schachtel; deal Fichtenholz. 

1^) groceries: Material- oder Spezereiwaren (Zucker, Thee, KafiTee, 
Gewürze u. dgl.), von gross, weil die gröcers nur en gros (by the 
gross) Geschäfte machten. 

1^) thunder-and-Ughtningi wegen des aus dunkler und heller Farbe 
gebildeten Musters. 

1^) gosling green [s ist weich]: die hellgrüne Farbe der Federn 
einer jungen Gans. 

1^) ribbon: s. I, 33. Im vorigen Jahrhundert trugen die Männer 
das Haar zu einem Zopf zusammengebunden. 

*^) overheard = heard those who did not mean to be heard be- 
horchte, mit anhörte. 



68 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

daughters, importing*^ that the two ladies had received such 
pleasing accounts from Mr. Thornhill of us all, that, after a few 
previous inquiries, they hoped to be perfecüy satisfied. «Ay,» 
cried my wife, d now see it is no easy matter to get into the fa- 
milies of the great; but when one once gets in, then, as Moses 
says, one may go sleep*^.» To this piece of humour, for she in- 
tended it for wit, my daughters assented with a loud laugh of 
pleasure. In short, such was her satisfaction at this mcssage, 
that she actually put her band in her pocket, and gave the mes- 
senger sevenpence hälfpenny^*. 

This was to be our visiting day**. The next that came was 
Mr. Burchell, who had been at the fair. He brought my little 
ones a pennyworth** of gingerbread each, which my wife under- 
took to keep for them, and give them by letters *^ at a time. He 
brought my daughters also a couple of boxes, in which they 
might keep wafers*^, snuff, patches or even money, when they 
got it. My wife was usually fond of a weasel-skin purse, as being 
the most lucky^®; but this by the bye. We had still a regard 
for Mr. Burchell, though bis late rüde behaviour was in some 
measure displeasing; nor could we now avoid commünicating 
our happiness to bim, and asking bis advice: although we seldom 
followed advice, we were all ready enough to ask it. When he 
read the note from the two ladies, he shook bis head, and ob- 
served, that an aflfair of this sort demanded the utmost circum- 
spection. This air of diftidence highly displeased my wife. *l 
never doubted, Sir,» cried she, «your readiness to be against my 
daughters and me. You have more circumspection than is wanted. 
However, I fancy when we come to ask advice, we shall 
apply to persons who seem to have made use of it themselves.» 
— «Whatever my own conduct may have been, Madam,» replied 



21) importing: UDgewöholich für imparting oder reporting^. 

*2) g^o sleep: kano mao einschlafen, braucht man für nichts mehr 
zu sorgen. Der auf den Infinitiv go folgende In6nitiv steht in der 
Kegel ohne to. Schlafen gehen to go to bed. 

-3) sevenpence halfpenny ungefähr 75 Pfennig. Vgl. IV, 22. 

2*) visiting day. der zum Empfang von Besuchen bestimmte Tag. 

*^) a pennyworth [volkstümlich gespr. pen-nürth] of gingerbread 
each: je für einen Penny Pfefferkuchen. 

*ß) by letters: buchstabenweise. Auf den Pfefferkuchen befanden 
sich die Buchstaben des Alphabets. 

2^) wafers: Mundlack, Oblaten. 

28) as being the most lucky: as vor being hebt die Beziehung zum 
Hauptsatz bestimmter hervor. 



CHAPTER Xn. 53 

he, «is not the present question ; though, as^^ I have made no 
use of advice myself, I should in conscience give it to those that 
wilP°.» As I was apprehensive this answer might draw on a re- 
partee^\ making up by abuse*^ what it wanted in wit, 1 cbanged 
the subject, by seeming to wonder wbat could keep our son so 
long at the fair, as it was now almost nightfall. «Never mind our 
son,» cried my wife; «depend upon it he knows what he is about. 
ru Warrant we'll never see him seil his hen of a rainy day^*. I 
have Seen him buy such bargains^^ as would amaze one. TU teil 
you a good story about that, that will make you split your sides 
with laughing. — But, as I live, yonder comes Moses, wiihout 
a horse, and with the box at his back.» 

As she spoke, Moses came slowly on foot, and swgating 
under the deal box» which he had strapped round his Shoulders 
like a pedlar**^. «Welcome, welcome, Moses! well, my boy, what 
have you brought us from the fair?» — «I have brought you 
myself,» cried Moses, with a sly look, and resting the box on the 
dresser'®. «Ay, Moses,» cried my wife, «that we know, but where 
is the horse?» — «I have sold him''^» cried Moses, «for three 
pounds'® five Shillings and twöpence.» — «Well done, my good 
boy,» returned she; I knew you would touch them off '^. Between 
ourselves, three pounds five Shillings and twöpence is no bad 
day's work. Come, let us have it then.» — «I have brought back 
no money,» cried Moses again; «I have laid it all out in a bar- 
gain, and here it is,» puUing out a bündle from his breast. «Here 
they are: a gross of green spectacles, with silver rims and sha- 
gr^en cases*°.» — «A gross of green spectacles!» repeated my 

'^) as: wenn auch; konzessiv, wie das vorhergehende though. 

^) will: ergänze make ose of it. 

'^) draw on a repartee: eine scharfe Erwiderung herbeiführen; 
repartee = smart reply. 

'^) to make up by abuse [s scharf]: durch Schmähung ersetzen. 

^) to seil one*s hen of a rainy day: sprichwörtliche Redensart. 
Der Verkauf eines Huhns an einem Regentage ist unvorteilhaft, weil 
die nassen Federn fest anliegen und das Huhn magerer erscheint. 

**) to buy a bargain: einen Handel abschliefsen. Vorher to get a 
bargain; sonst auch to make a bargain; to strike a b., to close a b. 

^) pedlar (gw. pedler gschr.) Kleinhändler, Hausierer ; von petty dealer. 

3^) dresser: Küchentisch, auf dem die Speisen angerichtet werden. 

^'^) htm: in der Umgangssprache werden die Namen einzelner be- 
stimmter Tiere überwiegend männlich gebraucht. 

38) pounds: über die Pluralform s. IV, 10; XI, 33 und V, 17. 

3ö) to touch off: übertölpeln, breitschlagen (fam.). 

*ö) shagreen case [s scharf]: Chagrinfutteral; shagreen (frz. chagrin) 
ist das genarbte Leder, das aus der Haut des Hunds- und Katzenhais 
verfertigt wird. . 



60 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

wife, in a faint voice. «And you have parted with the Colt, and 
brought US back nothing buta gross of green paltry spectacles!» 
— «Dear mother,» cried the boy, «why won't*^ you listen to 
reason? I had them a dead bargain**, or I should not have 
bought them. The silver rims alone will seil for double the 
money.» — «A fig for*^ the silver rims!» cried my wife in a 
passion ; «I dare swear they won't seil for above half the money 
at the rate of broken silver, five Shillings an ounce**.» — «You 
need be under no uneasiness,» cried ], «about selling the rims, 
for they are not worth sixpence; for I perceive they are only 
copper varnished over**.» — «What,» cried my wife, «not silver! 
the rims not silver?» — «No,» cried I, «no more silver than your 
saucepan.» — «And so,» returned she, «we have parted with the 
Colt, and have only got a gross of green spectacles, with copper 
rims and shagreen cases? A murrain*^ take sucb trumpery. 
The blockhead has been iraposed upon*^, and should have known 
bis Company better!» — «There, my dear,» cried I, «you are 
wrong; he should not have known them at all.» — «Marry**, 
hang the idiot!» returned she, «to bring me such stuff; if I had 
them, I would throw ihem in the fire.» — «There again you are 
wrong, my dear,» cried I; «for though they be copper, we will 
keep them by us, as copper spectacles, you know, are better 
than nothing.» 

By this time the unfortunate Moses was undeceived. He 
now saw that he had indeed been imposed upon by a prowling 
sharper", who, observing bis figure, had marked him for an easy 
prey. I therefore asked the circumstances of bis deception. He 
sold the horse, it seems, and walked the fair in search of an- 
other. A reverend-looking man brought him to a tent, under 



*^) wonH = will not; der Umgangssprache angehörende Zusammen- 
ziehnng. 

*^) a dead harga\n\ für einen Spottpreis. Aecusat. des Preises. 

**) ^ ß^ ßr: Ausdruck der Geringschätzung, da eine Feige in süd- 
lichen Ländern keinen Wert hat. Ähnlich a pin, a straw for. 

^) ounce-. Unze = 31,103 Gramm hei Troygewicht (Goldgewicht; 
1 Pfund =12 Unzen). = 28,350 Gramm bei Avoirdupoidsgewicht (Handels- 
gewicht; 1 Pfund = 16 Unzen). — Grad-, Mafs- und Wertbestimmungen 
stehen im Aceusativ. 

^) varnished over: überfirnifst, mit Firnifs bestrichen. 

*•) murrain: eigt. Viehseuche. Jetzt selten; gewöhnlich plague Pest. 

^'^) has been imposed upon: das Intransitiv to impose verbindet 
sich mit dem Adverb upon zu einem transitiven Begriff =» „betrügen.*' 

*^) Marry! wahrlich (verderbt für Mary (Maria)); jetzt aufser Ge- 
brauch. 

*^) a prowling sharper -. ein spitzbübischer Gauner. 



CHAPTER XIII. 61 

pretence of having one to seil. «Here,» continued Moses, twe met 
another man, very well dressed, who desired to borrow twenty 
pounds upon these, saying that he wanled money, and would 
dispose of them for a third of their value. The first gentleman, 
who pretented to be my friend, whispered me to buy them, and 
cautioned me not to let so good an offer pass. I sent for Mr. 
Flamborough, and they talked him up'^^ as finely as they did 
me; and so at last we were persuaded to buy the two gross 
between us*^.» 



CHAPTER Xm. 

Mr. Burchell is found to be ao Enemy; for he has the coofideoce^ to 
l^ive disagreeable Advice. 

OuR family had now made several attempts to be fine; but 
some unforeseen disaster demolished each as soon as projected. 
1 endeavoured to take the advantage of every disappointment to 
improve their good sense, in proportion as they were früstrated 
in ambition. «You see, my children,» cried I, thow little is to be 
got by attempts to impose upon the world in coping with our 
betters^. Such as are poor, and will associate with none but the 
rieh, are hated by those they avoid, and despised by those they 
follow. Unequal combiuations are always disadvantägeous to 
the weaker side: the rieh having the pleasure, the poor the in- 
conveniences that result from them. But come, Dick, my boy, 
and repeat the fable you were reading to-day, for the good of 
the Company.» 

«Once upon a time,» cried the child, «a Giant and a Dwarf 
were friends, and kept together. They made a bargain that they 
would never forsake each other, but go seek* adventures. The 
lirsl battle they fought was with two Säracens, and the Dwarf, 
who was very courägeous, dealt one of the Champions a most 
angry blow. It did the Saracen but very liltle injury, who, lifting 
up his sword, fairly Struck off the poor Dwarf 's arm. He was 
now in a woful plight; but the Giant, coming to his assistance. 



*^) to talk up: beschwatzen. 

^^) between us: gemeinschaftlich, ensemble; between ourselves (s. 
Anfang des Kap. XII), unter uns gesagt, entre nous. 

^) eonßdence = boldness, Dreistigkeit. 

*) in coping with our betters: s. X, 1. 

^) g^o seek: über den lofin. ohne to nach go s. Xu, 22. 



€2 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

in a Short time lefl the two Saracens dead on the plain, and the 
Dwarf cut off the dead man's head out of spite. They then 
travelled on to another adventure. This was against Ihree bloody- 
minded Satyrs*, who wcre carrying away a damseP in distress. 
The Dwarf was not quite so fierce now as before, but for all 
that * Struck the first blow, which was returned by another that 
knocked out bis eye; but the Giant was soon up with them^, 
and had they not fled, would certainly have killed them every 
one. They were all very joyful for this victory, and the damsel 
who was relieved, feil in love wilh the Giant, and married him. 
They now travelled far, and farther than 1 can teil, tili they met 
with a Company of robbers. The Giant, for the first time, was 
foremost now; but the Dwarf was not far behind. The battle 
was stout and long. Wherever the Giant came, all feil before 
him ; but the Dwarf had like to have been killed more than once. 
At last the victory declared for the two adventurers; but the 
Dwarf lost bis leg. The Dwarf had now lost an arm, a leg, and 
an eye, while the Giant was wilhout a Single wound; upon which 
he cried out to bis littie companion, «My little hero, this is 
glorious sport ! let us get one victory more, and then we shall 
have honour for ever.» — «No,» cries the Dwarf, who was by this 
time grown wiser, mo, I declare off^; TU fight no more; for I 
find in every battle that you get all the honour and rewards, 
but all the blows fall upon me.» 

I was going to möralize* this fable, when our attention was 
called off to a warm dispute between my wife and Mr. Durcheil 
upon my daughters' intended expedition to town. My wife very 
strenuously insisted upon the advantages that would result from 
it; Mr. Durcheil, on the contrary, dissuaded her with great 
ardour, and I stood neuter ^^. His present dissuasions seemed 
but the second part of those which were received with so ill a 
grace in the morning. The dispute grew high, while poor 
Deborah, instead of reasoning stronger^S talked louder, and at 



^) Satyrs: Gefährten des Bacchus; im frühen Altertum als kräftige, 
bärtige Gestalten mit struppigem Haar, stumpfen Nasen, zugespitzten 
Ohren und Pferdefufs dargestellt; später oft mit den mit Hörnern und 
Bocksfüfsen versehenen Waldgöttern verwechselt. 

^) damsel [s weich]: Mädchen; frz. demoiselle. 

^) for all that: trotz alledem. 

'^) to he up with: herbeigeeilt kommen, eingeholt haben. 

^) to declare off: sich dagegen erklären, sich lossagen. 

^) to moralize ^=^ to apply to a moral purpose, moralisch anwenden. 

^^) to stand neuter: neutral bleiben. 

^*) to reason stronger: stärkere Gründe angeben. 



CHAPTER XIII. 63 

last was obliged to take shelter from a defeat in clämour. The 
conclusion of her harängue, however, was highly displeasing to 
US all: she knew, she said, of some who had their own secret 
reasons for whal ihey advised ; but, for her part, she wished such 
to stay away from her house for the fulure. «Madam,» cried 
Burcbell, with looks of great composure, which tended to in- 
flame her the more, «as for secret reasons, you are right; I have 
secret reasons, which I forbear to mention, because you are not 
able to answer those of which I make no secret; but I find my 
Visits here are become^^ troublesome; 111 take my leave there- 
fore now,^and perhaps come once more to take a final färewelP* 
when 1 am quitting the country.» Thus saying, he took up bis 
hat, nor could the attempts of Sophia, whose looks seemed to 
upl)räld bis precipitancy, prevent bis going. 

When gone^*, we all regarded each other for some minutes 
with confusion. My wife, who knew herseif to be the cause, 
strove to hide her concern with a forced smile, and an air of 
assurance, which I was willing to reprove: «How, woman!» 
cried 1 to her, «is it thus we treat strangers? Is it thus we re- 
turn their kindness? Be assured, my dear, that these were the 
harshest words, and to me the most unpleasing, that ever 
escaped your ups !» — «Why would he provoke me, then?» replied 
she ; «but I know the motives of bis advice perfectly well. He 
would prevent my girls from going to town, that he may have 
the pleasure of my youngest daughter's Company here at home. 
But, whatever happens, she shall choose better Company than such 
low-lived ^* fellows as he.» — «Low-lived, my dear, do you call 
him?» cried 1; «it is very possible we may mistake this man's 
character; for he seems, upon some occasions, the most finished 
gentleman I ever knew. Teil me, Sophia, my girl, has he ever 
given you any secret instances of bis attachment?» — «His con- 
versalion with me, Sir^^,» replied my daughter, «has ever been 
sensible, modest, and pleasing. As to aught eise — no, never^^ 
Once, indeed, I remember to have heard him say, he never knew 



^2) are become: jetzt have b.; s. II, 19. 

^3) farewell: das Substantiv hat den Ton auf der ersten, das Verb 
auf der letzten Silbe. 

^*) when gone: das Subjekt des verkürzten Temporalsatzes ist aus 
dem vorhergehenden Satze (he took up his hat) zu entnehmen. 

^^) low-lived: ungebildet, gemein; jetzt veraltet. S. XI, 29. 

^^) Sir ohne Namen ist die achtungsvolle Anrede an Erwachsene, 
auch der Kinder an den Vater. Über Sir als Titel vgl. III, 37. 

^'') nOy never: konstr.: JVo, his conversation never turned to aught 
(== anything) eise but what was sensible, modest, and pleasing. 



64 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

a woman who could find merit in a man Ihat seemed poor.» — 
«Such, my dear,» cried I, «is the common cant" of all the un- 
fortunate or idle. But I hope you have been taught to judge 
properly of such men, and Ihat it would be even madness lo 
expect happiness from one who has been so very bad an ecönomist 
of bis own. Your mother and I have now better pröspects for 
you. The next winter, which you will probably spend in lown, 
will give you opportunities of making a more prudent choice.» 

What Sophia's reflections were upon this occasion, I cannot 
pretend to determine; but I was not displeased at the bottom 
that we were rid of a guest from whom I had much to fear. 
Our breach of hospitahty went to niy conscience a little; but I 
quickly silenced that monitor by two or three specious reasons, 
which served to satisfy and reconcile me to myself. The pain 
which conscience gives the man who has already done wrong is 
soon got over. Conscience is a coward ; and those faults it has 
not slrength enough to prevent, it seldom has justice enough to 
accuse^®. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Fresh Mortifications, or a Demonstration that seeming Galamities may 
be real ßlessings. 

The journey of my daughters to town was now resolved 
upon, Mr. Thornhill having kindly promised to inspect their 
conduct himself, and inform us by letter of their behaviour. But 
it was thought indispensably necessary that their appearance 
should equal the greatness of their expectations, which could 
not be done without expense. We debated therefore in füll 
Council what were the easiest methods of raising money, or, 
more properly speaking, what we could most conveniently seil. 
The deliberation was soon finished : it was found that our re- 
maining horse was utterly useless for the plough without bis 
companion, and equally unfit for the roadS as wanting an eye^; 

^^) cant: 1) die Sprache der Diebe und Bettler; 2) die unverständ- 
liche Rede, das Kauderwälscb; 3) das Geschwätz. 

^9) to accuse: konstr. : Conscience is a coward, and it seldom has 
justice enough to accuse those faults which it has not strength enough 
to prevent. 

^) unfit for the road: untauglich für die Landstrafse = ungeeignet 
zum Fahren und Reiten. 

2) as wantinff an eye: verkürzter Kausalsatz. 



CHAPTER XIV. 65 

it was therefore determined that we should dispose of him, for 
the purpose above mentioned, at the neighbouriog fair®; and, 
to prevent imposition, Ihat I should go whh him myself. Though 
this was one of Ihe first mercantiie transaclions^ of my iife, yet 
I had DO doubt about acquittiiig myself with reputation. The 
opinion a man forms of his own prudence is measured by that 
of the Company he keeps, and as mine was mostly in the family 
way*, I had conceived no unfavourable sentiments of my worldly 
wisdom. My wife, however, next morning, at parting, after I 
had got some paces from the door, called me back to advise me, 
in a whisper, to have all my eyes about me^ 

I had, in the usual forms, when I came to the fair, put my 
horse through all his paces^, but for some time had no bidders. 
At last a chapman® approached, and after he had for a good 
while examined the horse round, finding him blind of one eye, 
he would have nothing to say^ to him; a second came up, but 
observing he had a spävtn^^, declared he would not take him 
for the driving home; a third perceived he had a windgall, and 
would bid no money; a fourth knew by his eye that he had the 
botts; a fifth wondered what a plague 1 could do at the fair with 
the blind, spävined, galled hack^\ that was only fit to be cut up 
for a dog kenneP^. By this time, I began to have a most hearty 
contempt for the poor animal myself, and was almost ashamed 
at the approach of every customer; tor though I did not entirely 
believe all the feliows told me, yet I retlected that the number 
of witnesses was a strong presumption they were right; and 



3) neighhouring fair-, in Kap. XXV Welbridge genannt. 

*) mercantiie [spr. mer"-cän-til'] transaction [s ist scharf]: kauf- 
männisches Geschäft. 

*) in the family way = of a domestic Und auf die Familie be- 
schränkt. 

^) to have etc.: familiärer Ausdruck für „recht auf der Hut sein". 

'') io put a horse through . . paces : ein Pferd alle Gangarten (Schritt, 
Trab, Galopp) durchmachen lassen. 

8) chapman: Käufer; veraltet. Jetzt customer. 

^) to say to: bieten auf. 

^^) spavin, windgall, botts: Pferdekrankheiten. Spavin, Spat, eine 
Knochenanftreibung an der innern Seite des Sprunggelenks; windgaÜ, 
Wiudgalle, eine wässerige Geschwulst zwischen Schienbein und Huf; 
botts, Würmer in den Eingeweiden. 

11) hack (aus hackney gekürzt): a) Name eines gewöhnlichen Reit- 
oder Wagenpferdes, zum Unterschiede vom Rennpferde (racer) oder 
Jagdpfeide (hunter); b) Mietpferd; c) verächtlich „Mähre, Klepper". 

12) dog kennet: Hundestall; kennet, franz. chenil, ein Ort, wo Hunde 
gehalten werden. Daher dog kennel Pleonasmus. 

Goldamith, The Vicar of Wakefield. 8. Auflage. 5 



66 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

St. Gregory, upon Good Works", professes himself to be of the 
same opinion. 

I was in this mortifying Situation, when a brother clergy- 
man, an old acquaintance, who had also business to the fair^^, 
carae up, and sbaking me by the band, proposed adjourning'^ 
to a public-house, and taking a glass of whatever \ve could get. 
I readily closed with the ofl'er, and entering an alebouse, we 
were shown into a little back room, where there was only a 
venerable old man, who sat wholiy intent over a large book, 
which he was reading. 1 never in my life saw a figure that pre- 
possessed me niore fävourably. His locks of silver grey vener- 
ably shaded his temples, and his green old age^^ seenied to be 
the result of health and benevolence. However, his presence did 
not interrupt our conversation; my friend and I discoursed on 
the various turns of fortune we had met: the Whistonian con- 
Iroversy", my last pamphlet, the archdeacon's reply^®, and the 
hard measure^® that was dealt me. But our attention was in a 
Short time taken off by the appearance of a youth*^, who, 
entering tbe room, respectfuUy said something softly to tbe old 
stranger. «Make no apologies, my child,» said the old man; «to 
do good is a duty we owe to all our fellow-creatures. Take this, 
I wish it were more ; but five pounds will relieve your distress, 
and you are welcome^ ^» The raodest youth shed tears of 
gratitude, and yet his gratitude was scarce equal to mine. I could 
have hugged the good old man in my arms, his benevolence 
pleased me so. He continued to read, and we resumed our con- 
versation, until my companion, after some time, recollecting 
that he had business to transact in the fair, promised to be 



^3) St. Gregory upon Good JForks: vermutlich wird hiermit auf 
die in Greg^ors des (xrofsen Schrift 'Moralium Libri XXIV gegebene 
Auslegung der Worte Hiobs Kap. 10, 17 hingewiesen: "Thou renewest 
thy witnesses agaiost me". 

^^) to the fair: to beim Begritf der Ruhe anstatt at gehört dem 
Dialekt und der familiären Redeweise an. 

^^) to adjoumi eig. sich vertagen. Scherzhaft für „sich begeben". 

^®) green old agei frisches Alter. (Oxymoron). 

i*^) Whistonian controuersy; über Whistons Person und Lehre s. II, 
5 u. 7. 

^^) archdeacon's reply: der Archidiakon ist der unterste kirchliche 
Würdenträger und Stellvertreter des Bischofs. Sein Gerichtshof ist 
die erste Instanz für die niedere Geistlichkeit. S. II; 8. 

^^) hard measure: hartes Los. 

20) youth: wird nachher Abraham genannt. 

*^) you are welcome (zu ergänzen ist to them d. i. to five pounds): 
du bist ihnen willkommen «= ich gebe sie dir gern. 



CHAPTER XIV. 67 

soon back; adding, that he always desired to have as much of 
Dr. Primrose's Company as possible. The old gentlemaD, hearing 
my name mentioned, seemed to look at me wilh attention for 
some time, and when my friend was gone, most respectfully 
demanded if I was any way related to the great Primrose, 
that courägeous monögamist, who had been the bulwark of the 
Ghurch. Never did niy heart feel sincerer raptiire than at that 
moment. «Sir,» cried 1, «the applause of so good a man as I am 
sure you are, adds to that happiness in my breast which your 
benevolence has already excited. You behold before you, Sir, 
that Dr. Primrose, the monogamist, whom you have been pleased 
to call great.» «Sir,» cried the stranger, Struck with awe, «I fear 
I have been too familiär; but you'll forgive my curiösily, Sir; I 
beg pardon.» «Sir,» cried 1, grasping his band, «you are so far 
from displeasing me by your familiarity, that I must beg youll 
accept my friendship, as you already have my esteem.» — «Then 
with gratitude I accept the olTer,» cried he, squeezing me by the 
band, «thou glorious pillar of unshaken örthodoxy; and do \ be- 
hold — » I here interrupted what he was going to say; for though, 
as an author, 1 could digest no small share of flattery, yet now 
my modesty would permit no more. However, no lovers*^ in 
romance ever cemented a more instantaneous friendship. We 
talked upon several subjects. I at first thought he seemed rather 
devout than learned, and began to think he despised all human 
döctrtnes^^ as dross^*. Yet this no way lessened bim in my 
esteem ; for I had for some time begun privately to harbour such 
an opinion myself. I therefore took occasion to observe, that 
the World in general began to be blämably^^ indifferent as to 
doctrinal matters^^, and foUowed human speculations too much. 
«Ay, Sir,» replied he^^ as if he had reserved all his learning to 
that moment, «ay, Sir, the world is in its dotage^^, and yet the 
cosmogony, or creation of the world, has puzzled philosophers 



22) no lovers . . . ever: statt never lovers, 

23) doctrines = learniDg Gelehrsamkeit. 

24) drossi Abfall, Spreu, Schlacke; „etwas Wertloses". 

26) blamably: G. schrieb blameably; vgl.inoveable(XX), jetzt movable. 

26) doctrinal maüers: LehrmelouDgen. 

2*^) replied hei der Fremde geht in seiner Erwiderung darauf, dafs 
die Welt zu sehr menschlichen Spekulationen ergeben sei, nicht näher 
ein, sondern citiert, um seine Gelehrsamkeit zu zeigen, an das Wort 
World äufserlich anknüpfend, die Namen von Geschichtsschreibern uod 
Philosophen des Altertums, denen Aussprüche über die Entstehung der 
Welt zugeschrieben werden. 

28) dotage (frz. radotage) der Zustand kindischen Greiseualters. 

5* 



68 THE VICAR OP WAKEFIELD. 

of all ages. What a medley** of opinions have they not broached *** 
upon the creation of the world! Sanchoniathon^^, Manetho, 
Berosus, and Ocellus Lucanus, have all attempted it in vain. The 
latter has these words, Anarchon ata kai atelvtaion topan, which 
imply that all things have neither beginning nor end. Manetho 
also, who lived about the time of Nebuchädon-Asser*^ — Asser 
being a Syriac word usually applied as a surname to the kings 
ofthat country,asT^glatPhael-Asser,Näbon-Asser — he*®, 1 say, 
formed a conjecture equally absurd; for as we usually say, ek to 
hiblion kubernetes^*, which implies that books will never teach 

the World, so he attempted to investigate But, Sir, I ask 

pardon, I am straying frora the question.» — That he actually 
was; nor could I for my life see how the creation of the world 
had anylhing to do with the business f was talking of ; but it 
was sufficient to show me that he was a man of letters, and I 
now reverenced him the more. I was resolved, therefore, to 
bring him to the touchstone *^ ; but he was too mild and too 
gentle to contend for victory. Whenever I made any Observation 
that looked like a chällenge to cöntroversy, he would smile, shake 
bis head, and say nothing; by which I understood he could say 



29) medley (frz. m|]ee) Gemisch. 

^) to hroach (voo broach Spiefs) aospiefseD, anzapfen (vom Fasse)^ 
zu Tage fördern, verbreiten. 

^^) Sanchoniathon: ein phönizischer Geschichtsschreiber aus Berytos^ 
der im 13. Jahrhundert vor Christus gelebt und eine Geschichte von 
Ägypten und Phönizien geschrieben haben soll. Manetho, ägyptischer 
Geschichtsschreiber um die Mitte des dritten Jahrhunderts vor Christus, 
schrieb eine Chronik von Ägypten in drei Büchern in griechischer 
Sprache. Berosus ^ Priester des Bei zu Babylon, lebte zur Zeit des 
Ptolemäus Philadelphus und schrieb die älteste Geschichte von Chaldäa 
und Babylon. Ocellus Lucanus, aus Lucanien gebürtig, Schüler des Py- 
thagoras, um 500 vor Chr. Ihm wird eine Schrift „über die Natur der 
Dinge^^ zugeschrieben^ die am Ende von Kap. 1. § 2 die von Goldsmith 
angeführten Worte: „avag^ov aqa xal aTeXevzrjjov to näv d. i. „ohne 
Anfang und ohne Ende ist das AU** enthalt. 

32) Nebuchadon-j4sser (Asser d. i. Sieger): Nebukadnezar, König 
von Babylon, 605—562 vor Chr., führte 588 die Juden in die Gefangen* 
Schaft. — Teglat-Phael- Asser, Teglat Philesar, König von Ninive, gest. 
724 vor Chr., führte die Bewohner Syriens ins Exil und vereinigte 
Syrien mit seinem Beiche. — Nabon-Asser, JVabonassar, König von Ba- 
bylon, war der Gründer des babylonischen Weltreichs 747 vor Chr. 

33) he\ das Personalpronomen nimmt das durch den eingeschoben eD 
Satz vom Prädikat getrennte Subjekt (Manetho) wieder auf. 

3^) ek to hihUon k. : vielleicht absichtlich verstümmelt aus „ix rcuv 
ßißXlav xvßfQvrjTrjg^^ ein Steuermann aus den Büchern, d. i. ein Steuer- 
mann ohne praktische Erfahrung. 

3^») to bring to the touchstone: auf die Probe stellen. 



CHAPTER XIV. 69 

much, if he thought proper. The subject, therefore, insensibly 
changed from the business of antiquity lo that which brought us 
both to the fair; mine, I told him, was to seil a horse, and, very 
luckily indeed, his was to buy one for one of his tenants. My 
faorse was soon produced, and in One we Struck a bargain*^ 
Nothing now remained but to pay me, and he accordingly puUed 
out a thirty-pound note^^ and bid me change it. Not being in a 
capacity of complying with his demand, he ordered his footman 
to be called up, who made his appearance in a very genteel livery. 
«Here, Abraham,» cried he, «go and get gold for this; you'U do it 
at neighbour Jackson's, or anywhere.» While the fellow was gone, 
he entertained me with a pathetic harängue on the great scarcity 
of silver, which I undertook to improve by deploring also the 
great scarcity of gold; so that, by the time Abraham relurned, 
we had both agreed that money was never so hard to be come 
at as now. Abraham returned to inform us, that he had been 
over the whole fair^^ and could not get change ^^ though he had 
offered half-a-crown *° for doing it. This was a very great dis- 
appointment to us all; but the old gentleman, having paused a 
little, asked me if I knew one Solomon Flamborough in my part 
of the counlry. lipon replying that he was my next-door neigh- 
bour, «If that be the case, then,» returned he, «l believe we shall 
deal*^ You shall have a dräft upon him, payable at sight; and 
let me teil you, he is as warm** a man as any within five miles 
round him. Honest Solomon and I have been acquainted for 
many years together*^. 1 remember I always beat him at three 
Jumps *^; but he could hop upon one leg farlher ihan I.» A draft 
upon my neighbour was to me the same as money; for I was 
sufficiently convinced of his ability**^. The draft was signed and 
put into my hands, and Mr. Jenkinson, the old gentleman, his 



3ß) to strike a bargain: handelseiaig werden; vom Eioschlagen der 
Hände nach abgemachtem Geschäft. Vgl. XII, 12 Ui 34. 

•'*') thirty-pottnd note: pound ist attributiv; daher ohne s. Vgl.V, 17. 

^) over the whole fair: überall auf dem Markte. 

39) to get change: Kleingeld erhalten, gewechselt bekommen. 

^) half-a-crown: englische Silbermünze im Werte von 2V2 Shillings 
= 2V2 Mark. Die ersten Silberkronen wurden zur Zeit Eduards VI. 
(1531) geprägt. 

*i) deal: handelseinig werden. 

*2) warm: wohlhabend (fam.); warm fortunes ansehnliches Vermögen. 

*3) together: ununterbrochen. Vgl. I, 32. 

**) heat him at three Jumps: ein Spiel, in dem derjenige Sieger 
ist, welcher mit drei Sprüngen am weitesten kommt. 

^) ability: Zahlungsfähigkeit. 



70 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

man Abraham, and my horse, old Blackberry, trotted off very 
well pleased with each olher. 

After a sbort interval, being left to reflection, I began to 
recoUect that I bad done wrong in taking a draftfrom a stranger, 
and so prudently resolved upon following the pürchaser, and 
baving back my horse. But this was now too late. I therefore 
made directly homewards, resolving to get the draft changed 
into money at my friend's as fast as possible. 1 found my honest 
neighbour smoking his pipe at bis own door, and informing him 
that I bad a small bill upon him, he read it twice over. «You can 
read the name, I suppose,» cried I, — «Ephraim Jenkinson.» — 
«Yes,» returned he, «the name is written piain enough, and I 
know the gentleman too — the greatest rascal under the canopy 
of beaven. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spec- 
tacles. Was he not a venerable-looking man, with grey hair, and 
no filaps to his pocket-boles? And did he not talk a long string 
of learning about*^ Greek, and cosmögony, and the world?» To 
this I replied with a groan. «Ay,» continued he, «he has but that 
one piece of learning*^ in the world*®, and he always talks it 
away*^ whenever he tinds a scholar in Company; but I know the 
rogue, and will catch him yet.» 

Though I was already sufficiently mortißed, my greatest 
struggle was to come, in facing my wife and daiighters. No 
truant'*^ was ever more afraid of returning to school, there to 
behold the master's visage, than I was of going home. I was 
deterniined, however, to anticipate their fury, by lirst falling 
into a passion myself. 

But, alas! upon entering, l found the family no way dis- 
posed for battle. My wife and girls were all in tears, Mr.Thorn- 
hill baving been there that day to inform them that their journey 
to town was entirely over. The two ladies, baving heard re- 
ports*^^ of US from some malicious person about us, were that 
day set out*^^ for London. He could neither discover the tendency 

*ö) talk a long string of learning about; laog und breit über etw. 
gelehrt schwatzeo; of 1. ist Genetiv der Beschaffenheit und about giebt 
den Gegenstand des Geschwätzes an. 

4'^) tkat piece of learning: der häufig wiederkehrende Ausdruck 
piece of bezeichnet einen auf den in Rede stehenden abstrakten Begriff 
bezüglichen konkreten Fall. 

*^) in the world: überhaupt; dient zur Verstärkung. 

*^) to tälk away: herplappern. 

*°) truant: ein Knabe, der hinter die Schule geht; truäTnt (frz.) 
Landstreicher; provinziell „Faulpelz". 

ßi) reports: Gerüchte, üble Berichte. 

*2) were . . set out: jetzt had set out. 



CHAPTER XV. 71 

nor the autbor of these; but whatever they migbt be, or who- 
ever migbt have broached'^® tbem, he continued to assure oiir 
family of bis friendship and protection. I found, tberefore, that 
they bore my disappointment with great resignation, as it was 
eclipsed in the greatness of their own. But what perplexed us 
niost, was.to think who could be so base as to asperse the 
character of a family so barmless as ours — too bumble to 
excite envy, and too inoffensive to create disgust. 



CHAPTER XV. . 

All Mr. Bnrchell's Villany at ooce detected. Tbe Folly of beiog 
overwise. 

That evening, and part of ^ the follovving day, was employed 
in fruitless attempts to discover our enemies: scarce a family 
in tbe neighbourhood but^ incurred our suspicions, and each 
of US bad reasons for our opinion best known to ourselves^. As 
we were in tbis perplexity, one of our little boys, who bad been 
playing abroad, brougbt in a letter-case*, which he found* on 
the green. It was quickly known to belong to Mr.Burcbell, with 
whom it bad been seen, and, upon examination, contained some 
bints upon diiTerent subjects; but what particularly engaged our 
attention was a sealed note, superscribed, «Tbe copy ofaletter 
to be sent to tbe ladies atThornhill Castle.» It instantly occurred, 
that he was the base informer, and we deliberated whether 
tbe note should not be broken open. I was against it; but 
Sophia, who said she was sure that of all men he would be the 
last to be guilty of so much baseness, insisted upon its being 
read. In Ibis she was seconded by the rest of the family, and, 
at their Joint solicitation, I read as follows: 



*3) to broach: äufsero, Ausstreoea. Vgl. Aom. 30. 

1) part of: der uobestimmte Artikel bleibt in der Regel fort, wenn 
part einen nn bestimmten Teil bezeichnet. Doch auch a part of, wie in 
den beiden ersten Ausgaben. 

2) scarce , . . but: statt there was scarcely ... but (welche nicht); 
but wegen der in scarce liegenden Beschränkung. 

3) each of US . , to ourselves: Konstruktion nach dem Sinne. 

*) letter-case [s ist scharf]: Brieflasche, hernach =^ pocket-book. 
*) foundi Präteritum für deutsches Plusquamperfekt im Temporal- 
und Relativsätze. 



72 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

♦Ladies, — The bearer will sufficiently satisfy yoii as to the 
person from whom this comes: one* at least Ihe friend of in- 
nocence, and ready to prevent its being seduced. I am informed 
for a trulh, that you have some intention of bringing two young 
ladies to town, whom I have some knowledge of, under the 
character of companions. As I would neither have simpiicily im- 
posed lipon, nor virlue contäminated, I must ofTer it as my 
opinion, that the impropriety of such a step will be attended with 
dangerous consequences. It has never been my way to treat the 
infamous or the lewd with severity; nor should I now have taken 
this method of explaining myself, or reproving foUy, did it not 
aim at guilt. Take, therefore, the admonition of a friend, and 
seriously reflect on the consequences of introducing infamy and 
vice into retreats where peace and innocence have hitherto re- 
sided.» 

Our doubts were now at an end. There seemed, indeed, 
something applicable to both sides in this letter, and its cen- 
sures might as well be referred to those to whom it was written, 
as to us; but the malicious meaning was öbvious, and we went 
no farther'. My wife had scarce palience to hear me to the end, 
but railed at the writer with unrestrained resentment. Olivia 
was equally severe, and Sophia seemed perfectly amazed at his 
baseness. As for my part, it appeared to me one of the vilest 
instances of unprovoked ingratitude I had met with; nor could 
I account for it in any other manner than by imputing it to his 
desire of detaining my youngest daughter in the country, to 
have the more frequent opportunities of an interview. In this 
manner we all sat ruminating^ upon schemes of vengeance, 
when our other little boy came running in to teil us that Mr. 
Burchell was approaching at the other end of the field. It is 
easier to conceive than describe the cömplicated sensations 
which are feit from the pain of arecent injury, and the pleasure 
of approaching vengeance. Though our intentions were only to 
upbräid^ him with his ingratitude, yet it was resolved to do it 
in a manner that would be perfectly cutting. For this purpose 
we agreed to meet him with our usual smiles, tö chat in the be- 
ginning with more than ordinary kindness, to amuse him a little; 
and tben, in the midst of the flattering calm, to hurst upon him 



ß) one . .: koostr. : it comes from one that is . . . 

'^) we went no fartheri wir prüften nicht weiter. 

^) ruminate upon (over) (eig. wiederkäuen), nachsinnen, brüten über. 

^) to uphraid s. o. with (oder for a th.) jmd. Vorwürfe machen 

wegen (oder über); seltener to upbraid s. th. to s. o. vorwerfen. 



CHAPTER XV. 73 

like an earthquake, and overwhelm him with the sense of bis 
own baseness. This being resolved upon, my wife undertook to 
manage the business herseif, as she really bad some talents for 
such an undertaking. We saw him approach; he entered, drew 
a chair^" and sat down. «A fine day, Mr. Burchell.» — «A very 
(ine day, Doctor; though I fancy we sball have some rain, by 
the shooting of my corns^\» «The shooling of your horns,» cried 
my wife, in a loud fit of laughter, and then asked pardon for 
being fond of a joke. «Dear Madam,» replied he, «1 pardon you 
with all my beart; for I protest 1 should not have thought it a 
joke had you not told me.» — «Perhaps not, Sir,» cried my wife, 
winking ai us; «and yet I dare say you can teil us bow many 
jokes go to an ounce'^.» — «I fancy, Madam,» returned Durcheil, 
«you have been reading a jest-book this morning, that ounce of 
jokes is so very good a conceit; and yet, Madam, I had rather 
See half an ounce of understanding.» — «I believe you might,» 
cried my wife, still smiling at us, though the laugh was against 
her; «and yet I have seen some men pretend to understanding 
that have very little.» — «And no doubt,» replied her antägonist, 
«you have known ladies set up for wit that had none.» I quickly 
began to find that my wife was likely to gain but little at this 
business; so I resolved to Ireat him in a style of more severity 
mysel£ «Both wit and understanding,» cried I, «are trifles, without 
integrity; it is that which gives value to every character. The 
Ignorant peasant, without fault, is greater than the philosopher 
with many; for what is genius or courage without a beart? 
'Aq honest man is the noblest work of God.'^^» 
«I always beld that häckneyed liiäxim of Pope^*,» returned 
Mr. Burchell, «as very unworthy^* a man of genius, and a base 
desertion of bis own superiority**. As the reputation of books 

^0) drew a chair: g^ewöhnlich to take a chair; to draw a chair 
close to einen Stahl dicht heraurückeii an. 

^^) the shooting' of my coms: das Jucken meiner Hühneraugen. 

1*) an ounce: der 12. Teil eines Pfundes (Goldgewicht). Vgl. XII, 44. 

13) ^n honest man . .: Popes Lehrgedicht *Essay on Man' Ep. IV, 248. 

1*) that häckneyed maoeim of Po'pei jener abgenutzte Grundsatz von 
Pope; hack, hackney (frz. haquenee), ein Reitpferd von geringer Be- 
schaffenheit, welches vermietet wird. Vgl. XIV, 11. — Pope, Alexander, 
1688 — 1744, hervorragender Dichter. Hauptwerke: Pastorais 1709; 
Essay on Griticism 1711; Rape of the Lock 1712; Windsor Forest 
1713; Temple of Farne 1714; Übersetzung der Iliade 1715—20, der 
Odyssee 1725; the Dunciad 1728; Essay on Man 1733ff. 

15) unworthy [th weich] : mit of oder dem Accusativ. 

^^) superioriiy: Burchell sieht in dem Ausspruch Popes eine Herab- 
aetzung des Wertes eines Mannes von Geist. 



74 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

is raised, not by their freedom from defect, but the greatness 
of their beauties; so should that of men be prized, not from 
their exemption from fault, but the size of those virtues they 
are possessed of. The scholar may want prudence, the states- 
man may bave pride, and the champion ferocity; but shall we 
prefer to these the low mechanic^^, who laboriously plods on 
through life without censure or applause? We might as well 
prefer the tarne correct paintings of the Flemish school to the 
erroneous, but sublime animations of the Roman pencil^^ 

«Sir,» replied I, «your present Observation is just, when 
there are shining virtues and minüle defects; but when it ap- 
pears that great vices are opposed in the same mind to as extra- 
ordinary virtues, such a character deserves contempt.» 

«Perhaps,» cried he, «there may be some such monsters as 
you describe, of great vices joined to great virtues; yet^®, in my 
progress through life, I never yet^* found one instance of their 
existence: on the contrary, I have ever perceived, that where the 
mind was capäcious, the affections were good. And, indeed, 
Providence seems kindly our friend in this particular, thus to 
debiiitate the understanding where the heart is corrupt, and 
diminish the power where there is the will to do mischief. This 
rule seems to extend even to other animals : the little vermin 
race are ever treacherous, cruel, and cowardly, whilst those en- 
dowed with strength and power are generous, brave, and gentle.» 

«These observations sound well,» returned I, «and yel it 
would be easy this moment to point out a man», and I fixed my 
eye steadfastly upon him, «whose head and heart form a most 
detestable cöntrast. Ay, Sir,» continued I, raising my voice, «and 
I am glad to have this opportunity of detecting^^ him in the 
midst of bis fancied security. Do you know this, Sir, this pocket- 
book?» «Yes, Sir,» returned he, wilh a face of impenetrable assu- 
rance; «that pocket-book is mine, and I am glad you have found 
it.» «And do you know,» cried I, «this letter? Nay, never falter^S 



^'^) the mechanic [spr. ch=k]: der Handwerker. 

^^) pencil: die kalt lassenden (tarne), aber richtige gezeichneten Ge- 
mälde der flandrischen Maierscbule werden den fehlerhaften, aber er- 
habenen Schöpfungen (animations) der römischen Schale entgegengestellt 
Jene erreichte in der Wiedergabe des Natürlichen die höchste Stufe; 
diese brachte das Ideal des Schönen zur vollendeten Darstellung.) 

^^) yet . , , I never yet: das erste yet ist adversative Konjunktion^ 
das zweite yet temporales Adverb im verneinten Satze. 

20) to detect: entlarven. 

21) never falten never statt not des Nachdrucks wegen beim Im- 
perativ. 



CHAPTER XV. 75 

man; but look me füll in Ihe face: I say, do you know this 
letter?» — «And how could you,» said I, «so basely, so ungrale- 
fuUy presume^^ to write this letter?» — «And how came you,» 
replied he, wilh looks of unpärallSled effronlery, «so basely lo 
presume to break open this letter? Don't you know, now, I 
could hang you all for this? All that I have to do is to swear at 
the next justice's'* that you have been guilty of breaking open 
the lock of my pocket-book, and so hang you all up at this 
door**.» This piece^* of unexpected insolence raised me to such 
a pitch, that 1 could scarce govern my passion. «Ungratefui 
wretch! begöne**, and no longer poUute my dwelling with thy^^ 
baseness! Begone, and never let me see thee again! Go from 
my door, and the only punishment I wish thee is an alarmed 
conscience, which will be a sufficient tormentor!» So saying, 1 
threw him his pocket-book, which he took up with a smile, and 
shutting the clasps with the utmost composure, left us quite 
astonished^* at the serenity of his assurance. My wife was 
particularly enraged that nothing could make him angry, or make 
him seem ashamed of his villanies. «My dear,» cried I, willing to 
calm those passions that had been raised too high among us, «we 
are not to be surprised that bad men want shame; Ihey only 
blush at being detected in doing good, but glory in their 
vices. Guilt and Shame, says the ällegory, were at first com- 
panions, and, in the beginning of their journey, inseparably kept 
togelher. But their union was soon found to be disagreeable and 
inconvenient to bolh. Guilt gave Shame frequent uneasiness, 
and Shame often betrayed the secret conspiracies of Guilt. After 
long disagreement, iherefore, they at length consented to part 



22) how . . . presume; knapper Ausdruck für how coald you be so 
base, so ungratefui as to presume. 

23) justice's: zu ergänzen ist courl; justice statt justice of the 
peace, Friedensrichter, der auf geschehene Anzeige die Voruntersuchung 
bei Verbrechen und Vergehen führt und eine Strafgewalt über Ver^pchen 
hat, welche mit Geldbufse oder mit Freiheitsstrafe nicht über 3 Mo- 
nate bedroht sind. Er wird aus den angesehensten Männern der Graf- 
schaft von der Regierung erwählt und verwaltet sein Ehrenamt uneot- 
geltiich. 

24) hang' . . at this door: Diebe wurden vor dem Hause gehenkt, iu 
dem sie gestohlen hatten. 

25) this piece of: dieser Fall von. Vgl. XIV, 47. 

26) begojie (eig. sei fort): hinweg! packe dicb! 

) '%> thee: der Übergang von you zu thou erklärt sich aus 
der durch den Zorn veränderten Sprache. Hier Ausdruck der Gering- 
schätzung und Verachtung. Vgl. IU, 19. 
28) astonished: auf us zu beziehen. 



76 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

for ever. Guilt boldly walked forward alone, to overtake Fate, 
that went before in the shape of an executioner; but Shame, 
being naturally timorous, returned back to keep Company with 
Virlue, which in the beginning of their journey tbey had left 
behind. Thus, my children, after men have travelled throiigh a 
few stdges in vice, shame forsakes them, and returns back to 
wait upon the few virtues they have still remaining*®.» 



(CHAPTERS XVI— XIX.) 

ChapterXVI. They were easily consoled for Mr. Burcheirs 
absence by the Company of the landlord, whose visits became 
more frequent and longer, and an occurrence, which happened 
soon after, put it beyond a doubt that he designed to become 
one of ihe Vicar's family. — Mrs. Primrose and her daughters, 
happening to return a visit to neighbour Fiamborough's, found 
that family had lately got their pictures drawn by a limner\ 
who travelled the country, and took likenesses for fifteen Shil- 
lings a head. As the two families had long a sort of rivalry in 
point of taste, il was resolved that they should have their pic- 
tures done too. Having, therefore, engaged the limner, their 
next deliberation was to show their superiority of taste. As for 
Flamborongh's family, there were seven of them, and they were 
drawn with seven oranges, a thing quite out of fashion. After 
many debates, they at length came to a unänimous resolution of 
being drawn together, in one large historical family piece. As 
they did not immediately recollect an historical subject to hit 
them^ they were contenled each with being drawn as indepen- 
dent historical figures. The mother desired to be represented 
as Venus, and the painter was instructed not to be too frugal 
with diamonds. Her two litlle ones were to be as Cupids by her 



2^) ihe few virtues they have still remaining: voo späteren Heraus- 
gebern ohne Grund geändert in the few virtuous tbat are still remain- 
ing. Die Scham verläfst die Menschen, nachdem sie einige Stationen 
im Laster zurückgelegt haben, und kehrt zurück, um in Begleitung der 
wenigen Tugenden zu bleiben, welche sie (die Menschen) noch übrig 
haben. Der Gedanke ist: „Die auf dem Wege des Lasters fortschreiten- 
den Menschen kennen bald keine Scham mehr. Sie (die Menschen) 
empfinden nur so lange Scham, als sie noch Tugenden haben. 

^) limner: Maler, Kolorist; verkürzt ans alluminor. 

2) to hit them: der auf sie pafste. Attributiver Infinitiv. 



CHAPTEBS XVI— XIX. 77 

side ; while the Vicar, in his gown and band ', was to present 
her with his books on the Whistonian controversy *. Olivia 
would be drawn as an Amazon, sitting upon a bank of flowers, 
dressed in a green joseph^ richly laced with gold, and a whip in 
her hand. Sophia was to be a sbepherdess, with as many sbeep 
as the painter could put in for nothing, and Moses was to" be 
dressed out with a hat and white feather. Their taste so much 
pleased the 'Squire, that he insisted on being put in as one of 
the family, in the character of Alexander the Great, at Olivia's 
feet; which was considered by thern all as an indication of his 
desire to be introduced into the family. The painter was set to 
work, and as he worked with assiduity and expedition, in less 
than four days the whole was completed. They were all perfectly 
satisfied with the Performance; but an unfortunate circumstance, 
which had not occurred tili the picture was finished, Struck them 
with dismay. It was so very large, that there was no place in 
the house to Qx it. The picture, therefore, instead of gratifying 
their vanity, as tbey hoped, leaned, in a most mortifying manner, 
against the kitchen wall, where the canvas was stretched and 
painted, much too large to be got through any of the doors, and 
the jest of all their neighbours. One compared it to Robinson 
Crüsoe's iong-boat®, too long to be removed; another thought 
it more resembled a reel in a bottle^; some wondered how it 
could be got out, but still more were amazed how it ever got in. 

The *Squire's portrait being found united with theirs was 
an houour too great to escape envy. Malicious suggestions be- 
gan to circulate among the neighbours, and it was resolved to 
induce the 'Squire to make a declaraiion by terrifying him with 
a rival, in the person of farmer Williams, who, from Olivia's 
first appearance in the country, had paid her his addresses. 

Ghapter XVir. The 'Squire still refusing to declare him- 
self, Olivia became the affianced bride of the farmer, and the 
day was fixed for her wedding. It was within about four days 
of her intended nuptials, that the family at night were gathered 
round a charming fire, telling stories of the past, and forming 
projects for the future. Just as the Vicar praised his earthiy 

3) g^own and band: der (Ularartige) Priesterrock uod Priesterkragen. 

*) Whütonian controversy: vgl. II, 5 u. 7. 

^) a green Joseph: eio gräoes Reitkleid für Damen. 

^) Robinson Crusoe [s ist scharf] machte sich aus einem Baum- 
stämme ein grofses Boot, das er nachher nicht fortschaffen konnte. 

'^) a reel in a bottle: ein Haspel in einer Flasche; ein Kunststück, 
welches darin besteht, Jn eine Flasche einen Gegenstand zu bringen» 
der gröfser ist als die Öffnung. 



78 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

happiness, little Dick came running in, exclaicning that lie had 
Seen Olivia go off with two gentiemen in a post-chaise. The 
wrath of the father bursts out against the robber, and the 
mother attempts to ease her heart by reproaches made to her 
absent daughter. 

Chapter XVIII. The next day the Vicar set out in search 
of bis lost child. His suspicions falling upon the young landlord, 
he at first directed his Steps toward Thornhiil Castle; but the 
young 'Squire seemed perfectly amazed at his daughter's elope- 
naent, protesting upon his honour that he was quite a stranger 
to it. The informations of one of his parlshioners he met turned 
his suspicions on Mr. Burchell, who he recollected had of late 
had several private Conferences with her, and the appearance of 
another witness, who averred that he had seen them go towards 
the Wells^, about thirty miles off, left him no room to doubt 
his viliany. Entering the town, he was met by a person on 
horseback, whom he remembered to have seen at the 'Squire's, 
and he assured him that if he followed them to the races, which 
were but thirty miles farther, he might depend upon overtaking 
them ; for he had seen them there the night before. Early the 
next day, he walked forward to the races, and about fourin the 
afternoon he came upon the course. He thought he perceived 
Mr. Burchell at a distance; but, as if he dreaded an interview, 
upon theVicar^s approaching him he mixed amonga crowd, and 
was no more seen. He then resolved to return home. But the 
agitations of his mind, and the fatigues he had undergone, threw 
him into a fever. He retired to a little inn by the roadside, and 
languished there for nearly three weeks. At last his Constitution 
prevailed. On returning home he met with a strolling company's 
cart^, that was carrying their scenes and other theatrical furni- 
ture to the next village, where they were to exhibit. The cart 
was attended only by the person who drove it, and one of the 
Company, as the rest of the players were to follow the ensuing 
day. He entered into conversation with the player on theatrical 
topics, according to the proverb, «Good Company upon the road 
is the shortest cut.» Having arrived at the village, hetook shelter 
at an alehouse, where he made the acquaintance of a very well- 
dressed gentleman, who desired him and the player to partake 



^) WelUi nicht Tun bridge Wells in Somersetshire, sondern (allge- 
mein) Bäder. 

2) a strolling' Company^ s cart: ein Karren (zweirädriger Frachtwagen) 
einer umherziehenden Scbauspielergesellschat't. 



CHAPTERS XVI— XIX. 79 

in a bowl of punch, and persisted that they should sup with him 
at bis bouse. 

Chapter XIX. The bouse wbere tbey were conducted was 
one of tbe most magnificent mansions in that part of tbe coun- 
Iry. The apartment into which they were shown was perfeclly 
elegant and modern. A splendid supper was brought in, two 
or tbree ladies were introduced, and the conversation began with 
some sprightliness. Politics was the subject on which the enter- 
tainer chiefly expatiated. Unfortunately the gentleman and the 
Vicar disagreed, and the latter was on the point of being turned 
out of the bouse when they heard a footman's rap at the door^, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Arnold, the real master and mislress of the 
house — the entertainer being only the buller — entered, ac- 
companied by Miss Arabella Wifmot, their niece, who was for- 
merly designed to be married lo the Vicar's son George. Being 
introduced by her to her uncle and aunt, he complied with their 
entreaties of staying there for some days. The next day the 
manager of the strolling Company came to dispose of tickets 
for the Fair Penitent^, which was to be acted that evening, 
the part of Horatio by a young gentleman who had never 
appeared on any stage. The favourable account the manager 
gave of the new performer excited their curiosity, and, at the 
entreaty of the ladies, the Vicar was prevailed upon to accom- 
pany them to the playhouse, which was no other than a barn. 
The new performer advanced, and the Vicar recognised him to 
be bis unfortunate son George. He was just going to begin, 
when, turning his eyes upon the audience, he perceived Miss 
Wilmot and his father, and stood at once speechless and im< 
movable. The actors behind the scene, who ascribed this pause to 
bis natural timidity, attempted to encourage bim; but instead 
of going on, be burst into a flood of tears, and retired off tbe 
stage. When got home, Mr. Arnold, being informed that tbe 
new performer was the Vicar's son, sent his coach and an in- 
vitation for him, and gave him tbe kindest reception. 



^) o, footman's rap at the door: die Zahl der Sehläge vermittelst 
des Klopfers an der Thür richtet sich nach dem Staode desjenigeo, der 
Einiafs begehrt. Der Bedieote klopft, wenn er die Herrschaft ankäadigt, 
gewöholich mehrere (5 bis 6) Male ia kürzereu Paaseu. 

2) the Fair Penitent: Trauerspiel von Nicbolas Rowe (1673—1718). 



80 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD, 



CHAPTER XX.^ 

The History of a philosophic Vagabond, parsuing Novelty, bat losing 

Content. 

After we had supped, Mrs. Arnold politely ofTered to send 
a cüuple of her footmen for my son's baggage, wbich he at first 
seemed to decline; but, upon her pressing the request, be was 
obliged to inform ber, tbat a stick and wallet^ were all the mov- 
able things upon this earth that he could boast of. «Why, ay, 
my son,» cried I, «you left me bat poor, and poor I find you are 
come back; and yet I make no doubt you have seen a great deal 
of the World.* — «Yes, Sir,» replied my son, «but traveUing after 
Fortune is not the way to secure ber; and, indeed, of late 1 have 
desisted frora the pursuit.» — «I fancy, Sir,» cried Mrs. Arnold, 
«that the account of your adventures would be amusing; the first 
part of them 1 have often heard from my niece; but could the 
Company prevail for the rest, it would be an additional Obliga- 
tion.» — «Madam,» replied my son, «I promise you the pleasure 
you have in hearing will not be half so great as my vanity in re- 
peating them; yet in the whole narrative I can scarce promise 
you one adventure, as my account is rather of what I saw thau 
what I dids The first misfortune^ of my life, wbich you all know, 
was great; but though it distressed, it could not sink me. No 
person ever had a better knack ^ at hoping than I. The less 
kind 1 found Fortune at one time, the more 1 expected from her 
another, and being now at the bottom of her wheel, every new 
revolution might lift, but could not depress me*. I proceeded, 
therefore, towards London in a fine morning, no way uneasy 
about to-morrow, but cheerful as the birds that caroUed by the 
road, and cömforted myself with reflecting, that London was the 



^) Den in diesem Kapitel erzählten Erlebnissen Georgs liegen 
eigene Lebenserfahrungen des Dichters, wie sein Aufenthalt als Unter- 
lehrer in PeciLham, seine Wanderungen und Schicksale auf dem Kon- 
tinent und die Widerwärtigkeiten, mit denen er als Schriftsteller zu 
kämpfen hatte, zu Gronde. 

^) a stick and wallet: ein Stock und ein Felleise o. Zu stick s. III, 16. 

3) the first misfortune: der Rückgang seiner Verlobung (Kap. 11). 

*) to have a knack at: Geschick besitzeo zu, sich versteheo auf. 

^) Fortuoa wird mit einem Rade abgebildet, an dem ihr Verehrer 
befestigt ist, so dafs jede Umdrehung ihn erhebt oder niederdrückt. 



CHAPTER XX. 81 

niart* where abilities of every kind were sure of meeting dis- 
tinction aDd reward. 

«üpon my arrival in lown, Sir, my first care was to deliver 
your leller of recommendation to our cousin, who was himself 
in little better circumstances than I. My first schenie, you know, 
Sir, was to be usber at an acädemy^; and I asked bis ad vice on 
tbe affair. Our cousin received the proposal witb a true sar- 
donic grin®. 'Ay,' cried be, 'this is indeed a very pretty career 
tbat bas been cbalked out for you. I bave been an usher at a 
boarding-scbool myself; and may I die by an anodyne necklace®, 
but I had ratber be an under-turnkey in N^wgate ^°. I was up 
early and late. I was browbeat^^ by the master, bated for my 
ugly face by the mistress, worried by the boys witbin, and never 
perinitted to slir out to meet civility abroad. But are you sure 
you are fit for a scbool? Let me examine you a little. Have you 
been bred an apprenttce to the business^^?' — *No.' — 'Then 
you wonH^^ do for a school. Can you dress the boys' bair?» — 
*iNo.' — 'Then you won't do for a school. Have you had the 
small-pox?' — *No.' — *Then you wonH do for a school. Can 
you lie three in a bed?* — *No.' — *Then you will never do 
for a school. Have you got a good stömach"?' — *Yes.' — 
*Then you will by no raeans do for a school. No, Sir ; if you are 



^) mart'. zusammeDgezogeD aus market. 

'^) usher at an academy: Caterlehrer ao einer Privatschule; academy 
ErziehuD^saostalt (ausgeDomuieo Universität und öffentliche Schulen). 
— G. war usher an Dr. Miiuer's Schule zu Peckham. In the Citizen of 
the World Letter V steht folgende Anzeige : England. — 'Wanted an 
usher to an academy. JS. B. He must be able to read, dress hair, and 
must have had the small-pox.' 

^) sardonie grini sardonisches Grinsen; nach Plinius von der herba 
Sardoa oder Sardonia, einer in Sardinien wachsenden Giftpflanze, deren 
Genufs krampfhafte, dem Lachen ähnliche Zuckungen des Mundes ver- 
ursacht. 

^) anodyne necklace : schmerzstillende Hulsschnur, d. i. Strang. Solche 
Halsschnüre wurden im 18. Jahrhundert gegen Krämpfe, Zahnschmerzen 
und andere Krankheiten viel gebraucht. Ein Quacksalber in Long Acre, 
der zur Zeit G.'s mit anodyne necklaces handelte, hiefs Burchell. 

^^) Newgate: Name des Hauptgefängnisses in London. 

11) browbeat: mürrisch, finster ansehen. Das Partiz. beat jetzt 
selten aul'ser in dead beat todmüde. 

1^) to be bred an apprenttce to a business: als Lehrling zu einem 
Geschäft erzogen werden. Hier the business, weil das bestimmte Ge- 
schäft als Unterlehrer gemeint ist. 

>3) won't = will not (fam.). Vgl. XII, 41. 

^*) have you got . . stomach (spr. ch= k): in der Umgangssprache 
ist die Verstärkung von have durch got allgemein verbreitet. 
The Vicar of Wakefield. 2. Auflage. Q 



82 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

for a genteel, easy profession, bind yourself seven years as an 
apprenlice^*^ to turn a cutler's wheel; but avoid a school by any 
means. Yet, come/ continued be, *I see you are a lad of spirit 
and some learning; what do you tbink of commencing autbor, 
like me? You bave read in books, no doubt, of men of genius 
starving at the trade^^. At present TU show you forty very dull 
fellows about town that live by it in opulence; all honest jog-trot 
men^^ wbo go on smoothly and dully, and write history and pölitics, 
and are praised: men, Sir, wbo, bad tbey been bred cobblers, 
would all tbeir lives have only niended shoes, but never made 
tbem.' 

«Finding that there was no great degree of gentility aflfixed 
to the character of an usher, I resolved to accept his proposal; 
and having the higbest respect for literature, hailed the antiqua 
mater of Grub Street ^^ with reverence. I tbought it my glory to 
pursue a track which Dryden and Otway^^ trod before me. I 
considered the goddess of this region as the parent of excellence; 
and, however an intercourse with the world might give us'good 
sense, the poverty she entailed*^ I supposcd to be the nurse of 
genius. Big with these reflections, I sat down, and finding that 
the best things remained to be said on the wrong side, 1 resolved 
to write a book that should be whoUy new. I therefore dressed 
up three paradoxes ^^ with some ingenuity. They were false, in- 
deed, but they were new. The jewels of trutb have been so oftea 
imported by others, that nothing was left for me to Import but 
some splendid things that at a distance looked every bit^^ as 



^*) to bind one^s seif eis an apprentice: sich als Lehrling verpflichteo, 
sich io die Lehre geben. Vgl. Anm. 12. 

^^) starving" at the trade: Im 83. Briefe des Citizen of the World 
führt Goldsmith folgende Dichter an^ die im Elende lebten und starben : 
Homer, Terenz, Boethius^ Tasso, Bentivoglio, Cervantes, Camoens, 
Vaagelas, Spencer, Otway, Butler, Dryden. 

^^) jog-trot men-, Leute von gewöhnlichem Schlage. Jog-trot, 
Schaukeltrab, bezeichnet in der Volkssprache den langsamen, regel- 
mäfsigen Gang eines Lasttiers. 

18) antiqua mater of Grub Street: Anspielung auf, magna mater, den 
Beinamen, den die Erde, die Ernährerin der Menschen, bei den Römern 
führte. Grub Street, Strafse in der City von London, in welcher viele 
Schriftsteller wohnten. 

1^) Dryden and Otway: über Dryden s. V, 9. — Otway, Thomas, 
geb. 1651, gest. 1682 im Elende (Anm. 16), dramatischer Dichter. Seine 
besten Dramen sind: 'The Orphan' 1680 und *Venice Preserved' 1682. 

^0) to entail (= to graut) vererben, auferlegen, zuerteilen. 

21) paradoxes: Sätze, die der allgemeinen Meinung widersprechen. 

22) every bit: in jeder Hinsicht, genau; familiär. Vgl. XI, 25. 



CHAPTER XX. 88 

well. Witness, youpowers, whatfancied importance satperched** 
upon my quill while I was writing! The whole learned world, 
I made no doubt, would rise to oppose my Systems; but then I 
was prepared to oppose the whole learned world. Like the por- 
«upine, I sat self-collected **, with a quill poiuted against every 
oppöser.» 

«Well Said, my boy,» cried I; «and what did the learned 
world say to your paradoxes?» 

«Sir,» replied my son,» «the learned world said nothing to 
my paradoxes ; nothing at all, Sir. Every man of them was em- 
ployed in praising bis friends and himself, or condemning his 
enemies; and, unfortunately, as I had neither, I sufi'ered the 
cruellest** mortification — neglect. 

«As I was meditating one day in a coiTee-house on the fate 
of my paradoxes, a little man, happening to enter the room, 
placed himself in the box^^ before me, and after some preh'mi- 
Bary discourse, Unding me to be a scholar, drew out a bündle 
of proposals, begging me to subscribe to a new edition he was 
going to give the world of Propertius'^ with notes. This de- 
mand necessarily produced a reply that I had no money ; and that 
concession led him to inquire into the nature of my expectations. 
Finding that my expectations were just as great as my purse, 
'I see,' cried he, 'you are unacquainted with the town. Fil teach 
you a part of it Look at these proposals; upon these very pro- 
posals 1 have subsisted very comfortably for twelve years. The 
moment a nobleman returns from his travels, a Creolian^^ 
arrives from Jamäica, or a dowager from her country-seat, I 
5trike for a subscription. I first besiege their hearts with flattery, 
and ihen pour in my proposals at the breach. If they subscribe 
readily the first time, I renew my request to heg a dedication 
fee^^ If they let me have that, I smite'*" them once more for 



23) to perch (frz. percher): eig. vom Vogel gebraucht, der auf einer 
Stange (lat. pertica) sitzt. 

2^) self'Collected: in mich zusammeDgezogeo, zusammengekrümmt. 

2^) ctniellesti in der Umgangssprache werden auch mehrsilbige, auf 
der letzten Silbe nicht betonte Adjektive durch Anhäogung von -er und 
-est gesteigert. 

2^) box: abgesonderter Raum in Kaffeehäusern; Verschlag. 

2'^) Propertius: SextusAurelius, römischer Elegieen dichter, 1 10 v. Chr. 

^^) Creolian: ein in den ehemaligen spanischen Kolonieen Amerikas 
geborener Abkömmling eines Europäers. 

2^) dedication fee: Widmungshonorar; fee Gebühr für geleistete 
Dienste. 

30) to smite s, o. for jmd. auf den Leib rücken (fam.). 

6* 



84 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

engraving their coat-of-arms at the top. Thus,' continued he, 
'I live by vanity, and laugh at it. But, between ourselves, I am 
now too well known; I should be glad to borrow your face a bit. 
A nobieman of distinction has just returned from Italy; my face 
is familiär to bis porter; but if you bring this copy of verse*, 
my life for it you succeed, and we divide the spoiF.» 

«Having a mind too proud to stoop to such indignities, and 
yet a fortune too humble to hazard a second attempt for fame, 
l was now obliged to take a middle course, and write for bread. 
But I was unqualified for a profession where mere industry aione 
was to ensure success. I could not suppress my lurking passion 
for applause, but usually consumed that time in efforts after 
excellence wbich takes up but little room, when it should have 
been more advantägeously employed in the diffusive productions 
of fruitful mediocrity. My little piece*^ would therefore come 
forth in the midst of periodical publications, unnöticed and un- 
known. The public were more importantly employed than to 
observe the easy simplicity of my style, or the harmony of my 
periods. Sheet after sheet was thrown off to oblivion. My essays 
were buried among the essays upon liberty, eastern tales, and 
eures for the bite of a mad dog^*; while Philautos, Philalethes, 
Philelütheros, and Philänthropos**, all wrote better because 
they wrote fasler than I. 

«Now, therefore, I began to associate with none but dis- 
appointed authors like myself, who praised, deplored, and 
despised each olher. The satisfaction we found ineverycelebrated 
writer's attempts was inversely as their merits. I found that no 

31) piece: AbhandluDg, Arbeit; nachher bestimmter essay. 

32) my essays etc.: Aespielang auf Zeitbegebeoheitea und beliebte 
Gegenstände schriftstellerischer Thätigkeit während der 60 er Jahre des 
18. Jahrhunderts. Von den Eastern Tales handelt Goldsmith im 33., 
von der Furcht vor tollen Hunden im 6S. Briefe des „ Weltbürge rs*^ 

33) PhilaiUos etc.: dem Griechischen entlehnte !Namen, welche be- 
deuten: „Freund von sich selbst, Freund der Wahrheit, Freund der 
Freiheit, Menschenfreund'^, und mit denen Schriftsteller unterzeichneten. 
In der Vorrede zu seinen Essays im Jahre 1765 sagt Goldsmith: „Die 
meisten sind des Jahres zwei- oder dreimal abgedruckt und unter das 
Publikum gebracht worden. Wenn wiederholte Auflagen ein Recht zum 
Stolze geben, so habe ich manche von meinen Arbeiten 16 mal err- 
scheinen und von verschiedenen Verfassern als ihre eigenen Produkte 
in Anspruch nehmen sehen. Ich habe gesehen, wie man sie mit Lob- 
sprüchen ankündigte und am Ende mit den Namen Philautos, Pbilalethes, 
Philelütheros und Philanthropos bezeichnete. Diese Herren haben die 
Güte gehabt, bei meinen Produkten zu Gevatter zu stehen, und, was 
mir noch mehr schmeicheln mufs, meine Fehler und Irrtümer auf sich 
zu nehmen." 



CHAPTER XX. 85 

genius in another could please me. My unfortunate paradoxes 
had entirely dried up Ihat source of corafort. I could neither 
read nor write with satisfaction ; for excellence in another was 
my aversion, and writing was ray trade. 

«In the midst of these gloomy reflections, as I was one day 
sitting on a bench in St. James's Park ^*, a young gentleman of 
distinction, who had been my intimate acquaintance at the uni- 
versity, approached me. We saluted each other with some hesi- 
tation; he almost ashamed of being known to one who made 
so shabby an appearance, and I afraid of a repulse. But my 
suspicions soon vanished; for Ned'*^ Thornhiil was at the 
bottom a very good-natured fellow.* 

«What did you say, George?* interrupted I. «Thornhiil! was 
not that his name? It can ceriainly be no other than my land- 
lord.» — «Bloss me!» cried Mrs. Arnold, «is Mr. Thornhiil so near 
a neighbour of yours? He has long been a friend in our family, 
and we expect a visit from him shortly^*.» 

«My friend's first care,» continued my son, «was to alter my 
appearance by a very fine suit of his own clothes, and then I 
was admitted to his table, upon the footing of half friend, half 
underling*'. My business was to attend him at auctions, to put 
him in spirits^® when he sat for his picture, and to takethe left 
hand in his chariot when not filled by another. Besides this, I 
had twenty other little employments in the family. I was to do 
many small things without bidding; to carry the corkscrew; to 
stand godfather to all the butler's children ; to sing when I was 
bid; to be never out of humour; always to be humble, and, if I 
could, to be very happy. 

«In this honourable post, however, I was not without a 
rival. A captain of marines, who was formed for the place by 
nature, opposed me in my pätron^s affections. As this gentle- 
man made it the study of his life to be acquainted with lords, 
though he was dismissed from several for his stupidity, yet he 
found many of them, who were as duU as himself, that permitted 
his assiduities. As flattery was his trade, he practised it with the 



^) St. James's Park: im Westen LondoBS, angelegt von Heinrich VIIT., 
genannt nach dem in der JNähe gelegenen St. James - Palast, dem Resi- 
denzschlofs der englischen Könige. 

^) NM: Abkürzung von Edward. 

•®) shortly: über den Besuch Thornhills berichtet Kap. XXI. 

3'^) underlvng: Untergebener, Bedienter. 

^) to put s, 0. in spirits: in gute Laune versetzen, erheitern; to 
be in spirits bei guter Laune sein, aufgeräumt sein. 



86 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

easiest address imaginable; but it came awkward and stiff from 
me; and as every day my patron's desire of flattery increased, 
so every hour, being better acquainted witb bis defects, I became 
niore unwilling to give it. Thus I was once more fairly going 
to give up tbe Held to the captain, wben my friend found oc- 
casion for my assistance. Tbis was nothing less than to figbt a 
duel for bim. I rcadily compiied witb bis request; and tbough 
I See you are displeased at my conduct, yet, as it was a debt 
indispensably due to friendsbip, I could not refuse. I undertook 
tbe affair, and disarmed my antägonist. Tbis piece of Service^* 
was repaid witb tbe wärmest professions of gratitude; but as my 
friend was to leave town in a few days, be knew no otber metbod 
of serving me but by recommending me to bis uncie SirWilbam 
TbornbiIl,andanotbernoblemanofgreat distinction, wbo enjoyed 
a post under tbe government. Wben be was gone, my first care 
was to carry bis recommendatory letter to bis uncle, a man 
wbose cbaracter for every virtue* was universal, yet**^ just, f 
was received by bis servants witb tbe most bospitable smiies ; 
for tbe looks of tbe domestics ever transmit tbeir master's bene- 
volence. Being sbown into a grand apartment, wbere Sir William 
soon came to me, I delivered my message and letter, wbicb be 
read, and after pausing some minutes — 'Pray, Sir,' ciied he, 
'inform me wbat you have done for my kinsman, to deserve 
tbis warm recommendation ? But I suppose, Sir, 1 guess your 
merits: you have fought for bim; and so you vvould expect a 
reward from me for being the Instrument of bis vices. I wisb, 
sincerely wish, tbat my present refusal may be some punisb- 
ment for your guilt; but still more, tbat it may be some induce- 
ment to your repentance.' Tbe severity of tbis rebuke I bore 
patiently, because I knew it was just. My wbole expectalions, 
therefore, lay in my letter to tbe great man. As tbe doors of 
tbe nobility are almost ever beset witb beggars, all ready to thrust 
in some sly petition, I found it no easy matter to gain ad~ 
mittance. However, after bribing tbe servants witb half my 
worldly fortune, I was at last sbown into a späcious apartment, 
my letter being previously sent up for bis lordsbip's inspection. 
During tbis anxious interval I had füll time to look around me. 
Everytbing was grand and of bappy contrivance: tbe paintings, 
tbe furniture, tbe gildings petriGed me witb awe, and raised my 

3ö) this piece of Service i diese Dienstleistang. Über piece of s. XIV, 47. 

^^) yet = but oder but yet, verblödet adversativ zwei Prädikats- 
adjektive. Der Ruf (character) eines togendhafteo Manoes, in welchem 
Sir William Thornhill stand, war allgemein, aber dennoch gerecht. 



CHAPTER XX. 87 

id^a of the owner. Ah, Ihought I to myself, how very great must 
Ihe possessor of all these things be, who carries in bis head the 
business of the State, and whose house displays half the wealth 
of a kingdom; sure*^ bis genius must the iinfäthomable! During 
these awful reflections I heard a step come heavily forward. Ah, 
this is the great man bimself! No, it was only a chamber-maid. 
Another foot was heard soon after. This must be He! No, it 
was only the great man's valet-de-chambre*^. At last bis lordship 
actually made bis appearance. 'Are you,' cried he, 'the bearer 
of this here letter*^?' I answered with a bow. i learn by this,' 
continued he, *as how that — ' But just at that instant a ser- 
vant delivered bim a card, and without taking farther notice, he 
went out of the room, and left me to digest my own bappiness 
at leisure. I saw no more of bim, tili told by a footman that bis 
lordship was going to bis coach at the door. Down I immediately 
followed, and joined my voice to that of three or four more, 
who came, like me, to petition for favours. His lordship, how- 
ever, went too fast for us, and was gaining his chariot door with 
large strides, when I bällööed out to know if 1 was to bave any 
reply. He was by this time got in, and muttered an answer, 
half of which only 1 heard; the other half was lost in the rattling 
of bis chariot wheeis. I stood for some time with my neck 
stretched out**, in the pöslure of one that was iistening to catch 
the glorious sounds, tili, looking round me, Ifound myself alone 
at his lordsbip's gate. 

«My palience,* continued my son, «was now quite exhausted. 
Stung with the thousand indignities I had met with, I was 
willing to cast myself away, and only wanted the gulf to receive 
me. I regarded myself as one of those vile things that Nature 
designed should be thrown by into her lumber-room*^ there to 
perish in obscurity. I had still, however, half a guinea left, and 
oftbat I thought Fortune herseif should not deprive me; but in 



**) sure: sicher (Modaladverb); in der Prosa veraltet. Jetzt ge- 
wöhnlich surely oder to be sure. 

*^) valet-de-c/iambre [lies frz.]; jetzt blos valet oder waiting-maD. 
Ib Kap. XXX gentlemao. 

*-^) this here letter: here uod tbere werdeo in der Volkssprache 
zur Verstärkung der Demoustrativa this und that gebraucht. Auch die 
Stellung vor dem Substantiv ist volkstümlich. 

**) with my neck stretched out: mit ausgestrecktem Halse. Das 
Partizip bezieht sich prädikativ auf das von der Präposition with ab- 
hängige Substantiv. 

*5) lumber-room: Rumpelkammer; aus Lombard room, Zimmer, in 
dem die lombardischen Pfandleiher die Pfänder aufbewahrten. 



88 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

Order to be sure of this, I was resolved to go instantly and 
spend it while I had it, and then trust to occurrences for the 
rest. As I was going along with this resolution, it happened that 
Mr. Crispe's office** seemed invitingly open to give me a wel- 
come reception. In this office Mr. Crispe kindly offers all His 
Majesty's subjects a generous promise of £ 30 a year, for which 
promise all Ihey give in return is their liberty for life, and per- 
mission to let him transport them to America as slaves. I was 
happy at finding a place where I could lose my fears in despera- 
tion, and entered this cell (for it had the appearance of one) 
with the devotion of a monastic. Here I found a number of 
poor creatures, all in circumstances like myself, expecting the 
arrival of Mr. Crispe, presenting a true epitome of English im- 
patience. Each untractable soul, at väriance with Fortune, 
wreaked her injuries on their own hearts; but Mr. Crispe at last 
came down, and all our murmurs were hushed. He deigned to 
regard me with an air of peculiar approbation; and indeed he 
was the first man who, for a month past, had falked to me with 
smiles. After a few questions, he found I was fit for everything 
in the world. He paused a while upon the properest*^ means of 
providing for me ; and slapping his förehead as if he had found 
it, assured me that there was at that time an embassy^^ talked 
of ^^ from the s^nod of Pennsylvania to the Chickasaw Indians, 
and that he would use his interest to get me made secretary. I 
knew in my own heart that the fellow lied, and yet his promise 
gave me pleasure, there was something so magnifieent in the 
sound. I fairly, therefore, divided my half-guinea, one half of 
which went to be added to his thirty thousand pound ^°, and 
with the other half I resolved to go to the next tavern, to be 
there more happy than he. 

«As I was going out with that resolution, I was met at the 
door by the captain of a ship with whom I had formerly some 
little acquaintance, and he agreed to be my companion over a 
bowl of punch. As I never chose*^ to make a secret of my cir- 

*6) Mr, Crispe's officei io welchem Soldaten für das Heer, besoa- 
ders für deo Dienst in den Kolon ieen, anj^eworben wurden. 

*^) properest: über die Steigerung s. Anm. 25. 

^) an embassy etc.: eine Gesandtschaft seitens der Synode der 
Presbyterianer von Pennsylvanien, das damals noch den Engländern ge- 
hörte. Der Stamm der Chickasaw Indianer war einer der mächtigsten 
und erstreckte sich von Pennsylvanien bis zum Missisippi. 

*5) talked of^ of which they (people) talked. 

*0) pound: jetzt pounds. Vgi. IV, 10. 

*i) / chose = I used, I would, ich pflegte. 



CHAPTER XX. 89 

cumstances, he assured me that I was upon the very poiat of 
ruin, in listening to the office-keeper's promises ; for Ihal he 
only designed to seil me to the plantations. 'But,' continued he, 
'I fancy you might, by a much shorter voyage, be very easily put 
into a genteel way of bread *^. Take my advice. My ship sails 
to-morrow for Amsterdam : what if ** you go in her as a pas- 
senger? The moment you land, al] you have to do is to teach 
the Dutchmen Englisb, and Fll Warrant you'il get pupils and 
money enough. I suppose you understand English/ added he, 
^by this time, or the deuce is in it/ 1 confidently assured him of 
that; but expressed a doubt whether the Dutch would be willing 
to learn English. He affirmed, with an oath, that they were fond 
of it to distraclion ; and upon that affirmation I agreed with bis 
proposal, and embarked the next day to teach the Dutch English 
in Holland. The wind was fair, our voyage short; and after bav- 
ing paid my passage with half my movables, I found myself fallen 
as from the skies, a stranger in one of the principal streets of 
Amsterdam. In this Situation I was unwilling to let any time 
pass unemployed in teaching. I addressed myself, therefore, to 
two or three of those I met, whose appearance seemed most 
promising; but it was impossible to make ourselves mutually 
understood. It was not tili this very moment I recollected that, 
in Order to teach the Dutchmen English, it was necessary that 
they should first teach me Dutch. How I came to overlook so 
obvious an objection is to me amazing; but certain it is I ovcr- 
looked it. 

«This scheme thus blown up^^, I had some thoughts of 
fairly shipping back to England again; but, falling into Company 
with an Irish Student, who was returning from Louvain**^, our 
conversation turning upon topics of literature (for, by the way, 
it may be observed that I always forgot the meanness of my 
circumstances when I could converse upon such subjects) ; from 
him I learned that there were not two men in bis whole uni- 
versily who understood Greek. This amäzed me. I instantly re- 
solved to travel to Louvain, and there live by teaching Greek; 
and in this design I was heartened by my brother Student, ^^ who 
threw out some hints that a fortune might be got by it. 

^^) way of bread: knapper Ausdruck für way of earniag: your bread. 

*^) what ip „wie (wäre es) wenn." 

**) tkU scheme [spr. sk] thus blown up: absolute Partizipialkon- 
struktion; to blow up vereiteln. 

") Louvain [spr. frz.]: Universitätsstadt im ehemaligen Brabant 
(Belgien). Vgl. Einleitung S. 6. 

W) brother student: Bruder Studio; gewöhnlich fellow Student. 



90 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

«I set boldly forward the next tnorning. Every day lessened 
the bürden of my movables, like iEsop*^^ and bis basket of 
bread; for I paid them for my lodgings to the Dutch as I 
travelled od. When I came to LouvaiD» I was resolved not to go 
sneaking to the lower professors, but openly tendered my talents 
to the Principal ^^ himself. I went, had admittance, and oflered 
him my Service as a master of the Greek language, which I had 
been told was a desiderätum in this university. The Principal 
seemed at first to doubt of my abilities; but of these I offered to 
convince him, by turning a part of any Greek anthor he should 
f]X upon into Latin. Finding me perfectly earnest in my pro- 
posal, he addressed me thus: *You see me, young man; I never 
learned Greek, and I don't find that I have ever missed it. I 
have had a Doctor's cap and gown*® without Greek; I have ten 
thousand florins a year without Greek; I eat heartily without 
Greek; and, in short,' continued he, *as I don't know Greek, 
I do not believe there is any good in it.^ 

«I was now too far from home to think of returning; so I 
resolved to go forward. I had some knowletige of music, with a 
tolerable voice, and now turned what was my amusement into a 
present means of subsistence. I passed among the harmless 
peasants of Flanders, and among such of the French as were 
poor enough to be very merry; for I ever^° found them sprightly 
in Proportion to their wants^^ Whenever 1 approached a peasant's 
house towards nightfall, I played one of my most merry tunes, 
and that procured me not only a lodging, but subsistence for 
the next day. 1 once or twice attempted to play for people of 
fashion; but they always thought my Performance odious, and 
never rewarded me even with a trifle. This was to me the more 
extraordinary, as, whenever I used, in better days, to play for 
Company, when playing was my amusement, my music never 

^'^) ^sop and kis basket: von dem griechischeo Fabeldichter Aesop, 
gestorbea am 500 vor Chr., wird berichtet, dafs er sich, als er als 
Sklave auf einer Reise nebst .andern Sklaven Lasten zu tragen hatte, 
den Brotkorb wählte, der anfangs am schwersten war, aber mit jedem 
Tage leichter wurde, während die Lasten der andern gleich schwer 
blieben. 

^8) principal: Rektor der Universität. Der Rektor des einzelnen 
Kollegs auf den engl. Universitäten heifst head oder master. 

^^) cap and gmimi Amtstracht der Universitätslehrer und der richter- 
lichen Beamten, so wie die offizielle Kleidung der Studenten. Cap ist 
eine Mütze mit einem viereckigen, flachen Deckel; gown ist ein talar- 
artiges Gewand. Über gown vgl. IV, 33. 

60) ever: jetzt always. Vgl. 1, 3. 

6^) wants: die Bauern waren um so heiterer, je armer sie waren. 



CHAPTER XX. 91 

faiied to throw them into raptures, and the ladies especialiy; 
but as it was now my only means, it was received with con- 
tempt: a proof how ready the world is to underrate those talent» 
by which a man is supported. 

«In this manner 1 proceeded to Paris, with no design but 
just to look about me, and then to go forward. The people of 
Paris are much fonder of strangers that have raoney than of 
those that have wit. As I could not boast much of either, I was 
no great fävourite. After Walking about the town four or five 
days, and seeing the outsides of the best houses, I was preparing 
to leave this retreat of venal hospitahty, when, passing through 
one of principal streets, whom should I meet but** our cousin, 
to whom you first recommended*^ me! This meeting was very 
agreeable to me, and I believe not displeasing to him. He in- 
quired into the nature of my journey to Paris, and informed me 
of bis own business there, which was to collect pictures, medals, 
intaglios*^ and antiques of all kinds, for a gentleman in London^ 
who had just stepped into taste and a large fortune. I was the 
more surprised at seeing our cousin pitched upon for this ofhce» 
as he himself had often assured me he knew nothing of the 
matter. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cog- 
noscento^^ so very suddenly, he assured me that nothing was 
more easy. The whole secret consisted in a strict adherence to 
two rules: the one, always to observe the picture might have 
been better if the painter had taken more pains; and the other, 
to praise the works of Pietro Perugino**. *But,* says he, 'as I 
once taught you how to be an author in London, Pli now under- 
take to instruct you in the art of picture-buying at Paris/ 

«With this proposal 1 very readily closed, as it was living*^ 
and now all my ambition was to live. I went therefore to bis 
lodgings, improved my dress by bis assistance; and, after some 
time, accompanied him to auctions of pictures, where the finglish 

^^) whom should I meet but: vgl. XI, 12; but als (= aufser) in 
einer Frage mit negativem Siuoe. 

^) recommended: der Empfehlangsbrief ist S. 81 erwähnt. 

^^) medals, intagUosi beide Wörter stammen aus dem ItulieDischen; 
medal ist Medaille und alte Münze, intaglio [spr. in-tär-yö] geschnittener 
Stein, Gemme, Kamee. 

65) cognoscento [spr. sk = shj (ital.), ungenau für cognoscente 
Kunstkenner. Vgl. connoisseur XI, 5. 

66) Pietro PeruginOy geb. 1446, gest. 1524, Lehrer Raphaels und 
Stifter der römischen Malerschule. Sein eigentlicher JName war Pietro 
Vauucci; den Beinamen Perugino nahm er an, als die Stadt Perugia ihm 
das Bürgerrecht verliehen hatte. 

^^) a Uvingi knapper Ausdruck für a means of living. 



92 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

gentry*' were expected to be purcbäsers. I was not a little 
surprised al bis intimacy with people of tbe best fashion, who 
referred themselves to bis judgment upon every picture or medal, 
as an unerring Standard of taste. He niade very good use of my 
assistance upon these occasions; for, wben asked bis opinion, 
he would gravely take me aside, and ask mine, shrug, look wise, 
return, and assure tbe Company that be could give no opinion 
upon an affair of so mucb importance. Yettbere was sometimes 
an occasion for a more supported assurance. I remeraber t« 
bave seen bim, after giving bis opinion tbat tbe colouring of a 
picture was not mellow enougb, very deliberately take a brush 
witb brown varnisb, tbat was accidentally lying by, and rub it 
over tbe piece witb great composure before all tbe Company, 
and tben ask if be bad not improved tbe tints. 

«Wben be bad finisbed bis commission in Paris, be left me 
strongly recommended to several men of distinction, as a person 
very proper for a travelling tutor; and after some time I was 
employed in tbat capacity by a gentleman wbo brougbt bis ward 
to Paris, in order to set bim forward on bis tour through 
Europe*®. I was to be tbe young gentleman's governor, but 
witb a proviso^® tbat be should always be permitted to govern 
bimself. My pupil, in fact, understood tbe art of guiding in 
money concerns mucb better tban I. Be was heir to a fortune 
of about two bundred tbousand pounds, left bim by an uncle in 
tbe West Indies ; and bis guardians, to qualify bim for tbe manage- 
ment of it, bad bound bim apprentice to an attöiney^^ Tbus 
avarice was bis prevailing passion: all bis questions on tbe road 
were, bow money migbt be saved; wbicb was tbe least expensive 
course of travel; vvbetber anytbing could be bougbt tbat would 



^^) g'entryi die Aristokratie des niedern Adels, der höhern Bildung 
und des Besitzes. Zu ihr gehören die Baroaets und Knights, die Juristen, 
Geistlichen, Offiziere, grol'sen Grundbesitzer und reichen Kauflente. 

®^) tour through Europe: erstreckte sich auf den Besuch von Frank- 
reich, Italien, der Schweiz, der Rhein- und Niederlande. 

'^°) proviso (ital.) Vorsicht, Vorbehalt; besonders in der Wendung 
*with a proviso' gebräuchlich. 

'^^) to bind a person apprentice to an attomey: bei einem Advo- 
katen in die Lehre geben. Vgl. Anm. 12 u. 15. Mtorney Rechtsbei- 
stand, Sachwalter. £r gehört nicht zu den studierten Juristen (bar- 
risters), welche einen besonderen Stand bilden und ein Amt an den 
höheren Gerichtshöfen verwalten, sondern ist praktischer Geschäftsmann, 
der die Prozesse bis zur mündlichen Verhandlung einleitet, den Rechtsan- 
walt annimmt und ihn mit dem gesammelten Beweismaterial versieht 
Häufig wird er auch von den höheren Standen als Steward verwandt, 
dem die Verwaltung des Vermögens obliegt. 



CHAPTER XX. 93 

turn to account^^ when disposed of again in London. Such 
curiosities on the way as could be seen for nothing he was 
ready enough to look at; but if the sight of them^^ was to be 
paid for, he usually asserted that he had been told they were 
not worth seeing. He never paid a bill that^* he would not ob- 
serve how amäzingly expensive travelling was, and all this 
though he was not yet twenty-one. When arrived at Leghorn ^*^, 
as we took a walk to look at the port and shipping, he inquired 
the expense of the passage by sea home to England. This he 
was informed was but a trifle compared to bis retureing by land; 
he was therefore nnable to withstand the temptation ; so paying 
me the small part of salary that was due, he took leave and 
embarked, with only one attendant, for London. 

«I now, therefore, was left once more upon Ihe world at 
large; but then it was a thing I was used to. However, my skill 
in music could avail me nothing in a country where every peasant 
was a better musician than I; but by this time I had acquired an- 
other talent, which answered my purpose as well, and this was 
a skill in disputation. In all the foreign universities and con- 
vents there are, upon certain days, philosophical theses main- 
tained against every adventitious disputant; for which, if the 
Champion opposes with any dexterily, he can claim a gratuity in 
money, a dinner, and a bed for one night. In this manner, there- 
fore, I fought my way^* towards England, walked along from 
city to city, examined mankind more nearly, and, if I may so 
express it, saw both sides of the picture ". My remarks, how- 
ever, are but few: I found that monarchy was the best govern- 
ment for the poor to live in, and commonwealths for the rieh. 
] found that riches in general were in every country another 
name for freedom; and that no man is so fond of liberty him- 
seif, as not to be desirous of subjecting the will of some indivi- 
duals in society to bis own. 

«Upon my arrival in England I resolved to pay my respects 
first to you, and then to enlist as a volunteer in the first ex- 
pedition that was going forward; but, on my journey down, my 

'^^) to turn to account: zom Vorteil gereichen. 

'^^) the gight of them: die Besichtigung derselben. 

''^) that ... 120^ s=s bat nach verDeintem Hauptsätze im Sinne von 
„ohne dafs'S 

^^) Leghorn: Livoroo. 
) io fight OTie^s way: sich durchschlagen. 

'^'') both sides of the picture: der Ausdruck ist einem Gemälde ent- 
nommen, das auf der Vorder- und Rückseite bemalt ist, und bei dem 
das eine Bild mit dem andern konstrastiert. 



94 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

resolutions were changed by meeting an old acquaintance, wbo 
I found beloDged to a Company of comedians that were going to 
make a summer campaign in the country. The Company seemed 
not much to disapprove of me for an associate^®. They all/how- 
ever, apprised me of tbe importance of the task at wbich I aimed; 
that the public was a many-headed monster, and that only such 
as had very good heads could please it; that acting was not to 
be learned in a day; and that, withoiit some traditionai 8hrugs^^ 
which had been on the stage, and oniy on the stage, these 
hundred years, I could never pretend to please. The next dif- 
ficulty was in fitting me with parts, as almost every character was 
in keeping^'^. I was driven for some time from one character to 
another, tili at last Horatio was fixed upon, which the presence 
of the present Company has happily hindered me from acting.» 



CHAPTER XXI. 

The Short Continaance of Friendship amongst the Vicious, which is 
coeval oDly with motnal satisfaction.^ 

My son's account was too long to be delivered at once; the 
first part of it was begun that night, and he was concluding the 
rest after dinner the next day, when the appearance of Mr. 
Thornhiirs equipage at the door seemed to make a pause in the 
general satisfaction. The butler, who was now become* my 
friend in the family, informed me, with a whisper, that the'Squire 
had already made some övertures* to Miss Wilmot, and that her 
aunt and uncle seemed highly to approve the match. lipon Mr. 
Thornhiirs entering, he seemed, at seeing my son and me, to 
Start back; but I readily imputed that to surprise, and not dis- 
pleasure. However, upon our advancing to salute bim, he re- 
turned our greeting with the most appärent candour; and, after 
a Short time, bis presence served only te increase the general 
good humour. 



'^^) The cofnpany . . . associate: die Gesellschaft schien mich nicht 
nngern als Mitglied aufnehmen zn wollen ; to disapprove of mifsbilligen. 
'^^) traditionai shrugs : dnrch Überliefernng fortgepflanzte Kunstgriffe. 
^^) to be in keeping: in Verwahrsam sein => besetzt sein. 
^) The Short continuance etc. : die Freundschaft lasterhafter Men- 
schen dauert so lange, wie sie Gefallen an einander finden. 
*) wa* become: jetzt had become; vgl. ü, 19. 
3) overture: 1) Öffnung (veraltet); 2) Eröffnung, Antrag. 



CHAPTER XXL 95 

After tea he called nie aside to inquire after my daughter; 
but upoD my informing him that my inquiry was unsuccessful, 
he seemed greally surprised; adding that he had been since 
frequently at my house, in order to cömfort the rest of my 
family, whom he left perfectly well. He tben asked if I had 
commünicated her misforlune to Miss Wilmot, or my son; and 
upon my replying that I had not told them as yet, he greatly 
approved my prudence and precaution, desiring me hy all means 
to keep it a secret. We were interrupted by a servant who came 
to ask the 'Squire in, to stand up at country dances^; so that he 
left me quite pieased with the interest he seemed to take in my 
concerns. His addresses, however, to Miss Wilmot were too 
öbvious to he mistaken; and yetshe seemed not perfectly pieased, 
but bore them rather in compliance to the will of her aunt than 
from real inclination. I had even the satisfaction to see her 
lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son, which the 
other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. Mr. 
Thornhiirs seeming composure, however, not a little surprised 
me: we had now continued here a week at the pressing instances 
of Mr. Arnold ; but each day, the more tenderness Miss Wilmot 
showed my son, Mr. Thornhiirs friendship seemed proportionably 
to increase for him. 

He had formerly made us the most kind assurances of 
using his interest to serve the family; but now his generosity 
was not confined to promises alone. The morning i designed 
for my departure, Mr. Thornhill came to me, with looks of real 
pleasure, to inform me of a piece of Service he had done for his 
friend George. This was nothing less than his having procured 
him an ensign's commission in one of the regiments that were 
going to the West Indies, for which he had promised but one 
hundred pounds'^, his interest having been sufficient^ to get an 
abatement of the other two. «As for this trifling piece of 
Service,» continued the young gentleman, «I desire no other 
reward but the pleasure of having served my friend ; and as for 



*) to stand up at: teilnehmea an; über coantry dance vgl. IT, 15. 

^) one hundred pounds: die groPse Masse von ErDenouogea und 
Beförderungen von Regiments -Offizieren beruhte auf einem Kauf der 
Patente. Anträge darauf wurden an den Commander-in-chief gerichtet, 
der bei eintretender Vakanz nach seinem Ermessen die Auswahl unter 
den Bewerbern traf. 

^) his interest having^ been suffidenti seine Verwendung hätte ge- 
nügt. Absol. Partizipialkonstr. 



96 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

the hundred pound^ to be paid, if you are unable to raise it 
yourselves, I will advance it ^ and you shall repay me at your 
leisure.» This was a favour we wanted words to express our 
sense of: I leadily, therefore, gave my bond^ for the money, and 
testified as much gratitude as if i never intended to pay. 

George was to depart for town the next day, to secure bis 
commission in pursuance of bis generous pätron's directions, 
wbo judged it highly expedient to use despatcb, lest in the 
meantime anotber should step in with more advantägeous pro- 
posals. The next morning, therefore, our young soldier was 
early prepared for bis departure, and seemed the only person 
among us that was not affected by it. Neitber the fatigues and 
dangers he was going to encounter, nor the friends be was 
leaving behind, any way damped bis spirits. After be bad taken 
leave of the rest of the Company, I gave bim all I bad — my 
blessing. «And now, my boy,» cried I, «thou ^" art going to üght 
for tby country, remember how thy brave grandfatber fougbt for 
bis sacred king ^^ wben loyaHy among Britons was a virtue. Go, 
my boy, and imitate bim in all but bis misfortunes, if it was a 
misfortune to die with Lord Falkland ^^. Go, my boy, and if you 
fall, thougb distant, exposed^^ and unwept by tbose that love 
you, the most precious tears are tbose wilb which Heaven bedews 
the unburied head of a soldier.» 

The next morning I took leave of the good family that bad 
been kind enough to entertain me so long, not witbout severai 
expressions of gratitude to Mr. Tbornbill for bis late bounty^^. 
1 left tbem in the enjoyment of all tbat bappiness which 
affluence and good breeding procure, and returned towards bome, 
despairing of ever Unding my daughter more, but sending a sigh 
to Heaven to spare and to forgive her. I was now come witbiu 



'^) poundi die erste Ausgabe hat poonds (vgl. Anm. 5 und über den 
Plural IV, 10). 

^) to raise ü . . advmice it: die plurale Wertangabe ist als Eioheit 
gefafst UDd deshalb durch it (statt them) ersetzt. 
^) bond'. Schuldschein. 
^0) thoui feierliche Anrede; vgl. III, 19. 
^1) his sacred king: Karl I. 

^*) Lord Falkland: Lucius Gary, Viscount of Falklaod, Staats- 
sekretär Karls I., fiel am 20. Sept. 1643 im Treffen bei Newbnry als 
Verfechter der Rechte des Königs, indem er sich freiwillig in das 
erste Glied des Byronschen Regiments stellte. 

^3) exposed: ausgesetzt (den Tieren) «= unbeerdigt. 
^*) bounty (frz. bonte): a) Güte (veraltet); b) Grofsmut, Freigebig- 
keit (vgl. DI, 48); c) was diese gewährt: Gabe, Mitgift. 



CHAPTEB XXI. 97 

about twenty miles of home, baving hired a horse to carry me, 
as I was yet but weak, and comforted myseif with the bopes of 
soon seeiog all I beld dearest upon earth. But the night Coming 
on, I put up at^'^ a little pubüc-house by the road-side, and 
asked for the landlord's Company over a pint" of wlne. We sat 
beside bis kitchen üre, which was the best room in the house, 
and chatted on politics and the news of the country. We 
happened, among other topics, to taik of young 'SquireTbornhill, 
who, the host assured me, was bated as much as bis uncle Sir 
William, who sometimes came down to the country, was loved. 
As we continued our discourse in Ulis manner, bis wife, who 
had been out to get change^^ returned, and perceiving that her 
husband was enjoying a pleasure in which she was not a sharer, 
she asked bim, in an angry tone, what he did there, to which 
he only replied, in an ironical way, by drinking her health. «Mr. 
Symmonds,» cried she, «you use me very iil, and I'll bear it no 
longer. Here three parts of the business is left" for me to do, 
and the fourth left unfinished, while you do nothing but soak^^ 
with the guests all day long; whereas, if a spoonful of liquor*® 
were to eure me of a fever, i never touch a drop.» I now 
found what she would be at, and immedialely pöured her out a 
glass, which she received with a courtesy *^ ; and, drinking towards 
my good health, «Sir,» resumed she, «it is not so much for the 
value of the liquor i am angry, but one cannot help it when the 
house is going out of the Windows ^^. If the customers or guests 
are to be dunned^^, all the bürden lies upon my back: he'd as 
lief eat that glass as budge** after them himself. There, now, 
above stairs, we have a young woman who has come to take up 



^^) to ptd up at: eiokehren io; vgL lU, 22. 

^^) pint: die Piate (ein eogl. Flüfsigkeitsmafs) = ^ Gallone oder 
0,577 Liter. 

^'^) to get changei Kleingeld einwechseln; vgl. XIV, 39. 

^^) three parts . . is left: Koostraktion nach dem Sinne. Der Sing, 
des Verbs nach plnralischen BezeichnangcD des Subjekts besonders in 
VerbindoDg mit Kardinalzahlen findet sich öfter in der älteren Prosa, 
gilt jetzt aber nicht mehr als korrekt. 

^^) soak: zechen; eig. sangen. 

20) liquor [spr. qu«=k]: jedes geistige Getränk, auch Wein. 

21) courtesy: Knicks; vgl. I, 20. 

22) ihe house is going out of the Windows: das Haus geht aus den 
Fugen. Alles geht drunter und drüber. Familiär. 

2-^) to dun: eine Schuld ungestüm einfordern, „mahnen'^ 
2*) to budge (frz. bouger): sich rühren, after s. o. hinter jmd. her 
sein. 

Goldsmith, The Ticsr of Wakefield. 2. Auflage. ^ 



98 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

her lodgiDgs here, and I don^t believe she has got^*^ any money, 
by her overcivility. I am certain she is very slow of payment, 
and I wish she were put in mind of it.» — «What signifies 
mindiug her?» cried the host; «if she be slow, she is sure.» — 
«I don't know that,» replied the wife ; «but I know that I am 
sure she has been here a fortnight, and we have not yet seen 
the cross of her money*^.» — «I suppose, my dear,» cried he, 
«we shall have it all in a lump.» — «In a lump!» cried the other; 
«I hope we may get it any way; and that I am resolved we will 
this very night, or out she tramps, bag and baggage^^» «Con- 
sider, my dear», cried the husband, «she is a gentlewoman*^, 
and deserves more respect.» — «As for the matter of that,» 
returned the hostess, «gentle or simple, out she shall pack with 
a sussarara*'. Gentry^^ may be good things where they take^^; 
but, for my part, I never saw much good of them at the sign of 
the Harrow'^.» Thus saying, she ran up a narrow flight of stairs 
that went from the kitchen to a room overhead; and I soon 
perceived, by the loudness of her voice, and the bitterness of 
her reproaches, that no money was to be had from her lodger. 
I could hear her remönstrances very distinctly: «Out, I say; 
pack out this moment! or VW give thee a mark thou won't be 
the better for this three months'*. What! to come'* and take 
up an honest house without cross or coin^' to bless yourself 
with! Come along, I say.» — «Oh, dear madam,» cried the 
stranger, «pity me, pity a poor abandoned creature for one night, 
and death will soon do the rest» I instantly knew the voice of 
my poor ruined child Olivia. I flew to her rescue, while 
the woman was dragging her along by the hair, and I caught 
the dear forlörn wretch in my arms. «Welcome, any way 



2*) have goti über das pleonastische got vgl. XX, 14. 

**) the cross of her money: vgl. X, 9. 

^'') bog and haggagei mit Sack and Pack. 

^^) ffentlewoman: ist, dem Worte gentlemao entsprechend, Bezeich- 
nung für eine Fraa von guter Erziehung und feinem Benehmen. 

^) with a sussararai Hals über Kopf. Das Wort drückt die Hast 
aus, mit der etwas geschieht, und soll aus certiorari, dem Anfangs- 
worte einer alten Gerichtsverfügung, entstanden sein. 

30) gentryi vornehme Leute. Vgl. XX, 68. 

3^) tahe: angebracht sein, am Platze sein (fam.). 

32) sign of the Harrow; Gasthaus (eig. Zeichen, Schild) zur Egge. 

3<) ril give thee . . . months: ich will dir einen Denkzettel geben, 
an dem du ein Vierteljahr lang genug haben wirst. — (Jber thee vgl. 
XV, 27. — These anstatt this hat erst die 6. Aasgabe vom Jahre 1779. 

34) to come: Infin. mit to im emphatischen Ausruf. Vgl. XI, 14. 

**) without cross or coin: ohne Heller und Pfennig. Vgl. X, 9. 



CHAPTER XXI. 99 

welcome, my dearest lost one, my treasure, to your poor old 
father's bosom ! Though the vicious forsake thee, there is yet 
one in the world that will never forsake thee; though thou 
hadst ten thousand crimes to answer for, he will forget them 
all!» — «Oh, my own dear» — for minutes she could say no 
more — «my own dearest good papa! Could angels be kinder? 
How do I deserve so much? The villain, I hate bim and 
rayseif, to be^^ a reproach to so much goodness.» «You can't for- 
give me; I know you cannot.» — «Yes, my child, from my heart I 
do forgive thee! Only repent, and we both shall yet be happy. We 
shall see many pleasant days yet, my Olivia.» — «Ah ! never, sir, 
never. The rest of my wretched life must be infamy abroad, 
and shame at home. But, alas! papa, you look much paler than 
you used to do. Could such a thing^^ as I am give you so much 
uneasiness? Surely you have too much wisdom to take the 
miseries of my guilt upon yourself !» — «Our wisdom, young 
woman — » replied I. «Ah! why so cold a name, papa?» cried 
she. «This is the first time you ever called me by so cold a name.» 
— «I ask pardon, my darling,» returned 1; «but I was going to 
observe, that wisdom makes but a slow defence against trouble, 
though at last a sure one.» 

[The landlady then returned, to know if they did not choose 
a more genteel apartment; to which assenting, they were shown 
a room where they could converse more freely. After they had 
talked themselves into some degree of tranquillity, Olivia gave 
an account of the gradations that led to her wretched Situation. 
Her Story showed that she had been taken away by Mr. Thorn- 
hill, and privately married to him by a popish priest, whose 
name they were sworn to conceal. She soon found how little 
expectation she was to have from his sincerity. From day to 
day he grew more insolent tili at last she left him, and made 
her way to the inn where her father met with her.] 



^^) to be: kausaler Infinitiv. Die Güte des Vaters gereicht ihr 
jetzt zum Vorworf; da sie dieselbe so schlecht vergolten bat. 

^^) thing: von Personen gebraucht, drückt Geringschätzung oder 
Mitleid aus. Vgl. The Deserted Village 129. 130: 
'All but yon widowed, solitary thing, 
That feebly bends beside the plashy spring.' 



100 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

CHAPTER XXn. 

Offeoces are easily pardoned, 'where there is Love at bottom. 

The next morning I took my daughter behind me^ and sei 
out on my return home. As we travelled along, I slrove, by every 
persuasion, to calm her sorrows and fears, and to arm her with 
resolution to bear the presence of her offended mother. I took 
every opporlunity, from the pröspect of a fine country, througb 
which we passed, to observe how much kinder Heaven was to 
US than we to each other; and that the misfortunes of Natureis 
making were very few. I assured her, that she should never 
perceive any change in my aifections, and that, during my h'fe, 
which yet might be long, she might depend upon a guardian and 
an instructor. I armed her against the censures of the world, 
showed her that books were sweet, unreproaching companions 
to the miserable, and that, if they could not bring us to enjoy 
life, they would at least teach us to endure it. 

The hired horse that we rode was to be put up' that night 
at an inn by the way, within about five miles from my house; 
and as I was willing to prepare my family for my daughter's 
reception, I determined to leave her that night at the inn, and 
to return for her, accompanied by my daughter Sophia, early the 
next morning. It was night before we reached our appointed 
stage; however, after seeing her provided with a decent apart- 
ment, and having ordered the hostess to prepare proper refresh- 
ments, I kissed her, and proceeded towards home. And now my 
heart caught new sensations of pleasure, the nearer I approached 
that peaceful mansion. As a bird that had been frightened from 
its nest, my affections outwent my haste, and hövered round 
my little fireside with all the rapture of expectation. I called up^ 
the many fond things I had to say, and anticipated the welcome 
I was to receive. I already feit my wife's tender embrace, and 
smiled at the joy of my little ones. As I walked but slowly, the 
night waned^ apace. The labourers of the day were all retired 



^) behind me: d. i. auf das Pferd, welches er (Kap. XXI) gemietet, 
hatte. Vgl. X, 28. 

2) to put up: UDterbriogen. Vgl. HI, 22; XXI, 15. 

^) the night wctned apace: der Abeod verging schnell; to wane 
schwinden, von der Zeit, dem Monde and in der Poesie im übertragenei^ 
Sinne gebraucht. 



CHAPTER XXII. 101 

to rest; the lights were out in every cottage; no sounds were 
heard but of tbe shrilling ^ cock, and the deep-mouthed watch- 
dog*, at hollow distance. I approached my abode of pleasure, 
and, before I was within a furlong^ of the place, our honest 
mastiff came running to welcome me. 

It was now near midnight that I came to knock at my door: 
all was still and silent; my heart dilated with unutterable 
happiness, when, to my amazement, I saw tbe house bursting 
out in a blaze of fire, and every aperture red with conflagration. 
I gave a loud convulsive outcry, and feil upon the pavement 
insensible. This alarmed my son, wbo had, tili this, been asleep ; 
and he, perceiving the flames, instantly waked my wife and 
daughter, and all running out, wild with apprehension ^, recalled 
me to life with their anguish. But it was only to objects of new 
terror; for the flames had, by this time, caught the roof of our 
dwelling, part after part continuing to fall in, while the family 
stood, with silent agony, looking on, as if they enjoyed the blaze. 
I gazed upon them and upon it by turns, and then looked round 
me for my two little ones; but they were not to be seen. 
misery! «Where,» cried I, «where are my little ones?» «They are 
burnt to death in the flames,» says my wife calmly, «and I will 
die with them.» That moment I heard the cry of the babes 
within, who were just awaked by the fire, and nothing could have 
stopped me. «Where, where are my children?» cried I, rushing 
through the flames, and bursting the door of the Chamber in 
which they were confined. «Where are my little ones?» — «Here, 
dear papa, here we are!» cried they together, while the flames 
were just catching the bed where they lay. I caught them both 
in my arms, and snatched them through the fire as fast as 
possible, while, just as I was got out, the roof sunk in.^ «Now,» 
cried I, holding up my children, «now let the flames burn on, 
and all my possessions perish. Here they are; I have saved my 
treasure. Here, my dearest, here are our treasures, and we shall 
yet be happy.» We kissed our little darlings a thousand ümes; 
they clasped us round the neck, and seemed to share our träns- 
ports, while their mother laughed and wept by turns. 

*) shrilling i schriU (vom Tone); hier „krähend''. 

^) the deep-motUhed watch-dog : der (mit tiefer Stimme d. i.) kräftig 
anschlagende Hofhund. 

^) a furlong (eig. a fnrrow long die Länge einer Furche); ein 
Längenmafs = % engl. Meile oder 220 yards oder 201*164 Meter. 

'^) wild vrith apprehension: aufser sich vor Schrecken. 

") / was got out: jetzt I had got out; sunk in der Prosa veraltet; 
jetzt sank. 



102 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

I now stood a calm spectator of the flames, and after some 
lime began to perceive that my arm to the Shoulder* was 
scorched in a terrible manner. It was, therefore, out of my 
power to give my soo any assistance, either in attempting to 
save our goods, or preventing the flames spreadiog^^ to our 
com. By this time the neighbours were alarmed, and came 
running to our assistance; but all they could do was to stand, 
like US, spectators of the calamity. My goods, among which were 
the notes 1 had reserved for my daughters' fortunes, were entirely 
consumed, except a box with some papers that stood in the 
kitchen, and two or three things more of little consequence, 
which my son brought^^ away in the beginning. The neighbours 
contributed, however, what they could to lighten our distress. 
They brought us clothes, and furnished one of our outhouses 
with kitchen Utensils; so that by daylight we had another, though 
a wretched dwelling, to redre to. My honest next neighbour^* 
and bis children were not the least assiduous in providing us 
with everything necessary, and ofTering whatever consolation 
untutored benevolence could suggest 

When the fears of my family had subsided , curiosity to 
know the cause of my long stay began to take place; having, 
therefore, informed them of every particular, I proceeded to 
prepare them for the reception of our lost one; and though we 
Lad nothing but wretchedness now to impart, I was willing to 
procure her a welcome to what we had. This task would have 
been more difficult but for^* our own recent calamity, which 
had humbled my wife's pride, and blunted it by more poignant^* 
afQictions. Being unable to go for my poor child myself, as my 
arm grew very painful, I sent my son and daughter, who soon 
returned, supporting the wretched delinquent, who had not the 
courage to look up at her mother, whom no Instructions of 
niine could persuade to a perfect reconciliation; for women have 



^) to the Shoulder: to bis an bezeichnet die örtliche Grenze. 

^Oj preventing; the flames spreading;: Accas. mit dem Partizip nach 
dem transit. Verb to prevent, wofür jedoch jetzt gewöhnlich from mit 
dem Gerundium augewandt wird. Vgl. II, 14. 

11) brotight: das Präteritum anstatt des deutschen Plusquamperfekts 
ist im Relativ- und Temporalsatze nicht ungewöhnlich. Vgl. XV, 5. 

^2) neighhour: d. i. Flambor ough. 

^3) but for (aufser wegen), wenn nicht gewesen wäre; ohne. Vgl. 
V, 20. 

^^) poignant [g stumm] : die Metapher ist von der Berührung zweier 
scharfen Gegenstände hergenommen, von denen der schärfere den andern 
abstumpft. 



CHAPTEB XXIIL 103 

a much stronger sense of fömale error than men. «Ah, madam !» 
cried her mother, «this is but a poor place you are come to after 
so much finery. My daughter Sophy and I can afford but little 
entertainment to persons who have kept Company only with 
people of distinction. Yes, Miss Livy, your poor father and I 
have suifered very much of late; but I hope Heaven will for- 
give you.» During this reception, the unhappy victim stood pale 
and trembling, unable to weep or to reply; but I could not con- 
tinue a silent spectator of her distress; wherefore, assuming a 
degree of severity in my voice and manner, which was ever 
foUowed with instant Submission, «I entreat, woman ^'^^ that my 
words may be now marked once for all: I have here brought you 
back a poor deluded wanderer ; her return to duty demands the 
revival of our tenderness. The real hardships of life are now 
Coming fast upon us ; let us not, therefore, increase them by 
dissension among each other. If we live harmoniously together, 
we may yet be contented, as there are enough of us^* to shut 
out the censuring world, and keep each other in countenance. 
The kindness of Heaven is promised to the penitent, and let 
ours be directed by the example^^. Heaven, we are assured, is 
much more pleased to view a repentant sinner, than ninety-nine 
persons who have supported a course of undeviating rectitude^*. 
And this is right; for that Single effort by which we stop short 
in the down-hill path to perdition, is itself a greater exertion of 
virlue than a hundred acts of justice.» 



CHAPTER XXIIL 

None but the Guilty can be long and completely miserable. 

SoHE assiduity was now required to make our present abode 
as convenient as possible, and we were soon again qualified to 
enjoy our former ser^nity. Being disabled myself from assisting 
my son in our usual occupations, I read to my family from the 
few books that were saved, and particularly from such as, by 



^^) womafi: diese Anrede dient zum Ausdruck des Ernstes seiner 
Worte. 

^ß) to keep in countenance: bei gutem Mut erhalten, trösten. 

^'^) by the example [spr. the] (nachdrücklich betont) nach diesem 
(des Himmels) Beispiel. 

^8) rectitttdei nach Lucas 15, 7. 



104 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

amusing the imagination , contributed to ease the heart. Our 
good neighbours, too, came every day, mth the kindest con- 
dolence, and fixed a time in which they were all to assist at 
repairing my former dwelling. Honest Farmer Williams was not 
last among these visitors, but heartily offered bis friendship. He 
would even have renewed bis addresses to my daughter; but sbe 
rejected Ihem in such a manner, as totally repressed bis future 
solicitations. Her grief seemed formed for continuing; and sbe 
was the only person of our little society that a week did not 
restore to cbeerfulness. I strove a thousand ways^ to lessen her 
care, and even forgot my own pain in a concern for hers, coUecting 
such amusing passages of history as a strong memory and some 
reading^ could suggest. «Our happiness, my dear,» i would say, 
«is in the power of One who can bring it about a thousand 
unforeseen ways that mock our foresight. If example be 
necessary to prove this, I'U give you a story, my child, told us 
by a grave though sometimes a romancing historian. 

«Matilda was married very young to a Neapölitan nobieman 
of the first quality, and found herseif a widow and a mother at 
the age of fifteen. As sbe stood one day caressing her infant son 
in the open window of an apartment, which hung over the river 
Volturna^, the child, with a sudden spring, leaped from her arms 
into the flood below, and disappeared in a moment. The mother, 
Struck with instant surprise, and making an effort to save bim, 
plunged in after; but far from being able to assist the infant, 
sbe herseif with great difficulty escaped to the opposite shore, 
just when some French soldiers* were plundering the country 
on that side, who immediately made her their prisoner. 

«A young officer placed her behind bim, and brought her 
in safety to his native city. They were married ; he rose to the 
highest posts; they lived long togetber, and were happy. But 
the felicity of a soldier can never be called permanent. After an 
interval of several years, the troops which he commanded having 
met with a repulse^ he was obliged to take shelter in the city 



^) a thotisand ways: familiär statt io a thousand ways. Eben so 
nachher a thousand unforeseen ways statt in oder by a th. u. w. 

2) readingi Belesenheit. 

3) riuer FoUurna (ital. Volturno), Flufs in Süditalien. 

^) French soldiersi die Erzählung fällt in die Zeit der Kriege, 
welche Franz I., König von Frankreich, und Karl V. um den Besitz 
von Neapel führten. 

^) the troops . . . having met: absolute Partizipialkonstraktion im 
Sinne eines Temporalsatzes; to meet with a repulse eine Niederlage 
erleiden. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 105 

where he had lived with bis wife. Here they suffered a si^ge, 
and the city at length was taken. Few histories can produce 
more värious instances of cruelty than those which the French 
and Itaiians at that time exercised upon each other. It was 
resoived by the victors, upon this occasion, to put all the French 
prisoners to death; but particularly the husband of the unfortunate 
Matilda, as he was principally instrumental in protracting the 
siege. Their determinations were, in general, executed almost 
as soon as resoived upon. The captive soldier was ied forth, 
and the executioner with his sword stood ready, while the 
spectators in gloomy silence awaited the fatal blow, which was 
only suspended tili the general, who presided as judge, should 
give the signal. It was in this interval of anguish and expectation 
that Matilda came to take her last färewell^ of her husband and 
deliverer, deploring her wretched Situation, and the cruelty of 
fate that had saved her from perishing by a prematüre death in 
the river Volturna, to be the spectator of still greater calamities. 
The general, who was a young man, was Struck with pity at her 
distress; but with still stronger emotions when he heard her 
mention her former dangers. He was her son, the infant for 
whom she had encountered so much danger. He acknowledged 
her at once as his mother, and feil at her feel. The rest may 
be easily supposed : the captive was set free, and all the happi- 
ness that love, friendship, and duty could confer on earth, were 
united.» 

In this manner I would attempt to amuse my daughter; 
but shelistened with divided attention; for her own misfortunes 
engrössed^ all the pity she once had for those of another, and 
nothing gave her ease. In Company she dreaded contempt; and 
in soiitude she only found anxiety. Such was the colour of her 
wretchedness, when we received certain information that Mr. 
Thornhill was going to be married to Miss VVilmot, for whom I 
always suspected he had a real passion, though he took every 
opportunity before me to express his contempt bolh of herperson 
and fortune. This news only served to increase poor Olivia's 
affliction; for such a flagrant breach of fidelity was more than 
her courage could support. Iwas resoived, however, to get more 
certain information, and to defeat, if possible, the completionof his 
designs, by sending my son to old Mr.Wilmot's, with Instructions 

^) farewdli über die Aussprache vgl. XIII, 13. 

'^) engrossi eig. im grofsea aufkaufen, sich zu eigen machen. Ihr 
Unglück nahm alles Mitleid, das sie einst für andere empfunden hatte, 
für sich in Anspruch, liefs es für andere nicht hervortreten. 



106 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

lo know the truth of Ihe report, and to deliver Miss Wilniot a 
letter, intimating Mr. Thornhiirs conduct in my family. My son 
went, in pursuance of my directions, and in three days returned, 
assuring us of the truth of the account; but that he had found 
it^ impossible to deliver the letter, which he was therefore 
obh'ged to leave, as Mr. Thornhill and Miss Wilmot were visiting 
round * the country. They were to he married, he said, in a few 
days, having appeared together at church the Sunday before he 
was there, in great splendour, the bride attended by six young 
ladies, and he by as many gentlemen^". Their approaching 
nuptials fiUed the whole country with rejoicing, and they usuaUy 
rode out together in the grandest equipage that had been seen 
in the country for many years. All the friends of both families, 
he said, were there, particularly the 'Squire's uncle, Sir William 
Thornhill, who bore so good a character. He added, that nothing 
but niirth and feasttng were going forward; that all the country 
praised the young bride's beauty, and the bridegroom*s fine 
person, and that they were immensely fond of each other; con- 
cluding, that he could not help thinking Mr. Thornhill one of 
the most happy men in the world. 

«Why, let him, if he can,» returned I; «but, my son, observe 
this bed of straw and unsheltering roof; those möuldering walls 
and humid floor; my wretched body thus disabled by fire, and 
my children weeping round me for bread: you have come home, 
my child, to all this; yet here, even here, you see a man that 
would not for a thousand worlds exchange situations. Oh, my 
children, if you could but learn to commune with your own 
hearts, and know what noble Company you can make them, you 
would little regard the elegance and splendour of the worthless. 
Almost all men have been taught to call life a passage, and 
themselves the travellers. The similitude still may be improved, 
when we observe that the good are joyful and serene, like 
travellers that are going towards home; the wicked but by 
intervals happy, like travellers that are going into exile.» 

My compassion for my poor daughter, overpowered by this 



^) it: deutet auf das im oachfolgendeD Infinitiv euthalteae logische 
Objekt hin und mufs stehen, weil es zugleich Beziehungswort zum 
prädikativen Adjektiv impossible ist. Vgl. X, 37. 

^) round: a) ringsum; b) umher, in . . . herum; bezeichnet gewöhn- 
lich die kreisförmige, zuweilen (= about) die sich über einen Raum 
erstreckende Bewegung. 

10) gentlemen: Anspielung auf die früher in einigen Gegenden herr- 
schende Sitte, die Verlobung öffentlich in der Kirche zu feiern. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 107 

new disaster, interrupted what 1 had farther" to observe. I bade 
her motber support her, and alter a short time she recovered. 
She appeared from that time more calm, and I imagined had 
gained a new degree of resolution; but appearances deceived 
me; for her tranquillity was the Janguor of overwrought resent- 
nient^*. A supply of provisions, charitably sent us by my kind 
parishioners, seemed to diffuse new cheerfulness among the rest 
of roy family, nor was I displeased at seeing them once more 
sprightly and at ease. It would have been unjüst to damp their 
satisfactions, merely to condole with resolute melancholy, or to 
bürden them with a sadness they did not feel. Thus, once more, 
the tale went round, and the song was demanded, and cheer- 
fulness condescended to hover round our little habitation. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Fresh Calainities. 

The next morniug the sun arose with peculiar warmth for 
the season, so that we agreed to breakfast together on the 
honeysuckle bank^; where, while we sat, my youngest daughter, 
at my request, joined her voice to the concert on the trees about 
US. It was in this place my poor Olivia lirst met Mr. Thornhill, 
and every object served to recali her sadness. But that melancholy 
which is excited by objects of pleasure, or inspired by sounds of 
harmony, soothes the heart instead of corroding it. Her motber, 
too, upon this occasion, feit a pleasing distress, and wept, and 
loved her daughter as before. «Do*, my pretty Olivia,» cried she, 
«let US have that liltle melancholy air your papa was so fond of ; 
your sister Sophy has already obliged us. Do, child; it will 
please your old father.» She complied in a manner so exquisitely 
pathetic as moved me. 



") farther: ferner; jetzt furlher. Der Unterschied zwischen farther 
(räumlich) und further (in übertragenem Sinne) wird nicht streng be- 
obachtet. 

12) her tranquillity » . . of overwrought resentment: ihre Ruhe be- 
stand in der Abspannung des überreizten Gefühls; overwrought über- 
spannt, overworked überarbeitet. Vgl. IV, 3. 

1) honeysuckle banki Geifsblattlaube. Vgl. 'a seat overshaded by a 
hedge of hawthorn and honeysuckle' V, 1. 

^) do let US have'. der Imperativ do mit folgendem Infiaitiv drückt 
(emphatisch) eine dringende Bitte oder Aufforderung aus. Übers. : „bitte", 
„doch". 



108 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

As she was concluding the last stanze, to which an Interruption 
in her voice from sorrow gave peculiar softness, the appearance 
of Mr. Thornhiirs equipage at a distance alarmed us all, but 
particularly increased the uneasiness of my eldest daughter, 
who, desirous of shunning him, returned to the house with her 
sister. In a few minutes he was alighted' from his chariot, and 
making up to the place wherel was still sitting, inquired after my 
health with his usual air of familiarity. «Sir,» replied I, «your 
present assurance only serves to aggravate the baseness of your 
character; and there was a time when I would have chastised 
your insolence for presuming thus to appear before me. But 
now you are safe; for age has cooled my passions, and my calling 
restrains them.» 

«I vow, my dear Sir,» returned he, «I am amazed at all this; 
nor can I understand what it means!» 

«Go,» cried I, «thou art a wretch, a poor, pitiful wretch, and 
every way a liar*; but your meanness secures you from my anger. 
— Avoid my sight, thou reptile, nor continue to insult me with 
thy presence. Were my brave son at home, he would not suffer 
this; but I am oid and disabled, and every way undone.» 

«I find,» cried he, «you are beut upon obliging me to talk in 
a harsher manner than I inlended. My attorney*^, to whom your 
late bond^ has been transferred, threatens hard^; nor do I know 
how to prevent the course of justice, except by paying the 
money myself; which, as I have been at some expenses lately, 
pr^vious to my intended marriage, is not so easy to be done. 
And then my Steward talks of driving for the reut*; itis certain 
he knows his duty; fori never trouble myself with affairs ofthat 
nature. Yet still I could wish to serve you, and even to have you 
and your daughter present at my marriage, which is shortly to 
be solemnised with Miss Wilmot; it is even the request of my 
charming Arabella herseif, whom I hope you will not refuse.» 

«Mr. Thornhill,» replied I, «hear me once for all: as to your 



^) / was aUghted: jetzt I had alighted. 

^) liari drückt den äufsersteD Grad der Verachtaag aas. 

^) attomey, Rechtsbeistand (Anwalt zweiter Klasse); vgl. XX, 71. 
Seit der Verschmelzung der höhern Gerichtshöfe in einen Obergerichts-- 
hof im Jahre 1881 wird für den Anwalt zweiter Klasse, welcher bei 
den Gerichtshöfen des Common Law „Attorney^S bei denen der Equity 
„Solicitor^' hiefs, nur noch der letztere Aasdruck gebraucht. 

^) your late bondi der in Kap. XXI erwähnte Schuldschein über 
100 Pfund. 

'^) hardi ältere Form des Adverbs; hardly kaum. 

^) to drive for the rent: aaspfänden, um den Pachtzins zu erhalten. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 109 

marriage with any but® my daughter, that I never will consent 
to; and though your friendship could raise me to a throne, or 
your resentroent sink me to the grave, yet would I despise both. 
Thou hast once wofully, irreparably deceived me. I reposed my 
heart upon thine honour^^ and have found its baseness. Never 
more, therefore, expect friendship from me. Go, and possess 
what fortune has given thee— beauty, riches, health, and pleasure. 
Go, and leave me to want, infamy, disease, and sorrow. Yet, 
humbled as I am^^, shall my heart still vindicate its dignity ; and 
though thou hast my forgiveness, thou shalt ever have my 
contempt.» 

«If so,» returned he, «depend upon it, you shall feel the 
effects of this insolence, and we shall shortly see which is the 
littest object of scorn, you or me^^.» — Upon which he departed 
abruptly. 

We soon found that he had not threatened invain; for the 
very next morning his Steward came to dem and my annual rent, 
which, by the train of accidents already related, I was unable to 
pay. The consequence of my incapacity was his driving my cattle 
that evening, and their being appraised and sold the next day 
for less than half their value. My wife and children now, there- 
fore, entreated me to comply upon any terms, ratherthan incur^* 
certain destruction. They used all their little eloquence to paint 
the calamities 1 was going to endure — the terrors of a prison in 
so rigorous a season as the present, with the danger that 
threatened my health from the late accident that happened by 
the fire. But 1 continued inflexible. 

«Why, my treasures,» cried 1, «why will you thus attempt 
to persuade me to the thing that is not right? My duty has 
taught me to forgive him; but my conscience will not permit me 
to approve. Would you have^* me applaud to the world what my 

^) wÜh any but: mit irgend einem andern als. 

^^) thine konour: tbioe statt thy vor Vokalen und stummem h wird 
jetzt nur noch in der Dichtersprache und in der altertümlichen prosa- 
ischen Redeweise gebraucht. 

") humbled as I am: as nach einem Substantiv, Adjektiv, Partizip 
oder Adverb der Weise hat meist konzessive Bedeutung. 

^) you or me: die Verwendung des Accusativs des Personalpro- 
nomens an Stelle des Nominativs ist in der Umgangssprache sehr ver- 
breitet, in der Schriftsprache seltener, meist da, wo das Fürwort den 
Nachdruck hat und nicht dem Verb unmittelbar vorangeht. 

^^) rather than incur: nach ratber than (lieber als) steht der Infin. 
ohne to. 

14) would you have: I will have ich wünsche mit dem Accus, und 
Infin. ohne to. 



110 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

heart must int^rnally condemn^*? Would you have me tamely 
Sit down and flatter our infamous betrayer; and, to avoid a 
prison, continually suffer the more galling bonds of mental 
confinement? No, never. If we are to be taken from this abode, 
only let us hold to the right, and wherever we are tbrown, we 
can still retire to a charming apartment, when we can look 
round our own hearts with intrepidity and with pleasure.» 

In this manner we spent that evening. Early the next 
morning, as the snow had fallen in great abundance in the night, 
my son was employed in Clearing it away, and opening a passage 
before the door. He had not been thus engaged long, when he 
came running in, with looks all pale, to teil us that two strangers, 
whom he knew to be officers of justice, were making^* towards 
the house. 

Just as he spoke they came in, and approaching the bed 
where I lay, after previously informing me of their employment 
and business, made me their prisoner, bidding me prepare to go 
with them to the country gaoP^ which was eleven miles^® off. 

«My friends,» said I, «this is severe weather in which you 
have come to take me to a prison ; and it is particularly unfortunate 
at this time, as one of my arms has lately been burnt in a 
terrible manner, and it has thrown me into a slight fever, and I 
want clothes to cover me, and I am now too weak and old to 
walk far in such deep snow; but if it must be so — » 

I then turned to my wife and children, and directed them 
to get together what few things^® were left us, and to prepare 
immediately for leaving this place. I entreated them to be 
expeditious, and desired my son to assist bis eldest sister, who, 
from a consciousness that she was the cause of all our calamities, 
was fallen ^^, and had lost anguish in insensibility. I encouraged 
my wife, who, pale and trembling, clasped our affrighted little 
ones in her arms, that clung to her bösom in silence dreading 
to look round at the strangers. In the meantime my youngest 



^^) condemn: n verstamint nach m im Aaslaut. 

^^) to make towards: zakommea aaf. (Farn.). 

1"^) country gaol [= jail gesprochen und auch so geschrieben] das 
Gefängnis der Grafschaft, welches jetzt zur Aufnahme minder schwerer 
Gesetzesiibertreter dient. Die schweren Verbrecher werden in Zucht- 
häusern (convict prisons) untergebracht. 

18) eleven mUes = 17,6 km. Vgl. lU, 21. 

1^) what few things = those few things which. Das relat. Proo. 
what ist adjekt. gebraucht. 

»0) to fall: in Ohnmacht fallen. 



CHAPTER XXV. 111 

daughter prepared for our departure, and as she received several 
hints to use« dispatch, in about an hour we were ready to 
depart. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

No Situation, however wretched it seems, bot has some sort of comfort 
attendiDg it. 

We set forward from this peaceful neighbourhood, and 
walked on slowiy. My eldest daughter being enfeebled by a slow 
fever, which had begun for some days to undermine her Consti- 
tution, one of the officers^, who had a horse, kindly took her 
behind him; for even these men cannot entirely divest themselves 
of humanity. My son led one of the little ones by the hand, and 
roy wife the other, while I leaned upon my youngest girl, whose 
tears feil not for her own but my distresses. 

We were now got' from my late dwelling about two miies, 
when we saw a crowd running and shouting behind us, con- 
sisting of about fifty of my poorest parishioners. These, with 
dreadfulimprecations, soonseized upon the two ofßcersof justice, 
and swearing they would never see their minister go to a gaol 
while they had a drop of blood to shed in bis defence, were going 
to use them with great severity. The consequence might have 
been fatal, had I not immediately interposed, and with some 
difficulty rescued the officers from the hands of the enraged 
multitude. My chiidren, who looked upon my delivery now as 
certain, appeared transported with joy, and were incäpable of 
containing their raptures. But they were soon undeceived, upon 
hearing me address the poor deluded people, who came, as they 
imagined, to do me Service. 

«What! my friends,» cried I, «and is this the way you love 
me? Is this the manner you obey the instructions I have given 
you from the pulpit? Thus to fly in the face^ of justice and 
bring down ruin on yourselves and me! Which is your ring- 
leader? Show me the man that has thus seduced you. As sure 
as he lives he shall feel my resentment. Alas! my dear deluded 
flock, return back to the duty you owe to God, to your country. 



^) officers (of jastice) Gerichtsdiener; vgl. Anm. 5. 
2) we were goti jetzt we had got = we had gone. 
) ^0 fly ^^ i^c face: Trotz bieteo. Infin. mit to im emphatischen 
Ausruf. Vgl. XI, 14. 



112 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

and to me. 1 shall yet, perbaps, one day see you in greater 
felicity here, and contribute to make your lives xn^re happy. But 
let it at least be my comfort when I pen my fold* for immortality, 
that not one bere shall be wanling.» 

They now seemed all repentance, and, melting into tears, 
came one after the other to bid me färewell. 1 shook each 
tenderly by the band, and leaving them my blessing, proceeded 
forward without meeting any further Interruption. Some hours 
before night we reached the town, or rather village; for it 
consisted but of a few mean houses, having lost all its former 
opulence, and retaining no marks of its ancient superiority but 
the gaoL 

üpon entering we put up at an inn, where we had such 
refreshments as could most readily be procured, and I supped 
with my family with my usual cheerfulness. After seeing them 
properly accömmodated for that night, I next attended the 
sheriffs officers*^ to the prison, which had formerly been built 
for the purposes of war, and consisted of one large apartment, 
strongly grated, and paved with stone, common to both felons^ 
and debtors at certain hours in the four-and-twenty. Besides 
this, every prisoner had a separate cell, where he was locked in 
for the night. 

I expected, upon my entrance, to find nothing but lamen- 
tations and various sounds of misery; but it was very different. 
The prisoners seemed all empioyed in one common design, that 
of forgetting thought in merriment or clämour. I was apprised 



^) when I pen my fold fori eig. wenn ich meine Herde einpferche 
d. i. wenn ich mit meiner Gemeinde vor Gottes Richterstuhl trete. 

5) sherijf^s officers: Gerichtsdiener; sheriff (aus shire-reeve = 
Kreisrichter) ist der wichtigste Beamte in der Selbstverwaltung und 
der Hanptrepräsentant der Gentry der Grafschaft. Mit seinem Amte, 
welches ein unentgeltliches Ehrenamt ist, sind die Verwaltungsgeschäfte 
unserer deutschen Gerichte mit Ausnahme der Urteilssprecbung ver- 
bunden : die Vollstreckuog der richterlichen Strafurteile, Aufbewahrung 
der Verhafteten, Anlegung von Arresteo, Annahme von Kautionen, Bil- 
dung von Geschworenenlisten, Ladung der Geschworenen, Einziehung 
der Neben einkünfte, Geldbnfsen und erblosen Güter für Rechnung der 
Krone u. dgl. Als Repräsentant führt er den Vorsitz bei den Parlaments- 
wahlen, empfängt die Assisenrichter u. s. w. Unter seiner verantwort- 
lichen Leitung ist der under-sheriff, der die eigentlichen Amtsgescbäfte 
besorgt, und der deputy- sheriff, der die Korrespondenz mit den Reichs- 
gerichten führt. Die infolge gerichtlichen Urteils zu vollstreckende 
Exekution liegt den Gerichtsdienern (officers) ob, welche bailiffs und 
nnder-bailiffs genannt werden. 

^) feloni Verbrecher; urspr. einer, der die Lehnstreue bricht 



CHAPTER XXV. 113 

of the usuai perquisite^ required upon these occasions, and 
immediately complied with the demand, though the little money 
I had was very near being^ all exhausted. This was immediately 
sent away for liquor®, and the whole prison was soon filled with 
riot, laughter, and profaneness^®. 

«How!» cried I to myself; «shall men so very wicked be 
cheerful, and shall I be melancholy? I feel only the same con- 
finement with them, and I think I have more reason to be 
happy.» 

With such reflections I laboured to become cheerful ; but 
cheerfulness was never yet produced by effort, which is itself 
painful. As 1 was sitting, therefore, in a corner of the gaol, in a 
pensive pösture, one of my fellow-prisoners came up, and, sitting 
by me, entered into conversation. It was my constant ruie in 
life never to avoid the conversation of any man who seemed to 
desire it; for, if good, I might profit by bis instruction; if bad, 
he might be assisted by mine. I found this to be a knowing man, 
of strong unlettered sense^^ but a thorough knowledge of the 
World, as it is called, or, more properly speaking, of human 
nature on the wrong side. He asked me if I had taken care to 
provide myself with a bed, which was a circumstance I had never 
once attended to. 

«That's unfortunate,» cried he, «as you are allowed here 
nothing but straw, and your apartment is very large and cold. 
However, you seem to be something of a gentleman, and, as I 
have been one myself in my time, part of my bed-clothes are 
heartily at your service.» 

I thanked him, professing my surprise at finding such 
humanity in a gaol, in misfortunes; adding, to let him see that I 
was a Scholar, that the sage ancient seemed to understand the 
value of Company in affliction, when he said, Ton kosmon atre, ei 



^) perquisitex Eiakaafsgeld (garaish oder ^arnisb money genannt). 

^) near being aU exhausted: das Gerundium steht nach den Adjek- 
tiven worth und busy und den zo Präpositionen gewordenen Adjektiven 
like und near. 

®) Hquor: Branntwein; vgl. XXI, 20. 

^0) In dem Essay History of the disiresses of an EngHsh disabled 
soldier schildert Goldsmith das Gefangnisieben in Newgate mit folgen- 
den Worten: „Ich für meinen Teil fand Newgate einen eben so ange- 
nehmen Aufenthalt wie nur irgend einen in meinem Leben. Ich hatte 
vollauf zu essen und zu trinken und brauchte nicht zu arbeiten. Das 
Leben war zu gut, als dafs es immer hätte dauern sollen/^ 

^^) unlettered sensei natürlicher Verstand. 
Ooldsmith, The Vicar of Wakefield. 2. Auflage. 8 



114 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

dos ton e^airon"; «and, in fact,» continued I, «what is the world 
if it aflords only solitude?» 

«You talk of the world, Sir,» returned my fellow-prisoner; 
«the World is in its dotage^^, and yet the cosmögony or creation 
of the world has puzzled the philosophers of every age. What a 
medley of opinions have they not broached upon the creation 
of the world! Sanchoniathon , Manetho, Berosus, and Ocellus 
Lucanus, have all attempted it in vain. The latter has these 
words, Anarchon ara kai atelutaion to pan, which iraplies» — «I 
ask pardon, Sir,» cried I, «for interrupting so much learning; 
but I think I have heard all this before. Have 1 not had the 
pleasure of once seeing you at Welbridge fair^*, and is not your 
name Ephraim Jenkinson?» At this demand he only sighed. «I 
suppose you must recoUect,» resumed I, «one Doctor Primrose, 
from whom you bought a horse.» 

He now at once recoUected me; for the gloominess of the 
place and the approaching night had prevented bis distinguishing 
my features before. «Yes, Sir,» returned Mr. Jenkinson, «[ 
remember you perfectly well; I bought a horse, but forgot to pay 
for him. Your neighbour Flamborough is the only prösecutor^'^ 
1 am any way afraid of at the next assizes^*; for he intends to 
swear pösitively against me as a coiner. I am heartily sorry, Sir, 
I ever deceived you, or indeed any man; for you see,» continued 
he, showing bis shackles, «what my tricks have brought me to.» 

«Well, Sir,» replied I, «your kindness in offering me assistance 
when you could expect no return, shall be repaid with my 
endeavours to soften or totally suppress Mr. Flamborough's 
evidence, and I will send my son to him for that purpose the 



^2) Tov xocff^ov tttQ€, d ^tpg rov haiQov: nimm die Welt, wena 
da den Freund giebst. 

13) the world is in its dotage . . . : vgl. XIV, 28 ff. 

1*) Welbridge fair-, d. i. ihe neighbouring fair (XIV, 3). 

1^) prosecuior: Ankläger, der meist nur als Belastungszeuge auftritt. 

1^) assizes: Sitzungen des aus Geschworenen zusammengesetzten 
Gerichts (Jury), welche früher von einem Richter der 3 altern Reichs- 
gerichte King's ßench, Court of Common Pleas und Court of £xchequer, 
die im Jahre 1881 zu einem grofsen Gerichtshof (Queens Bench Divi- 
siou) vereinigt worden sind, in den Provinzen zweimal jährlich (lent 
und Summer assizes) in den Ferien, welche den Oster- und Micbaelis- 
sitzungen in London vorangehen, abgehalten werden. England und 
Wales, mit Ausnahme von London und der Grafschaft Middiesex, sind 
zu diesem Zwecke in 8 Gerichtsbezirke (circuits) eingeteilt, für die 
gewöhnlich je 2 Richter abgeordnet werden, von denen der eine (senior) 
die Kriminalfalle, der andere (junior) die Civilsachen erledigt. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 115 

first opportunity; nor do I in the least doubt but^^ he will 
comply wifh my request; and as to my own evidence, you need 
be ander no uneasiness about that» 

f Well, Sir,» cried he, «all the return I can make shali be 
yours. You shall have more than half my bed-clothes to-night, 
and ril take care to stand your friend in the prison^*, where I 
think I have some influenae.» 

I thanked him, and could not avoid being surprised at the 
present youthful change in bis äspect; for, at the time I had seen 
him before, he appeared at least sixty. «Sir,» answered he, «you 
are little acquainted with the world; I had at that time false 
hair, and have learnt the art of counterfeiting every age from 
seventeen to seventy. Ah, Sir! had I but bestowed half the pains 
in learning a trade that 1 have in learning to be a scoundrel, I 
might have been a rieh man at this day. But, rogue as I am ^®, 
still I may be your friend, and that, perhaps, when you least 
expect it.» 

We were now prevented from further conversation by the 
arrival of the gaoler's servants, who came to call over the 
prisoners' names, and lock up for the night. A fellow also with 
a bündle of straw for my bed attended, who led me along a dark 
narrow passage into a room paved like the common prison, and 
in one corner of this I spread my bed, and the clothes given me 
by my fellow -prisoner; which done, my conductor, who was 
civil enough, bade me a good night. After my usual meditations, 
and having praised my heavenly Corrector, I laid myself down, 
and slept with the utmost tranquillity tili morning. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

A Reformation in the Gaol: to make Laws complete, they should 
reward as well as punish. v 

The next morning early I was awakened by my family, 
whom I found in tears at my bedside \ The gloomy strength 
of everything about us, it seems, had daunted them. I gently 

^'^) but: nach to doubt, wenn es verneint ist. 

^8) prison in Verbindung mit Präpositionen hat konkret als Ört- 
lichkeit gefalst den Artikel; derselbe fehlt, wenn die abstrakte Bedeu- 
tung vorwiegt. Ebenso gaol (jail) u. a. 

^^) rogue as I am: as hat konzessive Bedeutung; vgl, XXIV, 11. 
^) at my bedside: an meinem Bette; at schliefst die Berührung ein; 
by my bedside neben meinem Bette; by drückt die unmittelbare JNähe 
aus, ohne die Berührung auszuschliefsen. 

8* 



116 THE VICAE OP WAKEFIELD. 

rebuked their sorrow, assuring them I had never slept witb 
greater tranquillity, and next inquired after my eldest daughter, 
who was not among them. They informed me that yesterday's 
uneasiness and fatigue had increased her fever, and it was judged 
proper to leave her behind. My next care was to send my son 
to procure a room or two to lodge the family in, as near the 
prison as conveniently could be found. He obeyed, but could 
only find one apartment, which was hired at a small expense for 
his mother and sisters, the gaoler witb humanity consenting to 
let bim and his two little brotbers lie in the prison with me. 
A bed wa§ therefore prepared for them in a corner of the room, 
which I thought answered very conveniently. I was wilJing, 
however, previously io know whether my little children chose 
to lie in a place which seemed to fright them upon entrance. 

«Well,» cried J, «my good boys, how do you like your bed f 
I hope you are not afraid to lie in this room, dark as it 
appears^.» 

«No, papa,» says Dick, «I am not afraid to lie anywhere 
where you are.» 

«And 1,» says Bill, who was yet but four years old, «love 
every place best that my papa is in.» 

After this 1 allotted to each of the family what they were to 
do. My daughter was particularly directed to watch her declining 
sister's health^; my wife was to attend me; my little boys were 
to read to me^. «And as for you, my son,» continued I, «it is by 
the labour of your hands we must all hope to be supported. 
Your wages as a day-labourer will be fuUy sufficient, with proper 
frugality, to maintain us all, and comfortably too. Thou^ art 
now sixteen years old, and hast strength, and it was given thee, 
my son, for very useful purposes; for it must save from famine 
your helpless parents and family. Prepare then this evening ta 
look out for work against to-morrow, and bring home every 
night what money you earn for our support.» 

Having thus instructed him, and settled the rest, I walked 
down to the common prison, where I could enjoy more air and 
room. But I was not long there when the execrations, lewdness, 
and brutality that invaded me on every side, drove me back to 



^) dark as it appears : so dunkel es auch za sein scheint (frz. qael- 
qae obscure qu'elle paraisse); as nach prädikativem Adjektiv hat kon- 
zessive Bedeutung. Vgl. XXIV, 11; XXV, 19. 

3) her declining sister's health: statt her sister's declining health. 

*) read to me: seltener read for me; vgl. V, 3. 

^) thou: wegen des Übergangs von you zu thoo vgl. lU, 19. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 117 

my apartmeat again. Here I sat for sonie time pondering upon 
the Strange infatuation of wretches wbo, findiDg all mankind in 
open arms against them, were labouring to make themselves a 
future and a tremendous enemy. 

Their insensibility excited my highest compassion, and 
blotted my own uneasiness from my mind. It even appeared a 
duty incumbent upon me to attempt to reclaim them*. I 
resolved, therefore, once more to return, and, in spite of their 
contempt, to give them my advice, and conquer them by 
perseverance. Going, therefore, among them again, I informed 
Mr. Jenkinson of my design, at which he laughed heartiiy, but 
communicated it to the rest. The proposal was received with 
the greatest good humour, as it promised to afford a new fund 
of entertainment to persons who had now no other resource for 
mirth but what could be derived from ridicule or debauchery. 

I therefore read them a portion of the service^ with a loud, 
unaffected voice, and found my audience perfectly merry upon 
the occasion. Lewd whispers, groans of contrition buriesqued, 
winking and coughing, alternateiy excited laughter^. However, 
1 continued with my natural solemnity to read on, sensible^ that 
what 1 did might amend some, but could itself receive no con- 
tamination from any. 

After reading, I entered upon my exhortation, which was 
rather calculated at first to amuse them than to reprove. I 
previously observed, that no other mötive but their welfare could 
induce me to this; that I was their fellow-prisoner, and now got 
nothing by preaching. I was sorry, I said, to hear them so very 
profane; because they got nothing by it, and might lose a great 
deal: «For be assured, my friends,» cried I, — for you are my 
friends, however the world may disclaim your friendship — , 
though you swore twelve thousand oaths in a day, it would not 
put one penny in your purse. Then what signifies calling every 
moment upon the devil, and courting bis friendship, since you 
find how scurvily he uses you? He has given you nothing here, 
you find, but a mouthful of oaths and an empty belly; and, by 
the best accounts I have of him, he will give you nothing tliat's 
good ^^ hereafter. 

^) to reclaim = to call back from error, bessern. 

"^^ a portion of the service: ein Teil des Gottesdienstes, welcher 
in der englischen Kirche aus dem Ablesen von Gebeten aus dem Book 
of Common Prayer, Gesang mit Orgelbegleitang und Predigt besteht. 

^) coughing . , . laughter: spr. gh = f; cöf'-ing; läf'-ter. 

^) sensible = convinced, überzeugt. 

10) nothing thafs good: nur Böses (Litotes). 



118 THE VICAB OF WAKEFIELD. 

fif used ill in our dealings with one man, we naturally go 
elsewhere. Were it not worth your while, then, just to try how 
you may like the usage of another master, who gives you fair 
promises at least to come to him^^? Surely, my friends, of all 
stupidity in the world, his mustbe greatest^^ who, after robbing 
a house, runs to the thief-takers for protection. And yet how 
are you more wise'^? You are all seeking comfort from one 
tbat has already betrayed you, applying to a more malicious 
being than any thief-taker of them all"; for they only decoy and 
then hang you; but he decoys and hangs, and, what is worst of 
all, will not let you loose after the hangman has done.» 

When I had concluded, I received the compliments of my 
audience, some of whom came and shook me by the band, 
swearing that I was a very honest fellow, and that they desired 
my further acquaintance. I therefore promised to repeat my 
lecture next day, and actually conceived some hopes of making 
a reformation here; for it had ever been my opinion, that no 
man was past the hour of amendment, every heart lying open to 
the shafts of reproof, if the archer could but take a proper aim. 
When I had thus satisfied my mind, I went back to my apart- 
ment, where my wife prepared a frugal meal, while Mr. Jenkinson 
begged leave to add his dinner to ours, and partake of the 
pleasure, as he was kind enough to express it, of my conversa- 
tion. He had not yet seen my family; for as they came to my 
apartment by a door in the narrow passage already described ^^^ 
by this means they avoided the common prison. Jenkinson at 
the first interview, therefore, seemed not a little Struck with 
the beauty of my youngest daughter, which her pensive air con- 
tributed to heighten, and my little ones dld not pass unnottced. 

«Alas, Doctor,» cried he, «these children are too handsome 
and too good for such a place as this.» 

«Why, Mr. Jenkinson,» repliedl, «thankHeaven, my children 
are pretty tolerable in mörals; and if they be good, it matters 
little for the rest.» 

«I fancy, Sir,» returned my fellow-prisoner, «that it must 
give you great comfort to have all this little family about you.» 



^^) to come to htm: der lofinitiv vertritt einen Finalsatz. 

12) greatest: erst die sechste Aasgabe (1779) hat the greatest. 

^*) more wise: nachdracksvoUer, als wiser. 

^*) of them all statt of all the thief-takers. Von den DiebesfäBgern 
ist keiner, der so schlimm ist, wie das Wesen, an welches sie sich 
wenden. 

") already described: am Ende von Kap. XXV. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 119 

«A comfort, Mr. Jenkinson!» replied I; «yes, it is indeed a 
comfort, and I would not be without them for all the world; for 
tliey can make a dungeon seem a palace. There is but one way 
in this life of wounding my bappiness, and that is by injuring 
tbem. 

«I am afraid then, Sir,» cried he, «that I am in some measure 
culpable; for I tbink I see bere (looking at my son Moses) one 
tbat I bave injured, and by wbom I wisb to be forgiven.» 

My son immediately recollected bis voice and features, 
tbough be bad before seen bim in disguise, and taking bim by 
the band, witb a smile forgave bim. «Yet,» continued be, «I can't 
belp wondering at wbat you could see in my face, to tbink me a 
proper mark^* for deception.» 

«My dear Sir,» returned the otber, «it was not your face, 
but your white stockings, and the black ribbon in your hair, 
that ailured me. But, no dispäragement to your parts ^\ I bave 
deceived wiser men than you in my time ; and yet, witb all my 
tricks, the blockheads bave been too many for me at last.» 

«I suppose,» cried my son, «that the narrative of such a life 
as yours must be extremely instructive and amusing.» 

«Not much of either,» returned Mr. Jenkinson. «Those 
relations which describe the tricks and vices only of manklnd, 
by increasing our suspicion in life, retard our success. The 
traveller that^® distrusts every person be meets, and turns back 
upon the appearance of every man tbat looks like a robber, 
seldom arrives in time at bis journey's end ^^. 

«Indeed, I tbink, from my own experience, that the knowing 
one*^ is the silliest fellow under the sun. I was thought cunning 
from my very cbildhood; when but seven years old, the ladies 
would say that I was a perfect little man; at fourteen, I knew 
the World ; at twenty, tbough 1 was perfectly honest, yet every 
one thought me so cunning, tbat not one would trust me. Thus 
I was at last obliged to turn sharper in my own defence, and 
bave lived ever since, my bead throbbing witb schemes to 



^ßj mark (Marke); Zeichen; Ziel. 

^"^j no dispäragement to your parts: ohne Uaterschätzuog Ihrer 
Fähigkeiten. Vgl. frz. parage gleiche Herkunft. 

^8) the traveller that [the betont] statt that traveller who. 

^^) journey's end: die Worte Jenkinsons widerlegen die Äafserung 
von Moses, dafs seine Lebensbeschreibung „instructive** sein müsse. 
Lehrreich ist sie insofern Dicht, als die Aufzählung von Verbrechen 
den Menschen mifstrauisch mache und allzu grofser Argwohn im Leben 
dem Glück des Menschen nachteilig sei. 

20j the knowing one: der Schlaue, der Verschmitzte. 



120 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

deceive, and my heart palpitating with fears of detection. I used 
often to laugh at your honest simple neighbour Flamborough, 
and one way or another generally cbeated bim once a year. Yet 
still the honest man went forward without suspicion, and grew 
rieh, while I still continued tricksy^^ and cunning, and was poor, 
without the consolation of being honest. However,» continued 
he, «iet me know your case^^, and what has brought you here; 
perhaps, though I have not skiil to avoid a gaol myself, I may 
extricate my friends.» 

In compliance with bis curiosity, I informed him of the 
whole train of accidents and follies tbat had plunged me into 
my present troubles, and my utter inability to get free. 

After hearing my story, and pausing some minutes, he 
slapped bis förehead, as if he had hit upon something material, 
and took his leave, saying he would try what could be done. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

The same subject cootioued. 

The next morning I communicated to my wife and children 
the scheme I had planned of reforming the prisoners, which they 
received with universal disapprobation, alleging^ theimpossibility 
and impropriely of it; adding that my endeavours would no way 
contribute to their amendment, but might probably disgrace 
my calling. 

«Excuse nie,» returned I; «these people, however fallen, are 
still men; and that is a very good title to my affections. Good 
counsel rejected returns to enrich the giver's bbsom; and though 
the instruction 1 communicate may not mend them, yet it will 
assuredly mend myself. Yes, my treasures, if I can mend them, 
I will; perhaps they will not all despise me. Perhaps 1 may catch 
up even one from the gulf^ and that will be great gain; for is 
there upon earth a gem^ so precious as the human soul?* 

Thus saying, 1 left them, and descended to the common 
prison, where 1 found the prisoners very merry, expecting my 

21) iricksy (= pretty, neat) ist hier = trickish darchtrieben, ver- 
schmitzt. 

22) case: s ist scharf. Ebenso nachher in cnriosity. 

1) alteging': sprich, wie Goldsmith schrieb, alledgiog. 

2) gulf: Plural gulfs. Goldsmith schrieb gulph. 

3) gern [spr. dzem] ; Edelstein, Kleinod. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 121 

arrival; and each prepared with some gaol trick to play upon* 
the Doctor. Thus, as 1 was going to begin, one turned my wig 
awry^ as if by accident, and then asked my pardon. A second, 
who stood at some distance, bad a knack ^ of spitling tbrough 
bis teeth, whicb feil in showers upon my book. A third would 
Gry Amen ^ in such an afTected tone as gave the rest great delight. 
A tburth bad slyly picked my pocket of my spectacles. But there 
was one wbose trick gave more universal pieasure than all the 
rest; for, observing the manner in whicb 1 bad disposed my 
books on the table before me, he very dexterously displaced one 
of tbem, and put a jest-book of bis own in the place. However, 
I took no notice of all that this mischievous groüp of little 
beings could do, but went on, perfectly sensible that wbat was 
ridiculous in my attempt would excite mirth only the first or 
second time, while wbat was serious would be permanent My 
design succeeded, and in less than six days some were penitent, 
and all attentive. 

It was now that I applauded my perseverance and address, 
at thus giving sensibility to wretches divested of every möral 
feeling, and now began to think of doing tbem temporal Services 
also, by rendering their Situation somewbat more comfortable. 
Their time bad bitherto been divided between fämine and excess, 
tumultuous riot and bitter repining. Their only employment 
was quarrelling among each other, playing at cribbage^, and 
cutting tobäcco-stoppers. From this last mode of idie industry 
1 took the hint of setting such as chose to work at cutting pegs^ 
for tobäcconists and sboemakers, the proper wood being bought 
by a general subscription, and, when manufactured, sold by my 
appointment: so that each earned sometbing every day: a trifle 
indeed, but sufficient to maintain him. 

I did not stop bere, but instituted (Ines for the punishment 
of immorality, and rewards for peculiar industry. Thus in less 
than a fortnight I bad formed them into sometbing social and 
humane, and bad the pieasure of regarding myself as a legislator, 
who bad brought men from their nätive ferocity into friendship 
and obedience. 



*) to play a trick upon s. o. jmd. eineo Streich spielen. 
*) to turn awry [spr. a-ry']: schief drehen, 
ö) had a knack: besafs die Fertigkeit; vgl. XX, 4. 
'') j4men [spr. ä-men (beide Silben betont)]. 
^) cribbagex ein (englisches) Kartenspiel. 

^) pegs (Pflöcke) d. i. Pfeifenstopfer für Tabakshändler und Stifte 
für Schahmacher. 



122 THE TIC AR OF WAKEFIELD. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

HappiDess and Misery^ rather the result of Prodence than ofVirtue ia 

tbis life; temporal evils or felicities being regarded by Heaveo as 

tbiogs merely in tbemselves trifling, and unwortby^ its care in tbe 

distribotioQ. 

I HAD now been confined more than a fortnight, but had not 
since my arrival been visited by my dear Olivia, and I greatly 
longed to see her. Having communicated my wishes to my wife, 
the next morning the poor girl entered my apartment, leaning 
on her sister's arm. The change which I saw in her countenance 
Struck me. The numberless graces that once resided there were 
now fled, and the band of death seemed to have moulded e?ery 
feature to alarm me. Her temples were sank, her forehead was 
tense, and a fatal paleness sat upon her cheek. 

«I am glad to see thee', my dear,» cried I; «but why this 
dejection, Livy? I hope, my love, you have too great a regard 
for me to permit disappointment thus to undermine a life which 
I prize as my own. Be cheerful, child, and we yet may see 
happier days.» 

«You have ever, Sir,» replied she, «been kind to me, and it 
adds to my pain that I sliall never have an opportunity of sharing 
that happiness you promise. Happiness, I fear, is no longer 
reserved for me here; and I long to be rid of a place where I 
have only found distress. Indeed, Sir, I wish you would make 
a proper Submission* to Mr. Thornhill; it may in some measure 
induce him to pity you, and it will give me relief in dying.» 

«Never, child,» replied I; «while you continue to bless me 
by living, he shall never have my consent to make you more 
wretched by marrying anolher.» 

After the departure of my daughler, my fellow-prisoner, 
who was by at this interview, sensibly enough expöstulated 



^) In Überscbriften fehlt meist die Kopula. 

2) unworthy [spr. tb weich]: worthy uud unworthy Dehmen die Er- 
gänzung in der Regel mit of, bisweilen im Accus, zu sich. 

3) theei von G. noch in vertraulicher Rede (neben you) gebraucht. 
Vgl. III, 19. 

*) to make a -proper Submission to s, o.: jmd., soweit es angeht, 
nachgeben. Olivia wünscht, dafs ihr Vater der Verheiratung Thornhills 
kein Hindernis in den Weg lege. 



CHAPTER XXVIIl. 123 

upon'^ my öbstinacy in refusing a Submission which promised 
to give me freedom. 

«Sir,» replied I, «you are unacquainted with the man that 
oppresses us. 1 am very sensible that no Submission I can make 
could procure me liberty even for an hour. I am told that even 
in this very room a debtor of his, no later than last year, died for 
want^. While my daughter lives, no other marriage of his shall 
ever be l^gal in my eye. Should I not be the most cruel of all 
fathers to sign an instrument which must send my child to the 
grave, merely to avoid a prison myself ; and thus, to escape one 
pang, break my child^s heart with a thousand?» 

He acqui^sced in ^ the justice of this answer, but could not 
avoid observing, that he feared my daughter^s life was already 
too much wasted to keep me long a prisoner. «However,» con- 
tinued he, «though you refuse to submit to the nephew, I hope 
you have no objections to laying your case before the uncle, 
who has the first character® in the kingdom for everything that 
is just and good. I would advise you to send him a letter by the 
pöst, intimating all his nephew's ill-usage, and my life for it^, 
that in three days you shall have an answer.» 1 thanked him for 
the htnt, and instantly set about complying; but I wanted paper, 
and unluckily all our money^^ had been laid out that morning 
in provisions: however, he supplied me. 

For the three ensuing days I was in a State of anxiety to 
know what reception my letter might meet with; but in the 
meantime was frequently solicited by my wife to submit to any 
conditions rather than remain here, and every hour received 
repeated aecounts of the decline of my daughter^s health. The 
third day and the fourth arrived, but I received no answer to 
my letter: the complaints of a stranger against a favourite 
nephew were no way likely to succeed ; so that these hopes soon 



*) to expostulate with s. o, on s. th. : jmd. Vorstellaogen machen über, 
zur Rede stellen wegen. 

B) / am told , . . wanL In der Zeitschrift the Idler hat Samuel 
Johnson zwei Aufsätze über Schuldhaft (Imprisonment of debtors 11. Sept. 
1758) und Schnldgefangene (Debtors in prison 6. Jan. 1759) veröffent- 
licht. In dem letzteren schätzt er bei einer Bevölkerungsziffer von 6 
Millionen die Zahl der in Schnldhaft Befindlichen auf 20 000 und der 
im Gefängnisse Sterbenden auf 5000. Allerdings hat er selbst später 
diese Angaben als zweifelhaft hingestellt. 

'^) to acquiesce in: sich beruhigen bei, zugeben. 

8) to have the firsi characier: im besten Rufe stehen. Vgl. XX, 40. 

^) my life for ü: ich setze mein Leben zum Pfände. 

10) money: das von Moses verdiente Geld. Vgl. XXVI, S. 116. 



124 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

vanished like all my former. My mind, however, still supported 
itself, though confinement and bad air began to make a visible 
alteration in my health, and my arm that had suffered in the fire 
grew worse. My children, however, sat by me, and while I was 
stretched on ray slraw, read lo me by turns, or listened and 
wept at my instructions. But my daughter's health declined 
faster than mine: every message from her contributed to 
increase^^ ray apprehensions and pain. The fifth morning after 
I had written the letter which was sent to Sir William Thornhill, 
I was alarmed with an account that she was speechless. Now it 
was that confinement was truly painful to me; my soul was 
bursting from its prison to be near the pillow of my child, to 
comfort, to strengthen her, to receive her last wishes, and teach 
her soul the way to Heaven. Another account came: she was 
expiring, and yet I was debarred the small comfort ^^ of weeping 
by her. My feUow-prisoner, some time after, came with the last 
account. He bade me be patient: she was dead! — The next 
morning he returned, and found me with my two little ones, 
now my only companions, who were using all their innocenl 
efforts to comfort me. They entreated to read to me, and bade 
me not cry^^ for I was now too old to weep. «And is not my 
sisler an angel now, papa?» cried the eldest; «and why, then, 
are you sorry for her? I wish I were an angel, out of this fright- 
ful place, if my papa were with me.» — «Yes,» added my youngest 
darÜng, «Heaven, where my sister is, is a finer place than this, 
and there are none but good people there, and the people here 
are very bad.» 

Mr. Jenkinson interrupted their harmless prattle by observing 
that, now^* my daughter was no more, I should seriously think 
of the rest of my family, and attempt to save my own life, which 
was every day declining for want of necessaries and wholesome 
air. He added that it was now incumbent on me to sacrifice ^* 
any pride or resentment of my own to the welfare of those who 
depended on me for support; and that I was now, both by 
reason and justice, obliged to try to reconcile my landlord. 

") contributed to increase [s ist scharf] (Pleonasmus). 

^2) / was debarred the small comfort : persönliches Passiv mit Bei- 
behaltung des Sachobjekts. Vgl. X, 10. 

^^) he bade me not cry: to bid hat den Accus, mit dem Infin. ohne 
to nach sich; der Infin. mit to, den die meisten späteren Herausgeber 
setzen, findet sich zuerst in der 6. Ausgabe vom J. 1779; er gehört 
als seltenere Nebenform der altern Prosa an. Vgl. HI, 5. 

^*) now . . .: elliptisch statt now that. 

15) sacrifice [spr. ce = z] ; ebenso suffice. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 125 

tHeaven be praised^V replied I; tthere is no pride left me^'^ 
now : 1 should detest my own heart if I saw either pride or resent- 
ment lurking there. On the contrary, as my oppressor has been 
once my parishioner, I hope one day to present bim up an 
unpolluted soul at the eternal trlbünal. No, Sir, I have no resent- 
ment now; and though he has taken from me what I held dearer 
than all bis treasures, though he has wrung my heart, — for I 
am sick aimost to fainting, very sick, my fellow-prisoner, — yet 
tbat sball never inspire me mih vengeance. I am now willing 
to approve bis marriage, and if this Submission can do him any 
pleasure, let him know tbat if I have done bim any injury I am 
sorry for it.» Mr. Jenkinson took pen and ink, and wrote down 
my Submission nearly as I have expressed it, to which I signed 
my name. My son was employed to carry the letter toMr.Thorn- 
hili, who was then at bis seat in the country. He went, and in 
about six bours returned with a verbal answer. He bad some 
difficulty, he said, to get a sigbt of bis landlord, as the servants 
were insolent and suspicious; but he accidentally saw bim as he 
was going out upon business, preparing for bis marriage, which 
was to be in three days. He continued to inform us tbat he 
stepped up in the humblest manner, and delivered the letter, 
which whenMr. Thornhill bad read^®, he said tbat all Submission 
was now too late and unnecessary; tbat be had heard of our 
application to bis uncle, which met with the contempt it 
deserved; and, as for the rest, tbat all future applications should 
be directed to bis attorney^^, not to bim. 

tWell, Sir,» said I to my fellow-prisoner, «you now d Iscover 
the temper of the man who oppresses me; but let him use me 
as be will, I sball soon be free, in spite of all bis bolts to restrain 
me^^. I am now drawing towards an abode tbat looks brighter 
as I approach it; this expectation cheers my afflictions, and 
though I leave a helpless family of orphans behind me, yet tbey 
will not be utterly forsaken ; some friend, perbaps, will be found 
to assist them for the sake of their poor falber, and some may 
charitably relieve them for the sake of their heavenly Father.» 

*•) Heaven be praised etc.: in den folgpenden Worten erscheint der 
Vicar als Master eines wahren Christen, der dem Feinde verfi^iebt. 

i"^) there is no pride left me: über den unbezeichneten Dativ beim 
Passiv v§rl. ffl, 3. 

^8) which when Mr. Thornhill had read ^^ and when Mr. Th. b- 
r. that (sc. letter). 

19) attomey: Anwalt. Vgl. XX, 71; XXIV, 5. 

20) to restrain me: der attributive Infinitiv entspricht oiaem Re- 
lativsätze. 



126 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

Just as I spoke, my wife, whom I had not seen that day 
before, appeared with looks of terror, and making efTorts, but 
unable to speak. *Why, my lovc,» cried I, *wby will you thus 
increase my affliclions by your own? What though no sub- 
missions can turn our severe master, though he has doomed me 
to die in this place of wretchedness, and though we have lost a 
darling child, yet still you will find comfort in your other children 
tvhen I shall bc no more.» — *We have indeed lost,» returned 
she, «a darling child. My Sophia, my dearest is gone, snatched 
from US, carried off by ruffians !» 

vHow, Madam U cried my fellow-prisoner; «Miss Sophia 
carried off by villains? Sure it cannot be!» 

She could only answer with a fixed look and a flood of tears. 
But one of the prisoners' wives, who was present, and came in 
with her, gave us a more distinct account. She informed us, that 
as my wife, my daughter, and herseif were taking a walk together 
on the great road, a little way out of the village, a pöst-chaise 
and pair^^ drove up to them, and instantly stopped; upon which 
a well-dressed man, but notMr.Thornhill, stepping out, clasped 
my daughter round the waist, and forcing her in, bid the 
postilion drive on, so that they were out of sight in a moment. 

«Now,> cried I, «the sum of my miseries is made up, nor 
is it in the power of anything on earth to give me another pang. 
What! not one left! not to leave me one! themonster! the child 
that was next my heart^^! she had the beauty of an angel, and 
almost the wisdom of an angel. But support that woman, nor 
let her falP*. Not to leave me one!» — «Alas! my husband,» 
Said my wife, «you seem to want comfort even more than I. Our 
distresses are great; but I could bear this and more, if I saw 
you but easy. They may take away my children, and all the 
World, if they leave me but you.* 

My son, who was present, endeavoured to moderate her 
grief ; he bade us take comfort, for he hoped that we might still 
have reason to be thankful. «My child,» cried I, «look round the 
World, and see if there be any happiness left me now. Is not 
every ray of comfort shut out, while all our bright prospects only 

2^) a post- Chaise [spr. ch = sb] and pair (d.i. two horses) eine 
zweispäonigpe Postkutsche. 

22) next my heart! Wenn near (oigh, nearer, nearest, next) und 
opposite präpositional gebraucht werden, fehlt bisweilen to vor dem 
abhängigen Satzgliede. Bei like und nnlike ist dies in der Regel der 
Fall. 

2^ But support . . . falli der Pfarrer fordert die Anwesenden auf, 
seine Frau, die im Begriff ist in Ohnmacht zu fallen, zu stützen. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 127 

lie beyond the grave?» «My dear father,» returned he, *I hope 
there is still something that will give you an interval of satis- 
faction; for I have a letter from my brother George.» «What of 
him, child?» interrupted I; tdoes he know our misery? I hope 
my boy is exempt from any part of what^* his wretched family 
suffers.» «Yes, Sir,» returned he, the is perfectly gay, cheerful, 
and happy. His letter brings nothing but good news; he is the 
fävourite of his coloneP^, who promises to procure him the very 
next lieutenancy** that becomes väcant.» 

tÄnd are you sure of all this?» cried my wife; *are you 
sure that nothing ill has befallen my boy?» — tNothing, indeed, 
Madam,» returned my son; tyou shall see the letter, which will 
give you the highest pleasure ; and if anything can procure you 
comfort, I am sure that will.» — «But are you sure,» still 
repeated she, «that the letter is from himself, and that he is 
really so happy?» — «Yes, Madam,» replied he, «it is certainly 
his, and he will one day be the credit^* and the support of our 
family.» — «Then I thank Providence,» cried she, «that my last 
letter to him has miscarried. Yes, my dear,» continued she, 
turning to me, «I will now confess, that though the band of 
Heaven is sore upon us in other instances, it has been favourable 
here. By the last letter I wrote my son, which was in the bitter- 
ness of änger, [ desired him, upon his mother's blessing, and if 
he had the heart of a man, to see justice done his father and 
sister, and avenge our cause ^^ But, thanks be to Him that 
directs all things, it has miscarried, andlamat rest.» — «Woman,» 
cried f, «thou hast done very ill, and at another time my re- 
proaches might have been more severe. Oh! what a tremendous 
gulf hast thou escaped, that would have buried both thee and him 
in endless ruin! Providence, indeed, has here been kinder to 
US than we to ourselves. It has reserved that son to be the 
father and protector of my children when I shall be away. How 
unjüstly did I complain of being stripped of every comfort, when 
still ^^ I hear that he is happy, and insensible of^* our afflictions, 



2*) of what = of that which. 

25) colonel [spr. cür'-Del]; lieuteoaocy [spr. lef-ten'-an-cy]. 

26) credit: Zierde, Stolz. 

^'^) / desired him . . . cause: über dea aobezeichneteo Dativ beim 
Passiv vgl. in, 3. — Auf diese Stelle wird ia Kap. XXX zurückgewieseü. 

23) still: noch immer; ein zur Bezeichnang des Fortdaaerodea voa 
G. oft angewandtes Adverb: hier wegen des still kept mit dem ab- 
hängigen Satz zu verbinden und zu konstruieren: when I hear that he 
is still happy . . ., (that he is) still kept . . . 

2®) insensible of: unbekannt mit. 



128 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

still kept in reserve to support his widowed molher, and to pro- 
tect his brothers and sisters! But wbat sisters has he left? He 
has no sisters now; they are allgone, robbed from me, and l am 
undone!» — «Father,» interrupted my son, *\ beg you will give 
me leave to read his letter: I know it will please you.» lipon 
which, with my permission, he read as follows: 

HoNOüRED SIR, I have called ofT^° my imagination a few 
moments from the pleasures tbat Surround me, to fix it 
upon objects that are still more pleasing, the dear little fire- 
side at home. My fancy draws that harmless group as 
listening to every line of this with great composure. I view 
those faces with delight, which never feit the deforming band 
of ambition or distress. But, whatever your happiness may 
be at home, I am sure it will be some addition to it to hear 
that I am perfectly pleased with my Situation, and every way 
happy here. 

«Our regiment is countermanded, and is not to leave the 
kingdom. The colonel, who professes himself my friend, takes 
me with him to all companies where he is acquainled, and, 
after my lirst visit, I generally find myself received with in- 
creased respect upon repeating it. I danced last night with 
Lady G — , and could l forget you know whom, l might be 
perhaps successfuJ. But itis my fate still to remember others, 
while I am myself forgotten by most of my absent friends, 
and in this number I fear, Sir, that I must consider you; for 
1 have long expected the pleasure of a letter from home to no 
purpose'^^ Olivia and Sophia, too, promised to write, but 
seem to have forgotten me. Teil them they are two arrant 
little baggages^^, and that I am this moment in a most violent 
passion with them; yet still, I know not how, though I want 
to bluster a little, my heart is respondent only to softer 
emotions. Then teil them, Sir, that, after all, I love them 
afTectionately; and be assured of my ever remaining 

Your dutiful son. 

tin all our miseries,» cried f, «wbat thanks have we not to 
return, that one at least of our family is exempted from wbat 

^) to call off" (iD der UmgaDgsspracbe jetzt gewöhnlich away) one^s 
imagination {one^s attention) from s. th,i seine Gedanken (Aufmerksam- 
keit) von etwas ablenken. 

^*) to no ptirpose: vergebens. 

32) arrant little baggagesi nichtsnutzige kleine Fraaenzimmer. 
(Scherzhaft). 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 129 

we suffer ! Heaven be his guard, and keep my boy thus happy, 
to be tbe support of his widowed mother, and the father of these 
two babes, which is all the patrimony I can now bequeath him! 
May he keep Iheir innocence from the temptations of want, and 
be their conductor in the paths of bonour!» I had scarce said 
these words iivhen a noise like that of a tümult seemed to pro- 
ceed from the prison below: it died away soon after, and a 
clanking of fetters was heard along the passage that.led to my 
apartment. The keeper of the prison entered, holding a man all 
bloody, wounded, and fettered with the heaviest irons. I looked 
with compassion upon the wretch as he approached me, but with 
horror when I found it was my own son. tMy George! my 
George! and dol behold thee thus? Wounded! fettered? Isthis 
thy happiness? Is this the manner you return to me? Oh, that 
this sight would break my heart at once, and let me die!» 

«Where, Sir, is your fortitude?» returned my son, with an 
intrepid voice. *I must suffer ; my life is förfeited, and let them 
take it.» 

I tried to restrain my passion for a few minutes in silence, 
but I thought 1 should have died with the effort. — tOh, my boy, 
my heart weeps to behold thee thus, and I cannot, cannot help 
it! In the moment that I thought thee blessed, and prayed for 
thy safety, to behold ^' thee thus again! Chained! wounded! And 
yet the death of the youthful is happy. But I am old, a very old 
man, and have lived to see this day, to see my children all un- 
timely j^lling about me, while I continue a wretched surviyor in 
the midst of ruin! May all the curses that ever sunk^* a soul 
fall heavy upon the murderer of my children ! May he live, like 
me, to see — > 

tHold, Sir,» replied my son, tor I shall blush for thee! How, 
Sir! forgetful of your age, your holy calling, thus to arrogate the 
justice of Heaven, and fling those curses upward that must soon 
descend to crush thy own grey head with destruclion! No, 
Sir, let it be your care now to fit me for that vile death I must 
shortly suffer, to arm me with hope and resolution, to give me 
courage to drink of that bitterness which must shortly be my 
portion.» 

<My child, you must not die! I am sure no offence of thiue 



33) to behold: Infinitiv mit to im emphatischen Ausruf. £benso im 
nächsten Absatz „thus to arrogate". Vgl. XI, 14. 

^) to sink (transitiv): sich her absenken auf, belasten. 
Golds mith, The Yicar of Wakefleld. 2. Auflage. 9 



130 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

can deserve so vile a punishment. My George could never be 
guiity of aoy crime to make^^ bis ancestors ashamed of him.» 

«Mine, Sir,» returned my son, tjs, I fear, an unpardonable 
one. When I received my mother's letter from home, I im- 
mediately came down, determined to punish the betrayer of our 
honour, and sent bim an order to meet me, which he answered, 
not in person, but by bis despatching four of bis domestics to 
seize me. I wounded one wbo first assaulted me, and I fear 
desperately; but the rest made me tbeir prisoner. The coward 
is determined to put the law in execution against me; the proofs 
are undeniable : I bave sent a cballenge, and as 1 am the first 
transgressor upon the Statute ^^ I see no hopes of pardon. But 
you bave often charmed me with your lessons of fortitude; let 
me now, Sir, find them in your example.» 

«And, my son, you shall find them. I am now raised above 
this World, and all the pleasures it can produce. From tbis 
moment l break from my heart all the ties that beld it down to 
earth, and will prepare to fit us both for eternity. Yes, my son, 
I will point out the way, and my soul shall guide yours in the 
ascent, for we will take our flight togetber. I now see, and am 
convinced, you can expect no pardon here; and I can only exhort 
you to seek it at that greatest tribunal where we both shall 
sbortly answer. But let us not be niggardly in our exhortation, 
but let all our fellow-prisoners bave a share. Good gaoler, let 
them be permitted to stand here while I attempt to improve 
them.» Thus saying, I made an efTort to rise from my straw, 
but wanted strength, and was able only to rechne against the 
wall. The prisoners assembled themselves according to my 
directions, for they loved to bear my counsel; my son and bis 
motber supported me on either side; I looked and saw that 
none were wanting, and then addressed them with the following 
exbortation. 



3^) io makei der Inf. hat den Sinn eines attribnt Relativsatzes. 

^) transgressor upon the Statute: Goldsmith versetzt die Begeben- 
heit in die Zeit, wo das Gesetz erlassen wurde, welches die Heraus- 
forderung zum Zweikampfe zum Verbrechen stempelte. 



CHAPTEK XXIX. 131 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Tbe equal dealiogs of Providence^ demonstrated with regard to tbe 

Happy and the Miserable here below. That^, from tbe nature of Pleasure 

uad Pain, tbe wretcbed mast be repaid tbe balance of tbeir sofferiogs 

ia tbe life bereafter^. 

tMY friends, my children, and fellow-sufferers, when I re- 
flect on the distributioii of good and evil here below, I find that 
mach has been given man to enjoy*, yet still more to suffer. 
Though we should exämine the whole world, we shall not find 
one man so happy as to have* nothing left to wish for; but we 
daily see thousands who by süicide show us tbey have nothing 
left to hope. In this life, then, it appears that we cannot be en- 
tirely blessed; but yet we may be completely miserable. 

tWhy man should* thus feel pain; why our wretchedness 
should be requisite in the formation of universal felicity; why, 
when all other Systems are made perfect by the perfection of 
their subordinate parts, the great System should require for its 
perfection parts that are not only subordinate to others, but im- 
perfect in themselves — these are questions that never can be 
explained, and might be useless if known. On this subject 
Providence has thought fit to elude our curiosity, satisfied with 
granting us motives to consolation. 

tin this Situation man has called in the friendly assistance 
of philösophy; and Heaven, seeing the incapacity of that to con- 



^) Nacb Proyideoce ist tre za ergänzen. In Überscbriften bleibt 
in der Regel die Kopula fort. Vgl. XXVIH, 1. 

^) that bangt von einem ans dem vorbergebenden Satze zu ent- 
nebmenden it is demonstrated ab. Balance: 1) Wagscbale; 2) Gleicb- 
gewicbt; 3) das beim Wägen bervortretende Übergewiebt, der Ober- 
scbufs; to repay tbe balance den Überscbafs zurückzablen. 

^) the life hereafter: feierlicber Ausdruck. Die meisten der aus 
bere, tbere, wbere mit Präpositionen zusammengesetzten Adverbien ge- 
hören jetzt dem Wortschätze der Dicbter und der gewäblten Prosa an. 

^) to enjoy: der Infinitiv stebt im Sinne eines Finalsatzes. 

^) so happy as to have: konsekutiver Infinitiv mit vorbergebendem 
as oacb so im Hauptsatze. 

ß) fF'hy jnun should . . . these are questions etc. : die drei voran- 
stebenden indirekten Fragesätze bäogen von nacbfolgendem tbese are 
questions ab. Sinn: Wesbalb Scbmerz, Elend und Un Vollkommenheit 
zur Bildung der allgemeinen Glückseligkeit notwendig seien, wird nie- 
mals gesagt werden können. 

9* 



132 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

sole him, has giyen him the aid of religion. The consolations öf 
philosophy are very amusing, but often falläcious. It teils us 
that life is fiUed with comforts, if we will but enjoy them ; and, 
on the other band, tbat though we unavoidably have miseries 
here, life is short, and they will soon be over. Thus do these 
consolations destroy each other; for if life is a place of comfort, 
its shortness must be misery, and if it be long, our griefs are 
protracted. Thus philosophy is weak; but religion comforts in 
a higher strain. Man is here, it teils us, fitting up bis mind, and 
preparing it for another abode. When the good man leaves the 
body, and is all a glorious^ mind, he will jBnd he has been 
making himself a heaven of happiness here; while the wretch 
that has been maimed and contaminated by bis vices, shrinks^ 
from bis body with terror, and finds that he has anticipated the 
vengeance of Heaven. To religion, then, we must hold, in every 
circumstance of life, for our truest comfort; for if already we are 
happy, it is a pleasure to think that we can make that happiness 
unending; and if we are miserable, it is very consoling to think 
that there is a place of rest. Thus, to the fortunate, religion 
holds out a continuance of bh'ss; to the wretched, a change 
from pain. 

«But though religibn is very kind to all men, it has pro- 
mised peculiar rewards to the unhappy; the sick, the naked, 
the houseless, the heavy-Iaden, and the prisoner, have ever most 
frequent promises in our sacred law ^. The Author of our re- 
ligion everywhere professes himself the wretch's friend, and, 
unlike the false ones of this world, bestows all bis caresses upon 
the forlörn^^. The unthinking have censured this as partiality, 
as a preference without merit to deserve it^^; but they never 
reflect that it is not in the power even of Heaven itself to make 
the offer of unceasing felicity as great a gift to the happy as to 
the miserable. To the first, eternity is but a Single blessing, 



'') glorious: verklärt. 

8) io skrinkfrom (=to start back) bezeichnet das durch Erschrecken 
verursachte no willkürliche Zurückfahren. 

^) sacred law: heilige Schrift. Vgl. Matth. 11, 28: Come unto me, 
all ye that labour and are heavy-laden. Luc. 4, 18. 

'^) the false ones: die falsches; das aus dem Satze zu ergänzende 
Substantiv (friends) wird durch ones ersetzt; the forlorn die Ver- 
lassenen. 

^^) without merit to deserve it: merit die verdienstliche Handlung; 
to deserve = to be worthy geht auf den der Handlungsweise entsprechen- 
den Lohn; it bezieht sich auf preference; der attributive Infinitiv ent- 
spricht einem deutschen Relativsatze. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 133 

since at most it but increases what they already possess. To the 
latter, it is a double advantage ; for it diminishes their pain bere, 
and rewards tbem with heaveDly bliss bereafter. 

*But Providence is in another respect kinder to tbe poor 
tban to tbe rieb; for as it thus makes tbe life after deatb more 
desirable, so it smootbs the passage tbere. Tbe wretcbed have 
had a long familiarity witb every face of terror. The man of 
sorrows lays himself quietly down^^, witbout possessions to 
regret, and but few ties to stop bis departure; he feels only 
nature's pang in the final Separation, and this is no way greater 
tban he has often fainted under before; for, after a certain 
degree of pain, every new breacb^^ that deatb opens in tbe Con- 
stitution nature kindly covers witb insensibility. 

♦Thus Providence has given to tbe wretcbed two adväntages 
over the happy in this life, — greater felicity in dying, and in 
Heaven all that superiority of pleasure wbich arises from con- 
trasted enjoyment ^*. And this superiority, my friends, is no small 
advantage, and seems to be one of the pleasures of the poor 
man^'^ in tbe pärable; for thougb he was already in Heaven, and 
feit all the raptures it could give, yet it was mentioned as an 
addition to bis happiness, that be had once been wretcbed, and 
now was comforted; that he had known what it was to be 
miserable, and now feit what it was to be happy. 

«Thus, my friends, you see religion does what philosopby 
€ould never do: it shows tbe equal dealings of Heaven to tbe 
happy and the unbappy, and levels all human enjoyments to 
nearly tbe same Standard. It gives to both rieh and poor the 
same happiness bereafter, and equal hopes to aspire after it; 
but if the rieh have the advantage of enjoying pleasure bere, 
the poor have the endless satisfaction of knowing what it was 
once to be miserable, wben crowned witb endless felicity bere- 
after; and even thougb this should be called a small advantage, 
yet, being^^ an eternal one, it must make up by duration what 
the temporal happiness of the great may have exceeded by in- 
tenseness. 

«These are, therefore, the consolations wbich the wretcbed 
have peculiar to tbemselves, and in wbich they are above the 

^^) to lay one^s selfdbwn: sich niederlegen = sterben. (Euphemismus). 

^^) breach: Bresche; das Bild ist der Belagerung einer Stadt ent- 
lehnt. 

1*) contrasted enjoyment: der Genufs, welcher zu der himmlischen 
Wonne im Gegensatze steht. 

1^) the poor man: der arme Lazarus im Gleichnisse (Luc. 16, 19 — 31). 

18) beififf: das appositive Partizip vertritt einen Kausalsatz. 



134 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

rest of manldnd; in other respects they are below them. Tbey 
who would know the miseries of the poor must see life and 
endure it. To declaim on the temporal advantages they enjoy 
is only repeating what none either^^ believe or practise. The 
men who have the necessaries of living are not poor, and they 
who want them must be miserable. Yes, my friends, we must 
be miserable. No vain efTorts of a reßned imagiuation can soothe 
the wants of nature, can give elastic sweetness to the dank 
vapour" of a dungeon, or ease to the throbbings of a broken 
heart. Let the philosopher ^^ from bis couch of softness teil us 
that we can resist all these. Alas! the effort by which we resist 
them is still the greatest pain. Death is slight, and any man 
may sustain it; but torments are dreadfui, and these no man 
can endure. 

tTo US then, my friends, the promises of happiness in 
Heaven should be peculiarly dear; for if our reward be in this 
life alone, we are then, indeed, of all men the most miserable. 
When I look round these gloomy walls, made to terrify as weU 
as to confine us; this light that only serves to show the horrors 
of the place ; those shackles that tyranny has imposed, or crime 
made necessary ; when I survey these emäciated looks, and hear 
those groans — oh, my friends, what a glorious exchange would 
Heaven be for these! To fly Ihrough regions unconfined as air — 
to bask in the sunshine of eternal bliss — to carol over endless 
hymns of praise — to have no master to threaten or insult us^ 
but the form of Goodness himself for ever in our eyes: when 
I think of these things*^, death becomes the messenger of very 
glad tidings; when I think of these things, bis sharpest arrow 
becomes the staff of my support; when I think of these things, 
what is there in life worth having? when I think of these things, 
what is there that should not be spurned away? Kings in their 
palaces should groan for such advantages; but we, humbled as^^ 
we are, should yearn for them. 

^^) either , . ori dient zum Ausdruck der korrelatea Beziehung; statt 
neitber . . nor, wenn die Verneinung des Satzes bereits anderweitig; 
(hier durch none) ausgedrückt ist. Vgl. (no . . neither) V, 16. 

^^) dank vapour: dumpfige Moderluft. (Pleonasmus). 

^^) 'Philosophen Poseidonios, der Stoiker aus Rhodos, geb. j35 Tor 
Chr., welcher auf weichem Polster ruhend während eines Gichtanfalls 
ausgerufen haben soll: „Gicht, ich werde niemals zugeben, dafs du ein 
Übel bist." 

*o) when I think ofth, ^A. : Wiederholung des Satzanfangs. (Anapher). 

^') humbled as we are: as „wie sehr . . . auch, so . . . auch" nach 
dem prädikativen Partizip hat konzessive (ohne Gegensatz auch kausale) 
Bedeutung. Vgl. XXIV, 11; XXV, 19. 



CHAPTER XXIX, 135 

«And shall Ihese things be ours? Ours they will certainly 
be, if we but Iry for*^ them; and what is a comfort, we are shut 
oul from many temptations that would retard our pursuit. Only 
let US try for them, and they will certainly be ours, and^*, what 
is still a comfort, shortly too'^; for if we look back on a past 
life, it appears but a very short span, and whatever we may think 
of the rest of life, it will yet be found of less duralion; as we 
grow older, the days seem to grow shorter, and our intimacy 
with time ever lessens the perception of bis stay^"*. Then let us 
take comfort now, for we shall soon be at our journey's end; we 
shall soon lay down the heavy bürden laid by Heaven upon us ; 
and ^though death, the only friend of the wretched, for a little 
while mocks the weary traveller with the view^^, and like bis 
horizon still flies before bim, yet the time^^ will certainly and 
shortly come when we shall cease from our toil, when the 
luxurious great ones of the world shall no more tread us to the 
earth, wben we shall think with pleasure of our sufTerings below, 
when we shall be surrounded with all our friends, or such as 
deserved our friendship, when our bliss shall be unutterable, 
and still, to crown all*^, unending'*. 



^^) to iry for (after): sich bemühen um (gewöhnl. der Inf. mit to). 
*3) and = and that und zwar. 

^) shortly too: gehört als Umstand der Zeit zu they will certainly 
be ours. 

^^) lessens the perceptt07t of his stay: anstatt lessens his stay in 
our perception; time ist in der Dichtersprache männlich. 

2«) mocks the weary traveller with the view etc.: die Stelle erinnert 
an ein ähnliches von G. gebrauchtes Bild im Traveller v. 23 ff. 
But me, not destined such delights to share, 
My prime of life in wtndering spent and care; 
Impelied with steps unceasing to pursue 
Some fleeting good, that mocks me with the view] 
That, like the circle bounding earth and skies^ 
Allures from far, yet, as I follow, flies. 

27) the time; der Artikel wegen des nachfolgenden when «=» at which. 

28) to crown all: der absolute Infinitiv vertritt einen Finalsatz. 

29) In der unter dem JNamen 'the Bee' herausgegebenen Sammlung 
der Essays Goldsmiths ist ein Aufsatz über die Beredsamkeit (of Elo- 
quence), welcher über den Stil der Predigten der Zeit Bemerkungen 
enthält, aus denen ersichtlich ist, dafs G. in der Predigt des Vicars 
vor den Gefangenen versucht hat, die Fehler zu vermeiden, auf die er 
dort hingewiesen hat. 



136 THE VICAB OF WAKBFIELD. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

Happier Pr6spects begin to appear. Let us be inflexible, aod Fortuoe 
will at last cbaoge in our favonr. 

When I had thus finished, and my audience was retired, 
the gaoler, who was one of the most humane of bis profession, 
hoped I wouid not be displeased, as what be did was but bis 
duty, observing that he must be obliged^ to remove my son into 
a stronger cell, but that he should be permitted to revlsit me 
every morning. I thanked him for bis clemency, and grasping 
my boy's band, bade him farewell, and be mindful of the great 
duty* that was before him. 

I again therefore laid me down^, and one of my little ones 
sat by my bedside reading, when Mr. Jenkinson, entering, in- 
formed me that there was news of my daughter; for that she 
was Seen by a person about two hours before in a stränge 
gentleman's Company, and that they had slopped at a neigh- 
bouring village for refreshment, and seemed as if returning to 
town^. He had scarce delivered this news when the gaoler came, 
with looks of haste and pleasure, to inform me that my daughter 
was found. Moses came running in a moment after, crying out 
that bis sister Sophy was below, and Coming up with our cid 
friend Mr. Burchell. 

Just as he delivered this news, my dearest girl entered, and, 
with looks almost wild with pleasure, ran to kiss me in a träns- 
port of affection. Her mother's tears and silence also showed 
her pleasure. 

«Here, papa,» cried the charming girl, there is the brave 
man to whom I owe my delivery; to this gentleman's intrepidity 
I am indebted'^ for my happiness and safety.» 



^) must he ohligedi der Pleonasmus verstärkt die Notwendigkeit. 

2) great duty: d. i. die Vorbereitung auf den Tod. 

3) / Und me down: jetzt nur noch von den Dichtern gebraucht; in 
der Umgangssprache I lay down oder auch I laid myself down. Vgl. 
XXIX, 12. 

^) town: Marktflecken; in Kap. XXV naher bezeichnet als town, 
or rather village; for it consisted but of a few mean houses, having 
lost all its former opulence, and retaining no marks of its ancient 
Äuperiority but the gaol. 

5) indebted [b stumm] vgl. I, 24. 



CHAPTER XXX. 137 

tAh, Mr. Burchell!» cried I, «this is but a wretched habita- 
tion you now find us in; and we are now very different from 
what you last saw us. You were ever our friend : we have long 
discovered our errors wilh regard to you, and repented of our 
ingratitude. After the vile usage you then received at my hands, 
I am almost ashamed to bebold your face; yet I hope you'll for- 
give me, as I was deceived by a base, ungenerous wretch, who, 
under the mask of friendship, has undone me.* 

tit is impossible,» replied Mr. Burchell, «that I should for- 
give you, as you ncver deserved my resentment. I partly saw 
your delusion then, and as it was out of my power to restrain, 
I could only pity it.» 

tIt was ever my conjecture,» cried I, 4hat your mind was 
noble; but now I find it so. But teil me, my dear child, how^ 
hast thou been relieved, or who the ruffians were who carried 
thee away.» 

tindeed, Sir,» replied she, «as to the villain whö carried me 
off, I am yet ignorant; for as my mamma and l were Walking 
out, he came behind us, and almost before I could call for help, 
forced me into the post-chaise, and in an instant the horses 
drove away. I met several on the road, to whom I cried out for 
assistance, but they disregarded my entreaties. In the meantime^, 
the ruffian himself used every art to hinder me from crying out; 
he flattered and threatened me by turns, and swore that, if I 
continued but silent, he intended no härm. In the meantime, I 
had broken the canvas^ that he had drawn up, and whom should 
I perceive^ at some distance but your old friend Mr. Burchell, 
Walking along with his usual swiftness, with the great stick for 
which we used so much to ridicule bim. As soon as we came 
within hearing, I called out to him by name, and entreated his 
help. I repeated my exclamation several times, upon which, 
with a very loud voice, he bid the postilion stop; but the boy 
took no notice, but drove on with still greater speed. I now 
thought he could never overtake us, when in less than a minute 



^) teil me . . how etc. : von dem Verb des Sagens hängen als logische 
Objekte zwei Fragesätze ab, von denen der erste dorch Inversion in 
der Form der direkten Frage erscheint, der zweite die gewöhnliche 
Wortstellung des indirekten Fragesatzes hat. 

'^) in the meantime i mittlerweile, inzwischen; von G. mit Vorliebe 
gebraucht, um einen Satz mit Beziehung auf die Zeit beizuordnen. 

^) the canvas (jetzt the canvas-blind) ist der Vorhang von Lein- 
wand an Kutschenfenstern an Stelle der Glasscheiben. 

*) whom should I perceive , . but: rhetorische Wendung, welche die 
Überraschung ausdrückt. Vgl. XI, 12; XX, 62. 



138 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

I saw Mr. Burchell come running up by the side of the horses, 
and with one blow knock the postilion to the ground. The 
borses, when he was fallen, soon stopped of themselves, and 
the ruffian stepping out, wilh oaths and menaces, drewhis sword, 
and ordered him, at bis peril, to retire; but Mr. Burchell, running 
up, sbivered bis sword to pieces, and then pursued bim for near 
a quarter of a mile; but he made bis escape. I was at tbis time 
come out myself, willing to assist my deliverer; but he soon 
returned to me in triumpb. The postilion, wbo was recovered, 
was going to make bis escape too; but Mr. Burchell ordered him 
at bis peril to mount again and drive back to town. Finding it 
impossible to resist, he reluctantly complied, thougb the wound 
he had received seemed, to me at ieast, to be dangerous. He 
continued to complain of the pain as we drove along, so that he 
at last excited Mr. Burcbelfs compassion, wbo, at my request, 
exchanged bim for another at an inn where we called on our 
retum ^®.» 

«Welcome, then,» cried I, tmy child ! and thou, her gallant 
deliverer, a thousand welcomes! Thougb our cheer" is but 
wretched, yet our hearts are ready to reccive you.» 

Mr. Burchell then demanded if he could not be furnished 
with refreshments from the next inn; to which being answered^ 
in the affirmative, he ordered them to send in the best dinner 
that could be provided upon such short notice. He bespoke also 
a dozen^^ of their best wine, and some cordials^^ for me; adding, 
with a smile, that he would Stretch a little for once^^, and, 
thougb in a prison, asserted he was never better disposed to be 
merry. The waiter soon made bis appearance with preparations 
for dinner; a table was lent us by the gaoler, wbo seemed 
remarkably assiduous ; the wine was disposed in order, and two 
very well-dressed disbes were brought in. 

My daughter had not yet heard of her poor brother's 
melancholy Situation, and we all seemed unwilling to damp her 



^<>) on our retum: der Aufenthalt im Gasthtnse ist am AofaDge des 
Kapitels erwähnt. 

^1) cheer (frz. chere): Bewirtung. *When good cheer is lackiog, 
our friends will be packing (Prov.). 

^^) to which being answered: das Subjekt des appositiven Relativ- 
satzes, dessen Prädikat ein passives Partizip des Präsens ist, ist aus 
dem überg^eordneteo, nachfolgenden Satze zu ergänzen. Vgl. Anm. 16. 

^^) a dozen: zu ergänzen ist bottles. 

1^) cordiiüs: Herzstärkungen, d. i. Magenliköre. 

^^) Stretch a Uttle for oncei einmal etwas drauf gehen lassen. 



CHAPTER XXX. 139 

cheerfulness by the relation. But it was in vain that I attempted 
to appear cheerful : the circumstances of my unfortunate son 
broke through all efforts to dissemble; so that I was at last 
obhged to damp our mirth by relating bis misfortunes, and 
wishing he might be permitted to share with us in this little 
interval of satisfaction. After my guests were recovered from 
the consternation my account had produced, I requested also 
that Mr. Jenkinson, a fellow-prisoner, might be admitted, and 
the gaoler granted my request with an air of unusual Submission. 
The clanking of my son's irons was no sooner heard along the 
passage, than his sister ran impatiently to meet him ; while Mr. 
Burchell, in the meantime, asked me if my son's name were 
George; to which replying^^ in the affirmative, he still continued 
silent. As soon as my boy entered the room, l could perceive 
he regarded Mr. Burchell with a look of astonishment and reve- 
rence. «Come on,* cried I, «my son; though we are fallen very 
low, yet Providence has been pleased to grant us some small 
relaxation from pain. Thy sister is restored to us, and there is 
her deliverer; to that brave man it is that l am indebted for yet 
having a daughter. Give him, my boy, the band of friendship ; 
he deserves our wärmest gratitude.» 

My son seemed all this while regardless of what 1 said, and 
still continued ßxed at a respectful distance. «My dear brother,» 
cried his sister, «why [donH you thank my good deliverer? The 
brave should ever love each other.» 

He still continued his silence and astonishment, tili our 
guest at last perceived himself to be known, and, assuming all 
his native dignity, desired my son to come forward. Never before 
had I Seen anything so truly majestic as the air he assumed 
upon this occasion. The greatest object in the universe, says a 
certain philosopher ^^ is a good man struggling with adversity; 
yet there is still a greater, which is the good man that comes to 
relieve it. After he had regarded my son for some time with a 
superior air, «I again find,» said he, «unthinking boy, that the 
same crime — * But here he was interrupted by one of the 

'6) to which replyingi das logische Sabjekt zu replyiog ist aas dem 
yoraDgehendeo Pronomeo me zu entnehmeo. Vgl. Anm. 12. 

^^) plulosopher: L. Anuaeus Seoeca, De Providentia. Vgl. Spectator 
Wo. 39. April 14, 1711: *A yirtuoas mau (says Seneca) struggling with 
misfortunes, is such a specracle as gods might look upon with pleasure' 
und No. 375. May 10, 1712 1 have more than once had occasion to mention 
a noble saying of Seneca the philosopher, that a yirtuous person struggl- 
ing with misfortunes, and rising above them, is an object upon which 
the gods themselves may look down with delight.' 



140 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

gaoler's servants, who came to inform us that a person of 
distinction, who had driven into town with a chariot and several 
attendants, sent bis respects to the gentleman that was with us, 
and begged to know when he should tbink proper to be waited 
upoD. «Bid the fellow wait,» cried our guest, «tili I shall have 
leisure to receive bim;» and then turning to my son, «I again 
find, Sir,» proceeded he, «that you are guilty of the same offence 
for which you once had my reproof ^^, and for which the law is 
now preparing^* its justest punishments. You imagine, perhaps, 
that a contempt for your own life gives you a right to take that 
of another; but wbere, Sir, is the diflerence between a duellist 
who hazards a life of no value, and the murderer who acts with 
greater security? Is it any diminution of the gämester's fraud, 
when he all^ges that he has staked a counter^^?» 

«Alas, Sir,» cried I, «whoever you are, pity the poor mis- 
guided creature ; for wbat he has done was in obedience to a 
deluded motber, who, in the bittemess of her resentment, re- 
quired bim, upon her blessing, to avenge her quarre!'^. Here, 
Sir, is the letter, which will serve to convince you of her impru- 
dence, and diminish bis guilt.» 

He took the letter, and bastily read it over. «Tbis,» said he, 
«though not a perfect excuse, is such a palliation of bis fault as 
induces me to forgive bim. And now, Sir,» continued he, kindly 
taking my son by the band, «1 see you are surprised at finding 
me here; but I have often yisited pHsons upon occasions less 
interesting. I am now come to see justice'* donea worthy man, 
for whom I have the most sincere esteem. I have long been a 

^^) you had once my reproofi als er ihn nach dem für den Neffen 
übernommenen Dnell besuchte. Kap. XX. 

1^) the law is now preparingi vgl. XXVIII, 36. 

^) to stake a counter: eine Spielmarke einsetzeo. — So wenig der 
Betrug eines Spielers dadurch entschuldigt wird, daTs er sagt, er habe 
nicht um Geld, sondern um Marken gespielt, so wenig ist es für den 
Herausforderer zum Duell eine Entschuldigung, wenn er behauptet, er 
habe ein für ihn wertloses Leben eingesetzt. 

2») to avenge her quarret: die Stelle nimmt auf XXVIII, 27 Bezug. 

22) justi4ie: The Bee (vgl. XXIX, 29) No. IH. Oct. 20, 1759 enthält 
einen Aufsatz über ^^Justice", in welchem es heifst: „Die Gerechtigkeit 
kann als diejenige Tugend bezeichnet werden, die uns antreibt, jedem 
zu geben, was ihm gebührt. In diesem umfassenden Sinne des Wortes 
begreift sie die Übung jeder Tagend in sich, welche die Vernunft uns 
vorschreibt und die menschliche Gesellschaft erwarten sollte. Wir ent- 
sprechen vollständig unserer Pflicht gegen unsern Schöpfer, den Nächsten 
und uns selbst, wenn wir ihnen geben, was wir ihnen schuldig sind. 
So ist, genau genommen, die Gerechtigkeit die einzige Tugend und alle 
übrigen lassen sich auf sie, als auf ihren Ursprung, zurückführen. 



CHAPTER XXX. 141 

disguised spectator of thy father's benevolence. I have, al bis 
little dwelling, eDJoyed respect uncontäminated by flattery, and 
bave received that bappiness that courts could not give, from 
tbe amusing simplicity round bis fireside. My nephew bas been 
apprised of my intentions of Coming bere^^ and I find is arrived. 
I would be wronging bim and you to condemn bim witbout 
examination; if tbere be injury, tbere sball be redress; and tbis 
I may say witbout boasting, tbat none bave ever taxed** tbe in- 
justice of Sir William Tbornbill.* 

We now found tbe personage wbom we bad so long enter- 
tained as a barmless, amusing companion was no otber than tbe 
celebrated Sir William Tbornbill, to wbose yirtues and singu- 
larities scarce any were strangers. Tbe poor Mr. Burcbell was in 
reality a man of large fortune and great interest, to wbom 
Senates listened witb applause**, and wbom party beard witb 
conviction; wbo was tbe friend of bis country, but loyal to bis 
king. My poor wife, recollecting ber former familiarity^^, seemed 
to sbrink witb apprebension ; but Sopbia, wbo a few moments 
before tbougbt bim ber own, now perceiving tbe imjmense 
distance to wbicb be was removed by fortune, was unable to 
conceal ber tears. 

«Ab, Sir,» cried my wife, witb a piteous aspect, «bow is it 
possible tbat I can ever bave your forgiveness? Tbe slights*^ 
you received from me tbe last time I bad tbe bonour of seeing 
you at our bouse, and tbe jokes wbicb I audaciously tbrew out — 
tbese jokes, Sir, I fear, can never be forgiven.» 

«My dear good lady,» returned be witb a smile, «if you bad 
your joke, I bad my answer: Fll leave it to all tbe Company if 
mine were not as good as yours. To say tbe trulb, I know 
nobody wbom I am disposed to be angry witb at present, but 
tbe fellow wbo so frigbtened my little girl bere. I bad not even 
time to examine tbe rascal's person so as to describe^* bim in 



*3) intentions of Coming here: die Stelle begründet das Erscbeioen 
Thorobills. Sir William hatte des Pfarrers Brief empfangen, seinen 
Neffen von der Absicht, den Pfarrer im Gefängnisse zn besochen, unter- 
richtet nnd unterwegs Sophia befreit 

>^) taxed: to tax schätzen; zur Last legen; sich beklagen. 

**) Senates listened [spr. st==ss] loith applause: erinnert an Thomas 
Gray's Elegy written in a Country Churchyard. Strophe 16. 

**) former famüiarüyi in Kap. XV erzählt. 

'^) slight (schlicht) Geringschätzung; Beleidigung. 

*8) so as to describe: der lofinitiv mit to und vorhergehendem as 
nach so (und snch) steht im Sinne eines Konsekutivsatzes. 



142 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

an advertisement. Gan you teil me, Sophia, my dear, whether 
you should^* know him again?» 

«Indeed, Sir,» replied she, «I can't be positive; yet now I 
recollect he had a Jarge mark over one of his eyebrows.» — *I 
ask pardon, Madam,» interrupted Jenkinson, who was by, «but 
be so good as to inform me'° if the fellow wore his own red 
hair.» — «Yes, I think so,» cried Sophia. «And did your Honour,» 
continued he, turning to Sir William, «observe the length of his 
legs?» — «I can't be sure of their length,» cried the Baronet^^; 
«but 1 am convinced of their swiftness; for he outran me, which 
is what I thought few men in the kingdom could have done.» — 
«Please your Honour,» cried Jenkinson, «I know the man ; it is 
certainly the same: the best runner in England; he has beaten 
Pinwire®^, of Newcastle; Timothy Baxter is his name. I know 
him perfectly, and the very place of his retreat this moment. If 
your Honour will bid Mr. Gaoler let two of his men go with me, 
ril engage to produce him to you in an hour at farthest.» lipon 
this the gaoler was called, who instantly appearing^^ Sir William 
demanded if he knew him. «Yes, please your Honour,» replied 
the gaoler, «I know Sir William Thornhill well, and everybody 
that knows anything of him will desire to know more of him.» 
«Well, then,» said the Baronet, «my request is, that you will 
permit this man and two of your servants to go upon a message 
by my authority; and as I am in the commission of the peace", 
I undertake to secure you.» — «Your promise is sufficient>» 



3^) shotdd: weil die direkte Frage laaten würde: Shoald you u. s. w. 

^) be so good as to in form me: der lofio. mit to und vorangehen- 
dem as nach dem (in Verbindang mit Adjektiven) den Grad bezeich- 
nenden Adverb so, 

^^) Baronet: von Jakob I. geschaffener erblicher Titel der oberen Stufe 
des niederen englischen Adels, der sogenannten psendo-nobility. Bei 
Schreibung des vollen Namens wird er Bart, abgekürzt und Sir vor den 
Vornamen gesetzt, z. B. Sir Walter Scott, Bart. 

^>) Pinwire: ein (sonst unbekannter) Schnellläufer. 

^) who instantly appearing-: absoluter Nominativ des Relativpro- 
nomens mit prädikativem Partizip im Sinne eines Temporalsatzes. 

'^) commission of the peace : Kollegium der Friedensrichter. — Die 
allgemeinen Verwaltungsangelegenheiten der Grafschaft, Straf-, Be- 
schwerde- und Berufongssachen werden in vierteljährlich stattfindenden 
Generalversammlungen von den Friedensrichtern, die ein richterliches 
Kollegium bilden, erledigt. Die Befugnisse desselben sind ausgedehnte. 
Sie erstrecken sich über Steuerauflagen nach Mafsgabe der Gesetze, 
Gefäogniseinrichtungen , Armenverwaltung, Ernennung von Beamten 
u. s. w. Aufserdem ist es Berufungsinstanz für die Entscheidungen der 
einzelnen Friedensrichter. Vgl. XV, 23. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 143 

replied Ihe other, «and you may, al a minute's wa^ning^^ send 
Ihem over England whenever your Honour thinks fit.» 

In pursuance of the gaoler's compliance, Jenkinson was 
despatched in search of Timothy Baxter, while we were amused 
with the assiduity of our youngest boy Bill, who had just come 
in and climbed up to Sir Williani's neck in order to kiss him, 
His mother was immediately going to cbastise his familiarity, 
but the worthy man prevented her; and taking the child, all 
ragged as^® he was, upon his knee, «What, Bill, you chubby^^ 
rogue!» cried he, «do you remember your old friend Burchell? 
And Dick, too, my honest veteran^^, are you here? Youshall find 
I have not forgot*'^ you.» So saying, he gave each a large piece 
of gingerbread, which the poor iellows eat very heartily, as they 
had got that morning but a very scanty breakfast. 

We now sat down to dinner, which was almost cold; but 
previously, my arm still continuing painful, Sir William wrote a 
prescription*®; for he had made the study of physic his amuse- 
ment, and was more than möderately skilled in the profession : 
this being sent to an apöthecary who lived in the place, my arm 
was dressed, and I found almost instantaneous relief. We were 
waited upon at dinner by the gaoler himself, who was willing to 
do our guest all the honour in his power. But before we had 
well dined, another message was brought from his nephew, 
desiring permission to appear in order to vindicate his in- 
nocence and honour; with which request the Baronet complied, 
and desired Mr. Thornhill to be introduced. 



CHAPTER XXXL 

Former Benevoience now repaid with ooeispected Interest. 

Mr. Thornhill made his entrance with a smile, which he 
seldom wanted, and was going to embrace his uncle, which the 
other repulsed with anairof disdain. «No fawning, Sir, atpresent,» 
cried the Baronet, with a look of severity ; «the only way to my 



^) at a minuie^s warning: weon ich es eine Minute vorher weifs 
36) ragged asi das dem prädikativen Adjektiv nachgestellte as hat 
konzessive Bedeutung. Vgl. XXIV, 11; XXV, 19; XXIX, 21. 
3*^) chubby: pausbackig. 

^) Veteran: alter verständiger Jnoge; scherzhafte Bezeichnung. 
•^®) forgoti in der Prosa jetzt gewöhnlich forgotten. 
^) prescription: Rezept. 



144 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

heart is by the road of honour; but here I only see cöroplicated 
iDstances of falsehood, cowardice, and oppression. How is it, 
Sir, that this poor man, for whom I know yoii professed a 
friendsbip, is used tbus^ hardJy? Uis daughter vilely seduced as 
a recompense for bis bospitality, and he himself thrown into 
prisoD, perhaps but for resenting the insult? His son, too, whom 
you feared to face as a man — > 

eis it possible, Sir,» interrupted his nephew, cthat my uncle 
should object that as a crime, which his repeated instructions 
alone have persuaded me to avoid ?> 

«Your rebuke,» cried Sir William, «is just; you have acted, 
in this instance, prudentiy and well, though not quite as your 
father would have done; my brother, indeed, was the soul of 
honour, but thou — yes, you have acted, in this instance, per- 
fectly right, and it has my wärmest approbation.» 

«And I hope,» said his nephew, «that the rest of my conduct 
will not be found to deserve censure. l appeared, Sir, with this 
gentleman's daughter at some places of public amusement. I 
waited on her father in person, willing to clear the thing to his 
satisfaction, and he received me only with insult and abuse. As 
for the rest, with regard to his being here, my attorney* and 
Steward can best inform you, as I commit the management of 
business entirely to them. If he has contracted debts, and is 
unwilling, or even unable to pay them, it is their business to 
proceed in this manner; and I see no hardship or injustice in 
pursuing the most l^gal means of redress.» 

«If this,» cried Sir William, «be as you have stated it, there 
is nothing unpardonable in your offences; and though your con- 
duct migbt have been more generous in not suffering this gentle- 
man to be oppressed by subordinate t^ranny *, yet it has been 
at least equitable*.» 

«He cannot contradict a Single particular,» replied the 
^Squire ; «I defy bim to do so, and several of my servants are 
ready to attest what I say. Thus, Sir,» continued he, finding that 
I was silent — for in fact I could not contradict him — «thus, 
Sir, my own innocence is vindicated ; but though at your entreaty 



^) thus: statt so zur Hervorhebnog des Adjektivs oder Adverbs ist 
in der Prosa jetzt wenig im Gebranch. 

*) aüorney: vgl. XX, 71; XXIV, 5. 

^) subordinate tyrannyi die tyraoDische Behandlung von Seiten der 
Untergebenen, des vorher erwähnten Anwalts und des Verwalters. 

^) equitable ist das, wogegen sich vom rechtlichen Standpunkte ans 
nichts einwenden läfst. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 145 

I am ready to forgive this gentleman every olher offence, yet 
his attempts* to lessen me in your esteem excite a resentment 
that I cannot govern; and this, too, at a time when his son was 
actually preparing to take away my life : this, I say, was such 
guilt, that I am determined to let the law take its course. I have 
here the challenge that was sent me^and two witDesses to prove 
it; one of my servants has been wouDded dangerously ; and even 
though my unde himself should dissuade me,. which 1 know he 
will not, yet I will see public justice done, and he shall sufTer 
for it.» 

«Thou monster*!» cried my wife, «hast thou not had ven- 
geance enough already, but must my poor boy feel thy cruelty? 
I hope that good Sir William will protect us; for my son is as 
innocent as a child. I am sure he is, and never did härm to 
man.» 

«Madam,» replied the good man, «your wishes for his safety 
are not greater than mine; but I am sorry to find his guilt too 
piain ; and if my nephew persists — » But the appearance of 
Jenkinson and the gaoler's two servants now called off our 
attention, who entered, hauling in ' a tall man, very genteelly 
dressed, and answering the description already given of the 
ruffian who had carried offmy daughter. «Here^» cried Jenkinson, 
puUing him in, «here we have him ; and if ever there was a can- 
didate for Tyburn^ this is one.» 

The moment Mr. Thornhill perceived the prisoner, and 
Jenkinson who had him in custody, he seemed to shrink back 
with terror. His face became pale with conscious guilt, and he 
wouJd have withdrawn ; but Jenkinson, who perceived his de- 
sign, stopped him. «What, 'Squire,» cried he, «are you ashamed 
of your two old acquaintances, Jenkinson and Baxter? But this 
is the way that all great men forget their friends, though I am 
resolved we will not forget you. Our prisoner, please your 
Honour,» continued he, turning to Sir William, «has already con- 
fessed all. This is the gentleman reported to be so dangerously 
wounded. He declares that it was Mr. Thornhill who first put^ 
him upon this affair; that he gave him the clothes he now wears, 

*) attemptsi Hinweis auf das Schreibeo, welches der Pfarrer an den 
ßaronet gerichtet hatte. 

^) thou monster: Ausruf der Verachtung. Über thou vgl. XV, 27. 

^) hauling; m = pulling in; to haule (frz. haier) heranholen, ge- 
waltsam hineinziehen (Seeansdruck). 

^) Tyburn: Name eines ehemaligen Richtplatzes in London im west- 
lichen Teile von Oxford-street. 

^) to put s, 0. upon s. th.i jmd. auf etwas bringen. 
Goldsmith, The Yicar of Wakefield. %. Auflage. IQ 



146 THE VICAB OF WAKEFIELD. 

to appear like a gentleman, and furnished him with the post- 
chaise. The plan was laid ^° between them, that he should carry 
off the young lady to a place of safety, and that there he should 
threaten and terrify her; but Mr. Thornhill was to come in, in 
the meantime, as if by accident, to her rescue, and that they 
should fight a while, and tben he was to run off, by which Mr. 
Thornhill would have the better opportunity of gaining her 
affections himsel£» under the character of her defender.» 

Sir William rcmembered the coat to have been frequently 
worn by bis nephew, and all the rest the prisoner himself con- 
firmed by a more circumstantial account. 

«Heavens!» cried Sir William, «what a viper have I bepn 
fostering in my bosom ! And so fond of public justice, too, as 
he seemed to be! But he shall ha?e it! Secure him, Mr. Gaoler! 
— Yet hold, I fear there is no legal evidence to detain him.» 

lipon this, Mr. Thornhill, with the utmost humility, 
entreated that two such abändoned^^ wretches might not be 
admitted as evidences against him; but that bis servants should 
be examined. «Your servants!» replied Sir William, «wretch! 
call them yours no longer; but come, let us hear what those 
fellows have to say; let bis butler be called.» 

When the butler was introduced, be soon perceived by bis 
former master's looks that all bis power was now over. «Teil 
me,» cried Sir William sternly, «have you ever seen your master, 
and that fellow dressed up in bis clothes, in Company together?» 
«Yes, please your Honour,» cried the butler, «a thousand times.» 
«How!» interrupted young Mr. Thornhill, «Ibis to my face?^*» 
«Yes,» replied the butler,» or to any man's face. To teil you a 
truth, Master ThornhilP^, I never either loved you or liked^* 
you, and I don't care if I teil you now a piece of my mind^*^.» 
«Now then,» cried Jenkinson, «teil bis Honour whether you know 
auything of me.» — «1 can't say,» replied the butler, «that I know 

^^) The plan was Und: es wurde verabredet; between them zu- 
sammeo, gemeinschaftlich. Between unter drückt die gemein- 
schaftliche Beziehung zwischen zwei oder auch mehreren Personen 
aus. (Jber between us und between ourselves vgl. XII, 51. 

^^) abandoned: im höchsten Grade verworfen. 

1^} this to my face: elliptisch statt this you speak to my face. 

^3) Master Thornhill: Master vor Eigennamen bezeichnet „junger 
Herr'^ Hier drückt es zugleich die Herabwürdigung aus. 

^*) loved or liked: to love s. o. (urspr. begehren) = Verlangen 
haben nach jmd.; to like s. o. (urspr. gleichen) = Gefallen finden 
an jmd. 

^^) to teil s. 0. a piece of one's mind: jmd. gehörig seine Mei- 
nung sagen. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 147 

much good of you. The night that gentleman's daughter was 
deluded to our house, you were one of them.» — «So theo,» cried 
SirWilliam, «Ifind you have brought a very fine witness to prove 
your innocence. Thou^^ stain to humanity! to associate with 
such wretches! But,t continuing bis examination, «you teil me, 
Mr. Butler, that this was the person who brought him this old 
gentleman's daughter.» — «No, please yourHonour,» replied the 
Butler, «he did not bring her, for the 'Squlre himself undertook 
that business; but he brought the priest that pretended to marry 
them.» — «It is but too true,» cried Jenkinson; «l cannot deny 
it; that was the employment assigned to me, and I confess it to 
my confusion.» 

«Good heavens!» exclaimed the Baronet, «how every new 
discovery of bis villainy alarms me! All bis guilt is now too 
piain, and I find bis present prosecution was dictated by t]franny, 
cowardice, and reyenge. At my request, Mr. Gaoler, set this 
young officer, now your prisoner, free, and trust to me for the 
consequences. TU make it^^ my business to set the afifair in a 
proper light to my friend the magistrate^^ who has committed 
him. But where is the unfortunate young lady herseif? Let her 
appear to confront this wretch. Entreat her to come in. Where 
is she?» 

«Ah! Sir,» said I, «that question stings me to the heart; I 
was once indeed happy in a daughter, but her miseries — » 
Another Interruption here prevented me; for who should make 
her appearance but^* Miss Arabella Wilmot, who was next day 
to have been married'® to Mr. Thornhill. Nothing could equal 
her surprise at seeing Sir William and bis nephew here before 
her; for her arri?al was quite accidental. it happened that she 
and the old gentleman, her father, were passing through the 
town, on their way to her aunt's, who had insisted that her 
nuptials with Mr. Thornhill should be consummated at her house; 



^^) thou: drückt io zoroiger Anrede die Verachtung ans. 

^'^) it ist grammatisches Objekt von to make und darf nicht fehlen, 
veil es durch den prädikativen Accnsativ (my business) von dem im 
Infinitiv (to set) enthaltenen logischen Objekt, welches es andeutet, ge- 
trennt ist. Vgl. X, 37; XXIII, 8. 

1^) who should . . but: von G. wiederholt gebrauchte rhetorische 
Wendung, dorch welche das Eintreten von etwas Unerwartetem aasge- 
drückt werden soll. Vgl. XI, 12; XX, 62. 

^^) the magistratex d. i. the justice of the peace. Vgl. XV, 23. 

'^) who was . . to have been married: das Präteritum von to be to 
sollen (= angeordnet sein) mit dem Infin. des Perfekts entspricht dem 
deutschen Konjunktiv des Plusquamperfekts mit dem Infin. des Präsens. 

10* 



148 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

but stopping for refreshment, they put up at an inn at the other 
end of the town. It was there, from the window, that the young 
lady happened to observe one of my little boys playing in the 
Street, and instantly sending a footman to bring the child to her, 
she leamt from bim some account of our misfortunes, but was 
still kept Ignorant of young Mr. Thornhiirs being the cause. 
Though her father made seyeral remönstrances on the impro- 
priety of going to a prison to visit us, yet they were ineffectual; 
she desired the child to conduct her, which he did ; and it was 
thus she surprised us at a juncture^^ so unexpected. 

Nor can l go on without a refilection on those accidentai 
meetings, which, though they happen e?ery day, seldom excite 
our surprise but upon some extraordinary occasion. To what a 
fortüitous concürrence do we not owe every pleasure and con- 
yenience of our lives ! How many seeming accidents must unite 
before we can he clothed or fed! The peasant must be disposed 
to labour, the shower must fall, the wind fiU the merchant's 
sail, or numbers must want the usual supply. 

We all continued silent for some moments, while my 
charming pupil, which was the name I generally gave this young 
lady, united in her looks compassion and astonishment, which 
gave new finishing*^ to her beauty. — «Indeed, my dear Mr. 
Thornhill,» cried she to the 'Squire, who she supposed was come 
here to süccour and not to oppress us, «I take it a little unkindly 
that you should" come here without me, or never inform me 
of the Situation of a family so dear to us both : you know I 
should take as much pleasure in contributing to the relief of 
my reverend old master here, whom 1 shall ever esteem, as you 
can. But 1 fmd that, like your uncle, you take a pleasure in 
doing good in secret.» 

«He find^^ pleasure in doing good!» cried Sir William, 
interrupting her. <No, my dear, bis pleasures are as base as he 
is. You see in him, Madam, as complete a villain as ever dis- 
graced humanity. A wretch who, after having deluded this poor 
man^s daughter, after plotting against the innocence of her sister, 
has thrown the father into prison, and the eldest son into 



*^) junciure: der (eDtscheideade) Zeitpunkt. 

•*) finishing: Reiz. 

*^) should: nach I take it a little onkindly (Ausdruck der Gemüts 
errei^ng). 

'^) he find: Infinitiv ohne to mit Beibehaltnng des Subjekts in» 
elliptischen Ausruf der Verwunderung. Vgl. 11,24; III, 24. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 149 

fetters. And give me leave, Madam, now to congratulate you 
upon an escape from such a monster.» 

«0 goodness**!» cried the lovely girl, «how bave I been 
deceived! Mr. Thornhill informed me for** certain that this 
gentleman's eldest son, Captain Primrose, was gone off to 
America with his new-married lady^^» 

«My sweetest Miss,» cried my wife, «he has told you nothing 
but falsehoods. My son George never left the kingdom, nor ever 
was married. Though you haye forsaken him, he has always 
loTed you too well to think of anybody eise; and I have heard 
him say he would die a bachelor for your sake.» She then pro- 
ceeded to expatiate upon the sincerity of her son's passion; she 
set his duel with Mr. Thornhill in a proper light; from thence she 
made a rapid digression to the 'Squire's pretended marriages, 
and ended with a most insulting picture of cowardice. 

«Good heavens!» cried Miss Wilmot, «how very near have I 
been to the brink of ruin! But how great is my pleasure to have 
escaped it ! Ten thousand falsehoods has this gentleman told 
me ! He had at last art enough to persuade me that my promise 
to the only man I esteemed was no longer binding, since he 
had been unfaithful. ßy his falsehoods I was taught to detest 
one equally brave and generous !» 

But by this time my son was freed from the encumbrances 
of justice ^^, as the person supposed to be wounded was detected 
to be an impostor. Mr. Jenkinson also, who had acted as his 
valet-de-chambre, had dressed up his hair, and furnished him 
with whatever was necessary to make a genteel appearance. He 
now, therefore, entered, handsomely dressed in his regimentals; 
and, without vanity (for I am above it), he appeared as hand- 
some a fellow as ever wore a military dress. As he entered, he 
made Miss Wilmot a modest and distant bow, for he was not as 
yet acquainted with the change which the eloquence of his 
mother had wrought'* in his favour. But no decorums *° could 
restrain the impatience of his blushing mistress to be forgiven^^. 
Her tears, her looks, all contributed to discover the real sen- 
sations of her heart, for having forgotten her former promise. 



'^) goodnessi zn ergänzen of Heaven. 

'^) fori für, als; im Sinne von „so gut wie". 

''^) new-married lady: jetzt bride. 

'8) encumbrances of justice: d. i. Fesseln (Enphemismos). 

'^) wnmghti über den jetzigen Gebrauch dieses Prät. vgl. IV, 3. 

'^) decorums i Anstandsregeln. ^ 

^1) to be forgiven: indirektes Komplement von the impatience. 



150 THE TICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

and haying sufTered herseif to be deluded by an impostor. My 
son appeared amazed at her condescension, and could scarce 
believe it real. — «Sure, Madam,» cried he, «Ihis is but delusion! 
I can never haye merited this! To be blessed thus is to be too 
happy!» — «No, Sir,» replied she; «I have been deceived, basely 
deceived, eise nothing could ha^e ever made me unjust to my 
promise. You know my friendship, you have long known it; but 
forget what I have done, and as you once had my wärmest vows 
of constancy, you shall now have them repeated; and be assured 
that, if your Arabella cannot be yours, she shall never be 
another's.» — «And no other's you shall be,» cried Sir Williaro, 
«if I have any influence with your father.» 

This hint was sufßcient for my son Moses, who immediately 
flew to the inn where the old gentleman was, to inform him of 
every circumstance that had happened. But in the meantime 
the 'Squire, perceiving that he was on every side undone**, now 
finding that no hopes were left from flattery or dissimulation, 
concluded that bis wisest way would be to turn and face bis 
pursuers. Thus, laying aside all shame, he appeared the open, 
hardy villain. «I find then,» cried he, «that 1 am to expect no 
justice here; but I am resolved it shaU be done me. You shall 
know, Sir,» turning to Sir William, «I am no longer a poor de- 
pendant upon your favours. I scorn them. Nothing can keep 
Miss Wilmof s fortune from me, which, I thank her father's 
assiduity, is pretty large. The articles** and a bond for her 
fortune are signed, and safe in my possession. It was her 
fortune, not her person, that induced me to wish for this 
match; and, possessed of the one, let who** will take the other.» 

This was an alarming blow. Sir William was sensible of 
the justice of bis Claims; for he had been instrumental in draw* 
ing up the marriage-articles himself. Miss Wilmot, therefore, 
perceiving that her fortune was irretriövably lost, turning to my 
son, she**^ asked if the loss of fortune could lessen her value to 
him. «Though fortune,» said she, «is out of my power, at least £ 
have my band to give.» 



3») on every side undone: gäozlich verlorea. 

^) articles: Heiratskontrakt ; bond Verschreibnng. 

^) lei who will: ungewöholich statt let him who wül, 

3*) Miss (Mr.) Wilmot , ,, she (he) : absoluter Nominativ mit prä- 
dikativem Partizip, aufgfeoommen durch das Personalprooomen ; dieser 
Satzbaa gilt wegen des überflüssigen Pronomens grammatisch als nicht 
gut. Vgl. VI, 10. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 151 

«And that, Madam,» cried my son George, «was indeed all 
tbat you ever had to give: at least all that I ever thought worth 
the acceptance. And I now protest, my Arabella, by all that's 
happy, your want of fortune this moment increases my pleasure, 
as it serves to convince you of my sincerity.» 

Mr. Wilmot now entering, he^' seemed not a little pleased at 
the danger bis daugbter bad just escaped, and readily consented 
to a dissolution of tbe matcb. But Unding tbat ber fortune, 
which was secured to Mr. Tbornbill by bond, would not be 
given up, notbing could exceed bis disappointment^^. He now 
saw tbat bis money must all go to enrich one wbo bad no 
fortune of bis own. He could bear bis being a rascal, but to 
want an equivalent to bis daugbter's fortune was wormwood*^. 
He sat, tberefore, for some minutes employed in tbe most 
mortifying speculations, tili Sir William attempted to lessen bis 
anxiety. «I must confess, Sir,» cried be, «tbat your present dis- 
appointment does not entirely displease me. Your immoderate 
passion for wealtb is now justly punisbed. But tbougb tbe young 
lady cannot be rieb, sbe has still a cömpetence sufficient to give 
content. Here you see an bonest young soldier, wbo is willing 
to take ber witbout fortune. Tbey baye long loved eacb otber; 
and for tbe friendship I bear bis falber, my interest sball not 
be wanting in bis promotion. Leave, tben, that ambition which 
disappoints you, and for once admit tbat bappiness which courts 
your acceptance*®.» 

«Sir William,» replied tbe old gentleman, «be assured I never 
yet forced her inclinations, nor will I now. If sbe still con- 
tinues to love this young gentleman, let her baye bim, with all 
my heart. There is still, thank Heaven, some fortune left, and 
your promise will make it sometbing more. Only let my old 
friend here» (meaning me) «give me a promise of settling six 
thousand pounds upon my girl if ever be sbould come to bis 



3^) disappointment: ist die infolge getäuschter Hoffnung eintretende 
Verstimmung. 

37) wormwood: dafs Thornhill ein Schurke war, hätte Wilmot er- 
tragen können, aber dafs er fdr das Vermögen seiner Tochter, das er 
abgeben mufste, keinen Ersatz erhielt, war Wermut für ihn, kränkte 
ihn bitter. 

^) courts your acceptance: Wilmot soll seinen Ehrgeiz, der ihm 
nur Täuschungen verursacht, fahren lassen und sich einmal für jenes 
Glück empfänglich zeigen, das sich bei ihm darum bewirbt, in Empfang 
genommen zu werden. 



152 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

fortune, and I am ready this night to be the first to join them 
together*'.* 

As it now remained with me to make the young couple 
happy, I readily gave a promise of making the settlement he 
required; which, to one who had such little expectations as I, 
was no great favour. We had now, therefore, the satisfaction of 
seeing them fly into each other's arms in a tränsport. cAfter all 
my misfortunes,» cried my son George, «to be thus rewarded! 
Sure this is more than I could ever have presumed to hope for. 
To be possessed of all that's good, and after such an interval of 
pain! My wärmest wishes could never rise so high!» — «Yes, my 
George,» returned bis lovely bride***, now let the wretch take my 
fortune; since you are happy without it, so am I. Oh, what an 
exchange have I made, from the basest of men to the dearest, 
best! Let bim enjoy our fortune; I now can be happy e?en in 
indigence.» — «And I promise you,» cried the 'Squire, with a 
malicious grin, «that I shali be very happy with what you 
despise.» — «Hold, hold, Sir!» cried Jenkinson; «there are two 
words to that bargain. As for that lady's fortune, Sir, you shali 
never touch a Single stiver*^ of it. Pray, your Honour,» con- 
tmued he to Sir William, «can the 'Squire have this lady's fortune 
if he be married to another?» — «flow can you make such a 
simple demand?» replied the Baronet; «undoubtedly he cannot.» 
— «[ am sorry for that,» cried Jenkinson; «for as this gentleman 
and I have been old fellow-sporters, I have a friendship for'him. 
But I must declare, well as^' I love bim, that bis cöntract is not 
worth a tobäcco-stopper, for he is married already.» — *«You lie 
like a rascal,» returned the 'Squire, who seemed roused by this 
insult ; «I never was i^gally married to any woman.» — «Indeed, 
begging your Honour's pardon,» replied the other, «you were ; 
and 1 hope you will show a proper return of friendship to your 
own honest Jenkinson, who brings you a wife; and if the Com- 
pany restrain their curiosity a few minutes, they shali see her.» 
So saying, he went off with bis usual celerity, and left us all un- 



3^) tojoin them toffether: Mr. Wilmot war a digoitary ia the Church. 
Vgl. Kap. n. 

*^) bride: jetzt Name für Neuvermählte. Der deutsche Name „Braut** 
wird durch ,,his iateoded'* oder in der vertraulicheu Umgangssprache 
auch durch „his young lady'' ausgedruckt. Verlobt sein heifst to be 
engaged to be married oder blos to be engaged. 

*^) stiver: Stüber; eine holländische Kupfermünze = 2 Cents (4 Pf.). 

*^) well as: so sehr auch; as hat konzessive Bedeutung. Vgl. XXI V» 
11; XXV, 19; XXIX, 21. Die Worte well as I love him, wie die vor- 
hergehenden I have a friendship for him, sind ironisch. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 153 

able to form any probable conjecture as to bis design. fAy, let 
bim go,» cried the 'Squire; whatever eise 1 may have done, I 
defy bim there. I am too old now to be frightened with 
squibs*'.» 

«I am surprised,» said tbe Baronet, «what the fellow can 
intend by this. Some low piece of humour, I suppose.» — «Per- 
haps, Sir,» replied I, «he may have a more serious meaning. For 
when we reflect on the various schemes this gentleman has laid 
to sedace innocence, perhaps some one more artful than the 
rest has been found able to deceive him. When we consider 
what numbers he has ruined, how many parents now feel with 
anguish the infamy which he has brought into their families, it 
would not surprise me if some one of them** — Amazement! 
Do I See my lost daughter? Do I hold her? It is, it is my life, 
my happiness! I thought ihee lost, my Olivia, yet still I hold 
thee, and still thou shalt live to bless me.» The wärmest träns- 
ports of the fondest lover were not greater than mine, when I 
saw hjm introduce my child, and held my daughter in my arms, 
whose silenceonly spoke her raptures. «And art thou returned 
to me, my darling?» cried I, «to be my.comfort in age?» — 
«That^^ she is,» cried Jenkinson; «and make much of^^ her, for 
she is your own houourable child, and as honest a woman as 
any in the whole room, let the other be whö she will. And as 
for you, 'Squire, as sure as you stand here, this young lady is 
your lawful wedded wife; and to convince you that I speak 
nothing but the truth, here is the licence*^ by which you were 
married together.» So saying, he put the licence into the 
Baronet's hands, who read it, and found it perfect in every 
respect. «And now, gentlemen,» continued he, «I find you are 
surprised at all this; but a few words will explain the difficulty. 
That there 'Squire of renown*®, for whom I have a great friend- 
ship (but that's between ourselves), has often employed me in 
doing odd little things for him. Among the rest, he comm^sioned 



*3) squib: Schwärmer (beim Feoerwerk); Kinderei. 

^*) one of tkem: die Aposiopese ist durch das Eiotreteo Jenkiosons 
mit Olivia veraolafst 

^) that: ist prädikativ aod bezieht sich auf comfort. 

*6) to make much of: in Ehren halten, wert halten. 

^'^) licence: der Erlanbnisschein des Bischofs, vermöge dessen die 
Trauung unter Erlafs gewisser gesetzlicher Förmlichkeiten, besonders 
des dreimaligen kirchlichen Aufgebots an drei auf einander folgenden 
Sonntagen, vollzogen werden konnte. 

*8) that there 'Squire of renown: jener berühmte Gutsherr da. 
There dient in der Volkssprache zur Verstärkung von that. Vgl. XX, 43, 



154 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

me to procure him a false licence and a false priest, in order to 
deceive Ihis young lady. But as I was very much bis friend, 
what did I do but^^ went and got a true licence and a true priest, 
and married tbem both as fast as tbe cloth^^ could make them. 
Perhaps youll think it was generosity that made me do all this. 
But no ; to my shame [ confess it. My only design was to keep 
the licence, and let thc 'Squire know that I could prove it upon 
him whenever I thought proper, and so make him come down^^ 
whenever I wanted money.» A burst of pleasure now seemed to 
fill the whole apartment; our joy reached even the common 
room, where the prisoners themselves sympathised, 

'Aod shook their chaios 
In traosport and mde harmoDy^^. 

Happiness was expanded ** upon every face, and even Olivia's 
cheeks seemed flushed with pleasure. To be thus restored to 
reputation, to friends and fortune at once, was a rapture suf- 
ficient to stop the progress of decay, and restore former health 
and vivacity. But, perhaps, among aU, there was not o^e who 
feit sincerer pleasure than I. Still holding the dear-loved child 
in my arms, I asked my heart if these transports were not de- 
lusion. «How could you,» cried I, turning to Mr. Jenkinson, «how 
could you add to my miseries by the story of her death? But it 
matters not*^*; my pleasure at Unding her again is more than a 
recompense for the pain.» 

tAs to your question,» replied Jenkinson, *that is easily 
answered. I thought the only probable means of freeing you 
from prison was by submitting to the 'Squire, and consenting 
to bis marriage with the other young lady. But these you had 
vowed never to grant while your daughter was living; there was, 
therefore, no other method to bring things to bear^', but by 
persuading you that she was dead. T prevailed on your wife 
to join in the deceit, and we have not had a fit opportunity of 
undeceiving you tili now.» 



*ö) btUi weil die rhetorische Frage what did I do den Sian eines 
negativen Satzes hat. 

*0) chthx der Geistliche in Amtstracht. (Metonymie). 

'^) to come down: hervorkommen, heransräcken (mit dem Gelde). 

^2) j4nd skook . . . harmony: Stelle ans fFilUam Congreve^s Trauer- 
spiel The Monrning Bride', Akt I, Scene 4. 

^3) Happiness was expanded: einfacher spread. 

**) it matters not == no matter thnt nichts; in der Prosa des 
18. Jahrhunderts wird die Umschreibung mit to do in Fragen und durch 
not verneinten Sätzen nicht regelmäfsig angewandt. 

^*) io bring to bear: zum Austrag bringen. Vgl. V, 13. 



CHAPTER XXXL 155 

In the whole assembly there now appeared only two faces 
tbat did not glow with transport. Mr. ThornhilFs assurance Lad 
entirely forsaken him ; he now saw the gulf of infamy and want 
before him, and trembied to take the plunge. He therefore feil 
on bis knees before bis uncle, and in a yoice of piercing misery 
implored compassion. Sir William was going to spurn him 
away, but at my request he raised bim, and after pausing a few 
moments, *Thy vices, erimes, and ingratitude,» eried be, cdeserve 
no tenderness; yet thou shalt not be entirely forsaken: a bare 
competence sball be supplied to support the wants of life, but not 
its follies. This young lady, tby wife, sball be put in possession 
of a third part of tbat fortune wbich once was thine, and from 
her tenderness alone thou art to expeet any extraordinary supplies 
for the future.» He was going to express bis gratitude for such 
kindness in a set speech; but the Baronet prevented bim, by 
bidding bim not aggravate bis meanness, wbich was already but 
too appärent. He ordered him at the same time to be gone'^^ 
and from bis former domestics to cboose one, such as be should 
tbink proper, wbich was all tbat should be granted to attend 
him. 

As soon as he left us, Sir William very politely stepped up 
to bis new niece with a smile, and wished her joy. His example 
was foUowed by MissWilmot and her fatber. My wife, too, kissed 
her daughter with much affection. Sophia and Moses foliowed 
in turn, and even our benefactor Jenkinson desired to be ad- 
mitted to tbat bonour. Our satisfaction seemed scarce cäpable 
of increase. Sir William, whose greatest pleasure was in doing 
good, now looked round with a countenance open as the sun, 
and saw notbing but joy in tbe looks of all, except tbat of my 
daughter Sophia, who, for some reasons we could not com- 
prebend, did not seem perfectly satisfied. tl tbink now,» cried 
be, with a smile, ttbat all the Company, except one or two, seem 
perfectly happy. There only remains an act of justice for me to 
do. You are sensible, Sir,» continued be, turning to me, «of the 
bbligations we both owe to Mr. Jenkinson ; and it is but just we 
should both reward him for it. Miss Sophia will, I am sure, 
make bim very happy, and he sball have from me five bundred 
pounds as her fortune; and upon this I am sure they can live 
very comfortably together. Come, Miss Sophia, what say you*^ 

^^) to be gonei sich schleunigst eDtfernen. Die noch auszuführende 
Handlung wird als bereits vollzogen dargestellt. Vgl. begone XV, 26. 

^'^) what say you: jetzt what do you say. Dichter und ältere Pro- 
saiker bedienen sich zur Bildung von fragenden und verneinten Sätzen 



156 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

to this match of my makiDg? Will you have him?» My poor girl 
seemed almost sinking into her mother's arms at the hideous 
proposal. tHavehim, Sir!» cried shefaintly; *no, Sir, never!» — 
tWhat!» cried he again, *not have Mr. Jenkinson*®, your bene- 
factor, a handsome young fellow, with five hundred pounds, and 
good expectations ?» — «I heg, Sir,» returned she, scarce able to 
speak, «that you'll desist, and not make me so very wretched.» — 
tWas ever such obstinacy known?» cried he again, *to refuse*** 
a man whom the family has such infinite obligations to, who has 
preserved your sister, and who has five hundred pounds? What! 
not have him?» — *No, Sir, never!» replied she angrily; «Fd 
sooner die first!» — *If that he the case, then,» cried he, *if you 
will not have him, I think I must have you myself.» And so 
saying, he caught her to his breast with ardour. Then turning 
to Jenkinson: «As I cannot, Sir, part with this young lady myself, 
for she has taken a fancy to the cut of my face, all the recom- 
pense I can make is, to give you her fortune, and you may call 
upon my Steward to-morrow for five hundred pounds.» Thus we 
had all our compliments to repeat, and Lady Thornhill under- 
went the same round of ceremony that her sister had done be- 
fore. In the meantime, Sir William's gentleman*" appeared to 
teil US that the equipages were ready to carry us to the inn, 
where everything was prepared for our reception, My wife and 
I led the van*^ and left those gloomy mansions of sorrow. The 
generous ßaronet ordered forty pounds to be distributed among 
the prisoners, and Mr. Wilmot, induced by his example, gave 
half that sum. We were received below by the shouts of the 
villagers, and I saw and shook by the band two or three of my 
honest parishioners, who were among the number. They attended 

nicht regelmäfsig der jetzt in der Umgangssprache allgemein ange- 
wandten Umschreibung mit to do. Vgl. Anm. 54. 

'^) Have him . . not have Mr, J. : Infinitiv ohne to im elliptischen 
Ausruf der Entrüstung. £s ist ein Hilfsverb (I shall . . will you) zu 
ergänzen. Vgl. II, 24; III, 24; XXXI, 24. 

^^) to refuse: Infinitiv mit to im emphatischen Ausruf. Zu ergänzen 
ist ein unpersönlicher Ausdruck, wie it is astonishing. Vgl. XI, 14; 
XXVin, 33. 

^^) gentletnan: Kammerdiener; vorher 'valet-de-chambre' XX, 42; 
jetzt einfach *valet' oder waiting-man. Gentleman (nach Johnson == 
man of birth, not noble), ist ein aus englischen Verhältnissen heraus 
zu erklärendes Wort, das mannigfache Bedeutungen zuläfst. Dem Volke 
ist gentleman ein Mann von Rang, Stellung, guter Erziehung, feiner 
Lebensart, und bei Personen untergeordneter Stellung ein Mann, der 
sich nach englischen Begriffen anständig zu benehmen weifs («» un 
homme comme il faut). 

^^) led the van: führten den Zug an. 



CHAPTEB XXXn. 157 

US to our inn, where a sumptuous entertainraent was provided, 
and Goarser provisions were distributed in great quantities among 
the populace. 

After supper, as my spirits were exhausted by the alter- 
nation of pleasure and pain which they had sustained during tbe 
day, I asked permission to withdraw, and leaving the Company 
in the midst of their mirlh, as soon as I found myself alone, I 
pöured out my heart in gratitude to the Giver of joy as well as 
of sorrow, and then slept undisturbed tili morning. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

The ConclnsioD. 

The next morning, as soon as I awaked, I found my eldest 
son sitting by my bedside S who came to increase my joy with 
another turn of fortune in my favour. First having released me 
from the Settlements that I had made the day before in bis 
favour, he let me know that my mercliant, who had failed in 
town*, was arrested at Antwerp, and there had given up eflects 
to a much greater amount than what was due to bis creditors. 
My boy's generosity pleased me almost as much as this unlooked- 
for good fortune; but I had some doubts whether I ought in 
justice to accept bis offer. While I was pondering upon this, Sir 
William entered the room, to whom I communicated my doubts. 
His opinion was, that as my son was already possessed of a very 
affluent fortune by his marriage, I might accept his offer without 
hesitation. His business, however, was to inform me that as he 
had the night before sent for the licences *, and expected them 
every hour, he hoped that I would not refuse my assistance in 
making all the Company happy that morning ^ A footman 
entered while we were speaking, to teil us that the messenger 
was retumed ; and as I was by this time ready, I went down, 
where I found the whole Company as merry as afQuence and in- 



^) by my bedside: vgl. at my bedside XXVI, 1. 

h settlement: das in Kap. XXXI erwähote Versprechen, 6000 Pfond 
der lichter Wilmots anszasetzen, weon er wieder in den Besitz seines 
Vermögens kommen sollte. 

3) my merchant . . in toton: was in Kap. 11 erzählt wird. 

^) licence: Erlaubnisschein (zum Heiraten). Vgl. XXXI, 47. 

^) that morning: die gesetzlich bestimmte Zeit für Trauungen sind 
die Morgenstunden yon 8 bis 12 Uhr. 



158 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

Docence could make them. However, as they were now preparing 
for a very solemn ceremony, their laughter entirely displeased 
me. I told them of the grave, becoming, and sublime deport- 
ment they should assume upon this mystical^ occasion, and 
read them two homilies and a thesis^ of my own composing, in 
Order to prepare them. Yet they still seemed perfectly refräctory 
and ungovernable. Even as we were going along to church, to 
which I led the way, all gravity had quite forsaken them, and I 
was often tempted to turn back in indignation. In church a new 
dilemma arose, which promised no easy Solution. This was, 
which couple should be married first. My son's bride warmly 
insisted that Lady Thornhill (that was to be)* should take the 
lead ; but this the other refused with equal ardour, protesting 
she would not be guilty of such rudeness for the world. The 
argument was supported for some time between both with equal 
obstinacy and good breeding; but, as I stood all this time with 
my book ready^ 1 was at last quite tired of the cöntest, and 
shutting it, *I perceive,» cried I, «that none of you have a mind 
to be married, and I think we had as good go back again ; for I 
suppose there will be no business done here to-day.» This at 
once reduced them to reason. The ßaronet and his lady were 
first married, and then my son and his lovely partner. 

I had previously that morning given Orders that a coach 
should be sent for my honest neighbour Flamborough and his 
family; by which means^^, upon our return to the inn, we had 
the pleasure of Unding the two Miss Flamboroughs alighted be- 
fore US. Mr. Jenkinson gave his band to the eldest, and my son 
Moses led up the other; and I have since found that he has 
taken a real liking to the girl, and my consent and bounty^^ he 
shall have wheneverhe thinks proper to demand them. We were 
no sooner returned to the inn but numbers of my parishioners, 



^) mysUcal (eig.) geheimnisvoll; (bildl.) bedeutungsvoll, feierlich. 

'^) two homUies and a thesis: homilies, jetzt sermons, sind Predigten 
über Bibeltexte, welche beim Gottesdienste verlesen werden; a thesis, 
jetzt an essay, eine Abhandlung. 

^) Letdy Tkornhill (that was to be) die zukünftige Lady Thornhill. 
— Lady ist der Titel einer verheirateten Frau, deren Mann nicht 
unter dem Range eines knight steht, und wird vor den Familiennamen 
des Mannes gesetzt. Vgl. XI, 19. 

^) / stood . . with my book readyi die Trauung (wedding ceremony) 
wird nach der in der englischen Liturgie vorgeschriebenen Form voll- 
zogen. Eine Ansprache wird nicht gehalten. 

10) hy which tneans: wodurch. 

11) bounty: Mitgift, d. i. Segen. Vgl. XXI, 14. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 159 

hearing of my success, came to congratulate me; but among the 
rest were those who rose to rescue me, and whom I formerly^^ 
rebuked with such sharpness. I told the story to Sir William, 
my son-in-law, who went out and reproved them with great 
severity; but finding them quite disheartened by his harsh 
reproof, he gave them half a guinea apiece to drink his health, 
and raise their dejected spirits. 

Soon after this we were called to a very genteel entertain- 
ment^^ which was dressed by Mr. Thornhiirs cook. And it may 
not be improper to observe, with respect to that gentleman, 
that he now resides in quahty of companion at a relation's 
house, being very well hked, and seldom sitting at the side-table, 
e&cept when there is no room at the other; for they make no 
stranger of him ^*. His time is pretty much taken up in keeping 
his relation, who is a little melancholy, in spirits, and in learn- 
ing to blow the French horn^*. My eldest daughter, however, 
still remembers him with regret ; and she has even told me, 
though I make a great secret of it, that when he reforms, she 
may be brought to relent. But to return, for I am not apt to 
digress thus: when we were to sit down to dinner, our cere- 
monies were going to be renewed. The question was, whether 
my eldest daugbter, as being a mätron^^, should not sit above 
the two young brides ; but the debate was cut short by my son 
George, who proposed that the Company should sit indiscrimi- 
nately^^ every gentleman by his lady. This was received with 
great approbation by all, excepting my wife, who l could perceive 
was not perfectly satislied, as she expected to have had the 
pleasure of sitting at the head of the table ^^, and carving all the 
meat for all the Company. But, notwithstanding this, it is im- 
possible to describe our good humour. I can't say whether we 
had more wit among us now than usual; but I am certain we had 
more laughing, which answered the end as welF^. One jest I 



12) formerly: ia Kap. XXV. 

13) entertainment : Mahl. 

1^) to make no stranger of onei keioe Umstände mit jmd. machen. 

15) French hörn: Waldhorn. — Im ^Citizen of the World' vertreibt 
sich der ''Man in ßlack" den Kummer 'by learning to blow the German 
flute' (Letter XC). 
, 18) matron (länger) verheiratete Frau. 

i"^) indiscriminately : ohne Unterschied (des Ranges). 

1^) the head of the table: der oberste Platz, welcher von der Haus- 
frau eingenommen wird. Vgl. II, 12. 

1^) which answers the end as well: was dem Endzweck eben so gut 
entspricht = was am £nde auf eins herauskommt. 



160 THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

particularly remember: old Mr. Wilmot drinking to Moses*", 
whose head was turned another way, my son replied, «Madam, 
I thank you.» Upon which the old gentleman, winking upon the 
rest of the compaDy, observed that hewasthinkingofhismistress. 
At which jest I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have 
died with laughing. As soon as dinner was over, according to 
my old custom, I requested that the table might be taken away, 
to have the pleasure of seeiDg all my family assembled once 
more by a cheerful fireside. My two little ones sat upon each 
knee, the rest of the Company by theu* partners. I had nothing 
now on this side of the grave to wish for: all my cares were 
over; my pleasure was unspeakable. It now only remained that 
my gratitude in good fortune should exceed my' former Sub- 
mission in adversity. 

^^) drinking to Moses: das Aostofsen der Glaser bei Tische ist nicht 
Sitte in England. Man erhebt das Glas, winkt oder ruft dem zu, auf 
dessen Gesundheit man trinken will, sagt allenfalls 'Your health' und 
thut Bescheid. 



Berichtigungen. 

S. 28, Z. 23 1. him st. ihm. 

S. 33, Anm. 3 1. wrought st wrougt. 

S. 50, Anm. 5 1. XX, 65 st. XX, 64. 



Drack Ton W. Pormetter in Berlin. 



GENERAL LtBRARV 
ÜNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA— BERKEJ-EY 

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